There are few complete technical sources of information available for plastic injection moulders to use relating to automation. This review has been compiled by researching and analysing technical references. It is intended to describe the basics of the technology and to explain how to put the technology to use. The review is supplemented by an indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Polymer Library.
Annotation Injection moulding is one of the most commonly used processing technologies for plastics materials. Proper machine set up, part and mould design, and material selection can lead to high quality production. This review outlines common factors to check when preparing to injection mould components, so that costly mistakes can be avoided. This review examines the different types of surface defects that can be identified in plastics parts and looks at ways of solving these problems. Useful flow charts to illustrate possible ways forward are included. Case studies and a large b257 of figures make this a very useful report.
At a time when it is critical to many plastics processors to add value to products, colorants are an essential part of the additives repertoire. Plastics are often processed at very high temperatures and shear, and products are exposed to heat and light. Colorants must tolerate these conditions to function adequately. This Rapra Review Report provides practical information for plastics processors with regard to colorant selection and the range of products and effects available. The review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database, to facilitate further reading on this subject.
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have the elastic behaviour of rubber and the processability of thermoplastics. The Freedonia Group has forecast that demand will expand by 6.4% per year to around 2.15 million tons in 2006. There is potential for these new, exciting materials to expand into the much larger thermoset rubber markets. This review includes comparisons between the two material types. There are three major types of TPE: block copolymers, rubber/plastic blends and dynamically vulcanised rubber/plastic alloys known as thermoplastic vulcanisates. The chemistry of these materials and how.
This Rapra Review Report examines the use of biocides in plastics with reference to material types and application requirements. The commonly available biocides are reviewed and details of their strengths and weaknesses are provided. The author reviews the frequently used test methods for fungi and bacteria, and, in an ever-changing regulatory environment, explores the influence of legislation on the current and future use of such biocides. This detailed and state-of-the-art review is supported by an indexed section containing several hundred key references and abstracts selected from the Polymer Library.
This Rapra Review Report, Coatings and Inks for Food Contact Materials, has attempted to cover all of the coatings and inks products used in food contact scenarios. In practice, this encompasses an extremely wide range of polymer systems and formulations, and an emphasis has been placed on coatings and inks used in food packaging, as this is usually regarded as representing the most important application category with respect to the potential for migration to occur. In addition to a thorough introduction of the polymers and additives that are used to produce coatings and inks, there are also chapters covering the regulation of these materials, the migration and analytical tests that are performed on them to assess their suitability for food contact applications, the migration data that have been published, and the areas in the field that are receiving the most attention for research and development. The report is accompanied by around 400 abstracts compiled from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading on this subject.
A very important factor in obtaining optimised physical properties from a semi-crystalline polymer is the size of the crystalline structures present in the material, and this crucially depends on the initiation process of crystallisation of the polymer from the melt - nucleation. This review provides information on the development of materials and methods for influencing the nucleation of polymer crystallisation in commercial processing by means of addition of low levels of adjuvants specifically selected for this purpose.
Annotation A wide variety of plastics are used in food-contact applications and it is important that such plastics do not affect the food with which they come into contact. The objective of food packaging legislation is to protect the consumer by controlling the contamination of food by chemicals transferred from the packaging. Food packaging regulations are constantly under revision, and differ significantly between Europe and the USA. This report provides a clearly written summary of the current legislation surrounding the use of plastics in contact with food. It discusses the plastics used in food packaging, their characteristics and applications. This review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library database.
Annotation The review focuses on the use of pharmaceutical polymer for controlled drug delivery applications. Examples of pharmaceutical polymers and the principles of controlled drug delivery are outlined and applications of polymers for controlled drug delivery are described. The field of controlled drug delivery is vast therefore this review aims to provide an overview of the applications of pharmaceutical polymers. The review is accompanied by approximately 250 abstracts taken from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library database, to facilitate further reading on this subject.
This report outlines the key issues regarding emissions from plastics. The report covers emissions from plastics during processing, treatment, storage and end-use. It summarises the published research on a wide variety of materials and settings. New methods of analysis and testing have been developed or adapted to examine these emissions. This report discusses the main techniques used. Data from analysis work on air quality and emissions from plastics is also included in this report. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.
Fluoropolymers were discovered accidentally by Plunkett in 1938. He was working on freon and accidentally polymerised tetrafluoroethylene. The result was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), more commonly known as Teflon. PTFE is inert to virtually all chemicals and is considered to be the most slippery material in existence - it has the lowest coefficient of friction of any known solid material. These properties have made it one of the most valuable and versatile technologies ever invented, contributing to significant advancements in areas such as aerospace, communications, electronics, industrial.
This review sets out to describe the types of flame retardants available for compounding into plastics materials, mechanisms of action and uses. This review provides a clear overview of the state-of-the-art of flame retardancy for plastics. It highlights the new developments and the potential problems with legislation, together with the benefits to end users of protection from fire hazards. This review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library.
This report describes the current state-of-the-art in mixing from a practical viewpoint. It begins by offering historical background against which the latest developments are set. It considers both batch and continuous systems, containing details of key developments by equipment manufacturers, with the different concepts discussed in layman's terms. This report also summarises the range of mixing techniques applied in the industry as well as methods for monitoring mixing quality both off- and on-line are also covered. Recent academic research in rubber mixing is briefly considered, providing an indication of possible future practical advances in this field. This review of rubber mixing is supported by an indexed section containing several hundred key references and abstracts selected from the Rapra Abstracts database.
This review has been written as a practical approach to bonding various kinds of elastomers to substrates such as steel and plastics, as used in the manufacture of diverse products such as rubber covered rolls, urethane fork lift wheels, rubber lining for chemical storage or solid rocket motors, engine bushes and mounts, seals for transmissions, electrical power connectors and military tank track pads. Based on the authors' years of experience working closely with end-use customers and it offers a thorough overview of how to successfully bond rubber to a given substrate in the manufacture of quality rubber engineered components. This review is supported by an indexed section containing several hundred key references and abstracts selected from the Rapra Abstracts database.
This is an expert overview on the topic of tyre recycling. It summarises current practices and the factors that have contributed to their growth and efficacy as viable, economically and environmentally sound methods of dealing with post-consumer tyres. The primary area of study of this report is the EU, but reports from the US have also been cited. Statistics from the EU markets, which illustrate changes in the industry since the inception of the European Tyre Recycling Association a decade ago are incorporated. Around 400 references with abstracts from recent global literature accompany this review, sourced from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.
Polymers have been used in agriculture and horticulture since the middle of the last century. There is a tremendous potential for using polymers in agriculture and our fields and garden would look very different if we did not use polymers in them. This review traces the history of polymer use, discusses the markets for polymers in these applications, and describes in detail the different types of polymers that can be used and their specific applications. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Polymer Library gives useful references for further reading.
This review discusses the types of engineering adhesives in use, properties, advantages and disadvantages, and applications. It is very clearly written, well referenced and provides an excellent overview of a rapidly developing field. The author is an expert with many years of experience in adhesive research and development. The review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading on this subject.