Faced with a steadily worsening economy, the government of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic took its first steps toward reforming its centrally planned economy in December 1979. The reform process gathered momentum with the introduction of the New Economic Mechanism in 1985, as the authorities began a series of far-reaching policy reforms in virtually all economic areas. This paper provides a much-needed overview of the Lao P.D.R.'s experience with systemic transformation and macroeconomic adjustments in recent years and highlights challenges that the country is likely to face in the coming years.
This book introduces and examines what is currently the most central and controversial area in financial reporting. It is designed so that readers with particular interests can easily find their way through clearly marked sections.
World Bank Technical Paper No. 370. Local land users and officials often have conflicting perceptions of and responses to land degradation issues. This causes problems for officials in diagnosing and addressing the issue and is a major constraint on the successful implementation of policies and projects to address land degradation. This study looks at the perception and response gap between officials and land users in the diagnosis and remedy of land degradation. It also examines the dynamics of the loss of soil fertility and low productivity at the village level. The study's findings will help shape investment programs to enhance land productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa.
When policymakers have little option but to consider a sizable fiscal adjustment, they are confronted by the following questions: Can a large fiscal adjustment be implemented succesfully? How is a large adjustment best designed and implemented? What will be its impact on the economy? This Occasional Paper addresses these questions by describing the experience of countries that have undertaken large fiscal adjustments in the last three decades. It provides operational guidance to policymakers by identifying preconditions, common policy approaches, and institutional arrangements underlying successful and unsuccessful adjustment episodes.
Reflects laws enacted as of May 1, 1995. Includes: registration; deportation; reform; the Emergency Immigrant Education Program; Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988; Refugee-Related Provisions; Free Trade Agreements; offices & forms of the INS; lists & tables relating to immigration & nationality, & much more.