This book studies the determinants of cluster survival by analyzing their adaptability to change in the economic environment. Linking theoretic knowledge with empirical observations, a simulation model (based in the N/K method) is developed, which explains when and why the cluster's architecture assists or hampers adaptability. It is found that architectures with intermediate degrees of division of labor and more collective governance forms foster adaptability.
This book investigates cluster-life-cycle (CLC) analysis to inform the entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP), in order to support the effectiveness of the smart specialization strategy (S3). It focuses on the evolutionary analysis of clusters’ development stages (emergence, development, maturity, decline/transformation), highlighting how different phases of the CLC have a different role in informing S3-policy-making and identifying regions’ potentials to specialize. In so doing, it offers an original conceptual model that explains what information can be provided by CLC analysis in the effective design and implementation of S3 and EDP, systematizes clusters' stage-specific features, and unveils the role played by each CLC stage. It contributes to the emerging academic debate on the role of the CLC concept in policy-making, by highlighting the importance of CLC analysis in dynamically investigating regional contexts and tailoring development policies such as S3. The book is an invaluable resource for academics and regional policy makers, providing them with guidance and recommendations on how to effectively approach the design and implementation of S3 and EDP, by fully tapping the potential of CLC analysis.
One-size-fits-all cluster policies have been rightly criticized in the literature. One promising approach is to focus cluster policies on the specific needs of firms depending on the stage of development (emergence, growth, sustainment or decline) their cluster is in. In this highly insightful book, these stage-specific cluster policies are analysed and evaluated. Moreover, several chapters also focus on smart specialization policies to promote regional development by taking into account the emergence and adaptation of clusters and industries.
One-size-fits-all cluster policies have been rightly criticized in the literature. One promising approach is to focus cluster policies on the specific needs of firms depending on the stage of development (emergence, growth, sustainment or decline) their cluster is in. In this highly insightful book, these stage-specific cluster policies are analysed and evaluated. Moreover, several chapters also focus on smart specialization policies to promote regional development by taking into account the emergence and adaptation of clusters and industries. In so doing, the book contributes to a newly emerging literature on how the cluster life cycle concept can inform policies and how these policies differ from static approaches that ignore the dynamism of clusters. The underlying idea is to foster the ability of clusters to renew themselves and to generate new developmental paths, thus preventing stagnation and decline.This state-of-the-art exploration of smart specialization from a cluster life cycle perspective is an invaluable book for academics in the fields of economic geography, entrepreneurship, innovation, industrial economics, regional studies and cluster research. It will also appeal to regional policy makers and practitioners dealing with public policy.
TitleAbstract/titlePurpose– This paper aims to examine whether in old industrial regions, the trajectory of clusters follows that of their corresponding industry or deviates from it and which are the factors that account for cluster evolution. This paper deals with the issue of how established clusters either renew or transform themselves in such regions and how they adapt to changes in their corresponding international industries.Design/methodology/approach– This research paper draws from in-depth case studies on six industrial clusters, takes a longitudinal perspective and uses a multi-level and qualitative analysis. Based on existing literature, the paper suggests and exploratory analytical framework with four alternative scenarios for cluster evolution and three broad factors: cluster knowledge base, social capital at cluster and region-level and public policies.Findings– Clusters do not always follow the life cycle of its dominant industry. The paper clearly shows a diversity of cluster evolution across clusters and even within clusters (at subcluster level). This study suggests that cluster knowledge diversity and heterogeneity allow to broaden the scope of evolutionary trajectories available; the same goes for social capital at cluster and region levels.Research limitations/implications– The main limitation of this paper lies in its qualitative approach that makes its conclusions more suggestive than conclusive. In any case, further research on other Basque clusters may corroborate or question its findings.Originality/value– The paper offers an empirical and longitudinal study on cluster evolution, very much needed to the ongoing theoretical discussion on this issue. So far, there are very few empirical studies on cluster evolution with this perspective. At the same time, it presents a theoretical framework to analyse diversity of cluster evolution in old industrial regions that builds on Menzel and Fornah’s (2010) model.
The purpose of this paper is to link the propensity for innovative activity to cluster spatially to the stage of the industry life cycle. The theory of knowledge spillovers, based on the knowledge production function for innovative activity, suggests that geographic proximity matters most in industries where tacit knowledge plays an important role in the generation of innovative activity. According to the emerging literature on the industry life cycle, tacit knowledge plays the most important role during the early stages of the industry life cycle. Based on a data base that identifies innovative activity for individual states and specific industries in the United States, the empirical evidence suggests that the propensity for innovative activity to concentrate geographically is shaped by the stage of the industry life cycle. The generation of new economic knowledge tends to result in a greater propensity for innovative activity to cluster during the early stages of the industry life cycle, and to be more highly dispersed during the mature and declining stages of the life cycle, particularly after controlling for the extent to which the location of production is geographically concentrated.
In Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Business Clusters, Panos Piperopoulos provides a comprehensive introduction to what entrepreneurship is all about, how and why entrepreneurs innovate and how innovation systems operate. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) constitute the backbone of most economies, so the author examines their characteristics and the crucial role played by the owners and entrepreneurs who innovate to ensure the survival and continued growth of their firms. He also includes the particular phenomena that arise where the entrepreneurs are either female or from ethnic groups, or where the context is that of a developing region or country. The importance of co-operative strategic alliances and networks between firms is discussed, along with how these strengthen SMEs' competitiveness. The concept of open innovation has been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of innovation and the author presents a hypothetical model for enhancing the competitiveness and performance of SMEs by properly utilizing employees' creative potential, emotional intelligence, tacit knowledge and innovative ideas. The contemporary model of business clusters, involving partnerships with competitors, agents, universities, research centres and local, regional and national governments is discussed. The ways, means and methods through which SMEs' competitiveness and innovation can be enhanced within business clusters is illustrated by cases that identify four types of SMEs, that behave differently and play different roles in the networks and clusters of which they form a part, but all of whose performance and competitiveness is a function of their position and role in the wider scheme of things.
Cluster organizations are becoming more and more popular, both in developing and developed countries. Considering the development of cluster policy and the related dynamic growth of cluster initiatives in the world, the lack of sufficient knowledge on the development of cooperation in cluster organizations inhibits their development and, in many cases, causes their complete disintegration. The book provides new important elements to the current system of knowledge, filling in cognitive and research gaps in the scientific literature on problems related to cooperation in cluster organizations. The most valuable features for the reader concern the epistemological, methodological, and application aspects. The new element includes a theoretical concept, which refers to the trajectory of development of cooperative relationships in cluster organizations that facilitates the understanding and explanation of mechanisms responsible for cooperation in such organizations. The concept also has great practical advantages, especially for people implementing the idea of "clustering": coordinators, facilitators, and members of cluster organizations as well as politicians and public authorities are responsible for shaping and implementing the cluster policy. It will be of value to researchers, academics, and students in fields with an interest in organizational studies, management of innovation and technology, strategic management, industrial economics, and economic geography.
Although clusters are regarded as important elements in economic development, the strong focus in the literature on the way clusters function is contrasted with a disregard for their evolutionary development: how clusters actually become clusters, how and why they decline, and how they shift into new fields and transform over time. Although recently new cluster life cycle approaches emerged, both empirical evidence and theoretical contributions on this topic are still limited. This book therefore contributes to broadening our knowledge on the life cycle and evolution of clusters both empirically and theoretically. It contains chapters on inter-firm relations as drivers of cluster transformation, as well as chapters on the heterogeneity of firms and firm capabilities during cluster evolution and on the role of institutions in stimulating the emergence and growth of clusters. Case-studies stem from different industries and technologies, such as biogas, film and television, new media and medical technologies, and from different countries, such as Sweden, Austria, Switzerland and South Korea. All chapters underline that cluster evolution does not only depend on internal dynamics, but that external relations are an integral part of cluster dynamics. This book was previously published as a special issue of European Planning Studies.
“Strategic International Management” takes a global perspective and covers the major aspects of international business strategies, the coordination of international companies and the particularities of international value chain activities and management functions. The book provides a thorough understanding of how Production & Sourcing, Research & Development, Marketing, Human Resource Management and Controlling have to be designed in an international company and what models are available to understand those activities in an international context. The book offers 20 lessons that provide a comprehensive overview of all key issues. Each lesson is accompanied by a case study from an international company to facilitate the understanding of all important factors involved in strategic international management. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated, all case studies revised and recent data were integrated. The concept, though, remained unchanged.
The Handbook of Local and Regional Development provides a comprehensive statement and reference point for local and regional development. The scope of this Handbook’s coverage and contributions engages with and reflects upon the politics and policy of how we think about and practise local and regional development, encouraging dialogue across the disciplinary barriers between notions of ‘local and regional development’ in the Global North and ‘development studies’ in the Global South. This Handbook is organized into seven inter-related sections, with an introductory chapter setting out the rationale, aims and structure of the Handbook. Section one situates local and regional development in its global context. Section two establishes the key issues in understanding the principles and values that help us define what is meant by local and regional development. Section three critically reviews the current diversity and variety of conceptual and theoretical approaches to local and regional development. Section four address questions of government and governance. Section five connects critically with the array of contemporary approaches to local and regional development policy. Section six is an explicitly global review of perspectives on local and regional development from Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America. Section seven provides reflection and discussion of the futures for local and regional development in an international and multidisciplinary context. With over forty contributions from leading international scholars in the field, this Handbook provides critical reviews and appraisals of current state-of-the-art conceptual and theoretical approaches and future developments in local and regional development.
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Category: Business & Economics
Inter-organizational relations are increasingly important in today's organizational landscape. The management of these relations requires unique understandings and capabilities. Hence it comes as no surprise that the formation, purpose and management of inter-organizational relations are a vital part of most curricula in the fields of business, economic geography, sociology, and policy studies. Managing Inter-Organizational Relations offers both a thorough review and innovative systematization of the main theoretical debates surrounding different forms of inter-organizational relations – and of the challenges of their management. With a unique collection of cases from around the world addressing different managerial issues, it provides a pioneering and comprehensive analysis of different types of inter-organizational collaboration, including strategic alliances, joint ventures, regional clusters, global value and supply chains, and project as well as innovation networks. Key features: • Contains up-to-date empirical research. • Utilises an innovative structure of debates and cases. • Packed with a wide-ranging collection of international case studies and examples. • Offers a unique managerial perspective on inter-organizational relations across different types or forms of collaborative governance.
This proceedings book presents papers from the 18th International Scientific Conference, held in September 2019 at Volgograd State University (Russia). The research findings are largely based on the theoretical assumptions of Oleg Inshakov, renowned for his pioneering work on the theory of economic genetics and the theory of “development nucleus” for economic systems. The papers focus on the impact of the 4th industrial revolution on economic growth, the concept of ecosystems corresponding to the rapid spread of digital technologies, regulatory and legal aspects of the Russian economy digitalization, the development of digital technologies in EAEU and BRICS foreign trade, and the corresponding law enforcement measures. The book is intended for academics and practitioners, as well as anyone interested in the problems of new industrialization and the digital transformation of the economy of business entities, regions, countries and integration unions, and their legal regulation to enhance competitiveness on a national and global scale
The key approach taken in this book is that all local economic clusters have something in common - specific case-studies are thus put into wider perspective in a masterly study that will be of keen interest to both economists and geographers.
The information age is reshaping current socio-economic structures and processes and this book touches upon the nature of clusters in the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0; I4.0). It focuses on the spatial perspective of digital business transformation and explores in natural context the interrelations between cluster and I4.0. It investigates the role of knowledge, business relations and policy in making cluster relevant for Industry 4.0 and uses the case study method and literature review to develop a conceptual framework outlining the functioning of Industry 4.0 cluster. This book argues that locally embedded knowledge accompanied by strong presence of industry and assisted by proper governance management facilitate the implementation of I4.0. The idiosyncrasies of Industry 4.0 impact also the functioning of cluster as they require more interdisciplinary integrative approach with the provision of industrial commons and development of related varieties. Natural processes of stretching of the cluster cannot be prevented, but should be harnessed for upgrading the core competences of cluster. This book can enrich existing literature on economic geography and regional studies by discussing the spatial aspects of digital transformation. It shows the cluster transformation as induced by the digital transformation, and will be of interest to researchers, academics, policymakers, and students who explore the regional and local development, competitiveness, or managerial aspects of fourth industrial revolution.
Interorganizational cooperation between partners, markets, and business leaders is an important facet of business and maintaining organizational competitiveness. Understanding how to effectively collaborate with partners in other organizations is an important skill for the success of all parties. Information Acquisitions and Sharing through Inter-Organizational Collaboration: Impacts of Business Performance in China discusses the effectiveness and impact of trust, e-business diffusion, and organizational processes on business performance in cooperative scenarios. Incorporating data from over 500 organizations in China’s manufacturing sector, this book is an essential reference for business leaders, CEOs, senior managers, and all other members of organizations seeking to better collaborate with their partners.
This is a relatively simple and easy to read introduction of major regional and local economic development theories, their theoretical evolution and other relevant topics such as governance, institutions and local leadership within the globalization context. It also discusses some basic analytical tools and provides a template for them in an easy to use MS Excel spreadsheet application. It introduces conflict management procedures into regional development process and provides a regional decision support framework.
“Collaborative Product and Service Life Cycle Management for a Sustainable World” gathers together papers from the 15th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering (CE2008), to stimulate the new thinking that is so crucial to our sustained productivity enhancement and quality of life. It is already evident in this new century that the desire for sustainable development is increasingly driving the market to reach for new and innovative solutions that more effectively utilize the resources we have inherited from previous generations; with the obvious responsibility to future generations. Human productivity and progress can be positively engineered and managed in harmony with the provision and needs of our natural environment. One century on from the industrial revolution, this is now the time of the sustainable revolution; requiring holistic technological, process and people integrated solutions to sustained socio-economic enhancement.