Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions
recently discovered advantages of amorphous forms of medicines/pharmaceutical products which focused a significant part of industry-related efforts on the GFA (Glass Forming Ability) and the glass temperature (T) versus pressure g dependences. 1 b ? 0 ? ? o ? P ? Pg P ? Pg 0 ? ? ? ? T (P ) = F (P )D (P ) =T 1 + exp ? g g ? 0 ? ? ? ? c + Pg ? ? ? ? 400 1 b 0 o ? ? ? ? P ? P P ? P g g 0 ? ? ? ? T (P ) = F (P )D (P ) =T 1 + exp ? g g 0 ? ? ? ? c ? + P max g ? ? ? ? T ~7 GPa g max P ~ 304 K Liquid g 300 1 HS glass 0 200 -1 mSG ?=0. 044 Liquid -2 100 -3 glass ?=0. 12 -1. 2 -0. 9 -0. 6 -0. 3 0. 0 log T 10 scaled -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 P (GPa) g 19 Figure 1. T he pressure evolution of the glass temperature in gl Th ye s cerol ol . id curve shows the parameterization of experimental data via the novel, modifie d Glat Sizm elon type equation, given in the Figure.
Nucleation is the initial step of every first-order phase transition, and most phase transitions encountered both in everyday life and industrial processes are of the first-order. Using an elegant classical theory based on thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a fully detailed picture of multi-component nucleation. As many of the issues concerning multi-component nucleation theory have been solved during the last 10-15 years, it also thoroughly integrates both fundamental theory with recent advances presented in the literature. Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems serves as a textbook for advanced thermodynamics courses, as well as an important reference for researchers in the field. The main topics covered are: the basic relevant thermodynamics and statistical physics; modelling a molecular cluster as a spherical liquid droplet; predicting the size and composition of the nucleating critical clusters; kinetic models for cluster growth and decay; calculating nucleation rates; and a full derivation and application of nucleation theorems that can be used to extract microscopic cluster properties from nucleation rate measurements. The assumptions and approximations needed to build the classical theory are described in detail, and the reasons why the theory fails in certain cases are explained. Relevant problems are presented at the end of each chapter.
Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications Third Edition is the most detailed treatment available of the latest aerosol measurement methods. Drawing on the know-how of numerous expert contributors; it provides a solid grasp of measurement fundamentals and practices a wide variety of aerosol applications. This new edition is updated to address new and developing applications of aerosol measurement, including applications in environmental health, atmospheric science, climate change, air pollution, public health, nanotechnology, particle and powder technology, pharmaceutical research and development, clean room technology (integrated circuit manufacture), and nuclear waste management.
This book describes the state-of-the art instruments for measuring the solar irradiance from soft x-ray to the near infrared and the total solar irradiance. Furthermore, the SORCE mission and early results on solar variability are presented along with papers that provide an overview of solar influences on Earth. This collection of papers provides the only detailed description of the SORCE mission and its instruments.