Author: Lori Hager
Category: Social Science
This volume, the first of it's kind, examines the role of women paleontologists and archaeologists in a field traditionally dominated by men. Women researchers in this field, have questioned many of the assumptions and developmental scenarios advanced by male scientists. As a result of such efforts, women have forged a more central role in models of human development and have radically altered the way in which human evolution is perceived. This history of the feminist critique of science, is of profound significance and will be of interest to all those who work in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and human biology.
Author: Donald Symons
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Anthropology, Sexual Studies, Psychology, Sociology, Gender and Cultural Studies
Author: Randy Thornhill,Steven W. Gangestad
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Research conducted in the last fifteen years has placed in question many of the traditional conclusions scholars have formed about human female sexuality. Though conventional wisdom asserts that women's estrus has been evolutionarily lost, Randy Thornhill and Steven W. Gangestad assert that it is present, though concealed. Women, they propose, therefore exhibit two sexualities each ovulatory cycle-estrus and sexuality outside of the estrous phase, extended sexuality-that possess distinct functions. Synthesizing research in behavioral evolution and comparative biology, the authors provide a new theoretical framework for understanding the evolution of human female sexuality, one that is rooted in female sexuality and phylogeny across all vertebrate animals.
How Women's Sexuality Shaped Human Evolution
Author: Leonard Shlain
From the best selling author of Art and Physics and The Alphabet Versus the Goddess comes a provocative new book that will change our views of human sexuality and evolution. According to Leonard Shlain there is no clear and compelling explanation for the sudden emergence of glib, big-brained Homo sapiens 150,000 years ago. In his latest book, he proposes an original thesis that variations in female sexuality changed the course of human evolution. Due to the narrowness of her bipedal pelvis and the increasing size of her infant's head, the human female began to experience high childbirth death rates. Natural selection adapted her to this environmental stress by drastically reconfiguring her hormonal cycles. Her estrus with its external signal that she was ovulating disappeared as her menses became the most florid of any mammal and it mysteriously entrained with the periodicity of the moon. These interlocking adaptations led the first women to grasp the concept of a month and make the connection between sex and pregnancy.
Author: Michael P Muehlenbein
Publisher: Academic Press
Basics in Human Evolution offers a broad view of evolutionary biology and medicine. The book is written for a non-expert audience, providing accessible and convenient content that will appeal to numerous readers across the interdisciplinary field. From evolutionary theory, to cultural evolution, this book fills gaps in the readers’ knowledge from various backgrounds and introduces them to thought leaders in human evolution research. Offers comprehensive coverage of the wide ranging field of human evolution Written for a non-expert audience, providing accessible and convenient content that will appeal to numerous readers across the interdisciplinary field Provides expertise from leading minds in the field Allows the reader the ability to gain exposure to various topics in one publication
The Final Phase of Human Evolution
Author: Tim Marshall
Publisher: Athena Publishing
Category: Social Science
In MAN'S GREATEST FEAR, psychologist Dr. Tim Marshall explores the subconscious fears of man. These fears force man to dominate woman as well as trigger the violent & destructive behavior which fuels his never-ending wars & his relentless, systematic destruction of the environment. Dr. Marshall also analyzes the defense mechanisms operating in the subconscious mind of man which, although they exist to protect him from his subconscious fears, ultimately work to ensure his eventual extinction. Albert Einstein wrote: "Technological progress is like an axe, in the hands of a pathological criminal." Such an understanding of the basic nature of man, coupled with his awesome intelligence & his limited capacity for rational thought, led Einstein to conclude: "We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if mankind is to survive." Man is not capable of the "new manner of thinking" to which Einstein refers. Under man's leadership, the human race is careening toward its own extinction. As Dr. Marshall explains in his book, the only chance our species has for survival lies in turning man's greatest fear into reality. MAN'S GREATEST FEAR is published by Athena Books, P.O. Box 2282, Gilroy, CA 95021-2282, & sells for $11.00. FAX: 408-842-1019.
Sex and Intelligence in Human Evolution
Author: Alison Jolly
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Takes a look at human evolution focusing on the long line of women and of female behavior that was to follow the age of the much-studied oldest human remains.
Misunderstandings of Human Evolution
Author: Henry Gee
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
The idea of a missing link between humanity and our animal ancestors predates evolution and popular science and actually has religious roots in the deist concept of the Great Chain of Being. Yet, the metaphor has lodged itself in the contemporary imagination, and new fossil discoveries are often hailed in headlines as revealing the elusive transitional step, the moment when we stopped being “animal” and started being “human.” In The Accidental Species, Henry Gee, longtime paleontology editor at Nature, takes aim at this misleading notion, arguing that it reflects a profound misunderstanding of how evolution works and, when applied to the evolution of our own species, supports mistaken ideas about our own place in the universe. Gee presents a robust and stark challenge to our tendency to see ourselves as the acme of creation. Far from being a quirk of religious fundamentalism, human exceptionalism, Gee argues, is an error that also infects scientific thought. Touring the many features of human beings that have recurrently been used to distinguish us from the rest of the animal world, Gee shows that our evolutionary outcome is one possibility among many, one that owes more to chance than to an organized progression to supremacy. He starts with bipedality, which he shows could have arisen entirely by accident, as a by-product of sexual selection, moves on to technology, large brain size, intelligence, language, and, finally, sentience. He reveals each of these attributes to be alive and well throughout the animal world—they are not, indeed, unique to our species. The Accidental Species combines Gee’s firsthand experience on the editorial side of many incredible paleontological findings with healthy skepticism and humor to create a book that aims to overturn popular thinking on human evolution—the key is not what’s missing, but how we’re linked.
Author: Robert N. Bellah
Publisher: Harvard University Press
This ambitious book probes our biological past to discover the kinds of lives that human beings have imagined were worth living. Bellah’s theory goes deep into cultural and genetic evolution to identify a range of capacities (communal dancing, storytelling, theorizing) whose emergence made religious development possible in the first millennium BCE.
Author: Elaine Morgan
Publisher: Souvenir Press
A pioneering work, the first to argue for the equal role of women in human evolution. On its first publication in 1972 it became a rallying-point for feminism and changed the terminology of anthropologists forever. It remains a key text in feminist history, as well as an extension to the author's Aquatic Ape Hypothesis, which is gaining more academic support each year. Starting with her demolition of the Biblical myth that woman was an afterthought to the creation of man, Elaine Morgan rewrites human history and evolution.
The Evolution of Human Sex Differences
Author: David C. Geary
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
Geary (psychology and anthropology, U. of Missouri-Columbia) thinks culturally constructed gender roles alone cannot account for the differences in the social behavior of men and women. He turns to Darwin's theory of sexual selection as the best avenue for understanding. His main focus is how th etwo elements of competition between males and of females selecting mates has influenced human behavior over the centuries and across cultures.
The Story of Human Evolution
Author: Robin McKie
Publisher: Dk Pub
Traces the origins and evolution of human beings, from the earliest prehistoric fossil record to the latest evidence based on genetic research.
Rethinking Sexual Equality
Author: Kingsley R. Browne
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Category: Social Science
Does biology help explain why women, on average, earn less money than men? Is there any evolutionary basis for the scarcity of female CEOs in Fortune 500 companies? According to Kingsley Browne, the answer may be yes. Biology at Work brings an evolutionary perspective to bear on issues of women in the workplace: the "glass ceiling," the "gender gap" in pay, sexual harassment, and occupational segregation. While acknowledging the role of discrimination and sexist socialization, Browne suggests that until we factor real biological differences between men and women into the equation, the explanation remains incomplete. Browne looks at behavioral differences between men and women as products of different evolutionary pressures facing them throughout human history. Womens biological investment in their offspring has led them to be on average more nurturing and risk averse, and to value relationships over competition. Men have been biologically rewarded, over human history, for displays of strength and skill, risk taking, and status acquisition. These behavioral differences have numerous workplace consequences. Not surprisingly, sex differences in the drive for status lead to sex differences in the achievement of status. Browne argues that decision makers should recognize that policies based on the assumption of a single androgynous human nature are unlikely to be successful. Simply removing barriers to inequality will not achieve equality, as women and men typically value different things in the workplace and will make different workplace choices based on their different preferences. Rather than simply putting forward the "nature" side of the debate, Browne suggests that dichotomies such as nature/nurture have impeded our understanding of the origins of human behavior. Through evolutionary biology we can understand not only how natural selection has created predispositions toward certain types of behavior but also how the social environment interacts with these predispositions to produce observed behavioral patterns.
Trails from the Past
Author: Camilo J. Cela-Conde,Francisco J. Ayala
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book is intended as a comprehensive overview of hominid evolution, synthesising data and approaches from physical anthropology, genetics, archaeology, psychology and philosophy. Human evolution courses are now widespread and this book has the potential to satisfy the requirements of most, particularly at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level. It is based on a translation, albeit with substantial modification, of a successful Spanish language book.
Author: Misia Landau
Publisher: Yale University Press
Landau analyzes classic texts on evolution by Darwin, Keith, and Eliot Smith, as well as more recent accounts by Dart, Robinson, Tobias, and Johanson, to reveal that they have a common narrative form based on the universal hero tale, an understanding of which can provide tools for creating new scientific theories and analyzing old ones.
Author: Robert Andrew Foley,Roger Lewin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Principles of Human Evolution presents an in-depth introduction to paleoanthropology and the study of human evolution. Focusing on the fundamentals of evolutionary theory and how these apply to ecological, molecular genetic, paleontological and archeological approaches to important questions in the field, this timely textbook will help students gain a perspective on human evolution in the context of modern biological thinking. The second edition of this successful text features the addition of Robert Foley, a leading researcher in Human Evolutionary Studies, to the writing team. Strong emphasis on evolutionary theory, ecology and behavior and scores of new examples reflect the latest evolutionary theories and recent archaeological finds. More than a simple update, the new edition is organized by issue rather than chronology, integrating behavior, adaptation and anatomy. A new design and new figure references make this edition more accessible for students and instructors. New author, Robert Foley – leading figure in Human Evolutionary Studies – joins the writing team. Dedicated website – www.blackwellpublishing.com/lewin – provides study resources and artwork downloadable for Powerpoint presentations. Beyond the Facts boxes – explore key scientific debates in greater depth. Margin Comments – indicate the key points in each section. Key Questions – review and test students’ knowledge of central chapter concepts and help focus the way a student approaches reading the text. New emphasis on ecological and behavioral evolution – in keeping with modern research. Fully up to date with recent fossil finds and interpretations; integration of genetic and paleoanthropological approaches.
Eugenics in the Twenty-first Century
Author: John Glad
Publisher: Future Human Evolution
This book lays out the history of eugenics movement and the politics which continues to rage around it. "The human rights of the future generations" are discussed.
How Technology Changed the Course of Human Evolution
Author: Timothy Taylor
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
A breakthrough theory that tools and technology are the real drivers of human evolution Although humans are one of the great apes, along with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, we are remarkably different from them. Unlike our cousins who subsist on raw food, spend their days and nights outdoors, and wear a thick coat of hair, humans are entirely dependent on artificial things, such as clothing, shelter, and the use of tools, and would die in nature without them. Yet, despite our status as the weakest ape, we are the masters of this planet. Given these inherent deficits, how did humans come out on top? In this fascinating new account of our origins, leading archaeologist Timothy Taylor proposes a new way of thinking about human evolution through our relationship with objects. Drawing on the latest fossil evidence, Taylor argues that at each step of our species' development, humans made choices that caused us to assume greater control of our evolution. Our appropriation of objects allowed us to walk upright, lose our body hair, and grow significantly larger brains. As we push the frontiers of scientific technology, creating prosthetics, intelligent implants, and artificially modified genes, we continue a process that started in the prehistoric past, when we first began to extend our powers through objects. Weaving together lively discussions of major discoveries of human skeletons and artifacts with a reexamination of Darwin's theory of evolution, Taylor takes us on an exciting and challenging journey that begins to answer the fundamental question about our existence: what makes humans unique, and what does that mean for our future?
The New Science of Human Evolution
Author: Eugene E. Harris
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
In 2001, scientists were finally able to determine the full human genome sequence, and with the discovery began a genomic voyage back in time. Since then, we have sequenced the full genomes of a number of mankind's primate relatives at a remarkable rate. The genomes of the common chimpanzee (2005) and bonobo (2012), orangutan (2011), gorilla (2012), and macaque monkey (2007) have already been identified, and the determination of other primate genomes is well underway. Researchers are beginning to unravel our full genomic history, comparing it with closely related species to answer age-old questions about how and when we evolved. For the first time, we are finding our own ancestors in our genome and are thereby gleaning new information about our evolutionary past. In Ancestors in Our Genome, molecular anthropologist Eugene E. Harris presents us with a complete and up-to-date account of the evolution of the human genome and our species. Written from the perspective of population genetics, and in simple terms, the book traces human origins back to their source among our earliest human ancestors, and explains many of the most intriguing questions that genome scientists are currently working to answer. For example, what does the high level of discordance among the gene trees of humans and the African great apes tell us about our respective separations from our common ancestor? Was our separation from the apes fast or slow, and when and why did it occur? Where, when, and how did our modern species evolve? How do we search across genomes to find the genomic underpinnings of our large and complex brains and language abilities? How can we find the genomic bases for life at high altitudes, for lactose tolerance, resistance to disease, and for our different skin pigmentations? How and when did we interbreed with Neandertals and the recently discovered ancient Denisovans of Asia? Harris draws upon extensive experience researching primate evolution in order to deliver a lively and thorough history of human evolution. Ancestors in Our Genome is the most complete discussion of our current understanding of the human genome available.