**Author**: R. Baker Kearfott

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 428

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## Applications of Interval Computations

Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the operands range over the domain. For example, [0. 9,1. 1] + [2. 9,3. 1] = [3. 8,4. 2], where [3. 8,4. 2] = {x + ylx E [0. 9,1. 1] and y E [3. 8,4. 2]}. The power of interval arithmetic comes from the fact that (i) the elementary operations and standard functions can be computed for intervals with formulas and subroutines; and (ii) directed roundings can be used, so that the images of these operations (e. g.
## Theories of Interval Arithmetic

Scientists are, all the time, in a struggle with uncertainty which is always a threat to a trustworthy scientific knowledge. A very simple and natural idea, to defeat uncertainty, is that of enclosing uncertain measured values in real closed intervals. On the basis of this idea, interval arithmetic is constructed. The idea of calculating with intervals is not completely new in mathematics: the concept has been known since Archimedes, who used guaranteed lower and upper bounds to compute his constant Pi. Interval arithmetic is now a broad field in which rigorous mathematics is associated with scientific computing. This connection makes it possible to solve uncertainty problems that cannot be efficiently solved by floating-point arithmetic. Today, application areas of interval methods include electrical engineering, control theory, remote sensing, experimental and computational physics, chaotic systems, celestial mechanics, signal processing, computer graphics, robotics, and computer-assisted proofs. The purpose of this book is to be a concise but informative introduction to the theories of interval arithmetic as well as to some of their computational and scientific applications. Editorial Reviews "This new book by Hend Dawood is a fresh introduction to some of the basics of interval computation. It stops short of discussing the more complicated subdivision methods for converging to ranges of values, however it provides a bit of perspective about complex interval arithmetic, constraint intervals, and modal intervals, and it does go into the design of hardware operations for interval arithmetic, which is something still to be done by computer manufacturers." - Ramon E. Moore, (The Founder of Interval Computations) Professor Emeritus of Computer and Information Science, Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, U.S.A. "A popular math-oriented introduction to interval computations and its applications. This short book contains an explanation of the need for interval computations, a brief history of interval computations, and main interval computation techniques. It also provides an impressive list of main practical applications of interval techniques." - Vladik Kreinovich, (International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems) Professor of Computer Science, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, U.S.A. "I am delighted to see one more Egyptian citizen re-entering the field of interval mathematics invented in this very country thousands years ago." - Marek W. Gutowski, Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland
## Applications of Interval Computations

Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the operands range over the domain. For example, [0. 9,1. 1] + [2. 9,3. 1] = [3. 8,4. 2], where [3. 8,4. 2] = {x + ylx E [0. 9,1. 1] and y E [3. 8,4. 2]}. The power of interval arithmetic comes from the fact that (i) the elementary operations and standard functions can be computed for intervals with formulas and subroutines; and (ii) directed roundings can be used, so that the images of these operations (e. g.
## Complex Interval Arithmetic and Its Applications

The aim of this book is to present formulas and methods developed using complex interval arithmetic. While most of numerical methods described in the literature deal with real intervals and real vectors, there is no systematic study of methods in complex interval arithmetic. The book fills this gap. Several main subjects are considered: outer estimates for the range of complex functions, especially complex centered forms, the best approximations of elementary complex functions by disks, iterative methods for the inclusion by polynomial zeros including their implementation on parallel computers, the analysis of numerical stability of iterative methods by using complex interval arithmetic and numerical computation of curvilinear integrals with error bounds. Mainly new methods are presented developed over the last years, including a lot of very recent results by the authors some of which have not been published before.
## Introduction to Interval Computation

This book is revised and expanded version of the original German text. The arrangement of the material and the structure are essentially unchanged. All remarks in the Preface to the German Edition regarding naming conventions for formulas, theorems, lemmas, and definitions are still valid as are those concerning the arrangement and choice of material.
## Introduction to Interval Analysis

An update on the author's previous books, this introduction to interval analysis provides an introduction to INTLAB, a high-quality, comprehensive MATLAB toolbox for interval computations, making this the first interval analysis book that does with INTLAB what general numerical analysis texts do with MATLAB.
## Interval Analysis

This book begins by presenting a method for Interval Analysis based on simple statistical tools applied on a space of Gaussian variables in Chapter One. Chapter Two describes how using interval analysis the main part of optimisation techniques will allow to partially solve global optimisation problems. Chapter Three covers the applications of interval computations in computer graphics. The final chapter addresses the synthesis of Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulators (CDPMs) using interval analysis.
## Scientific Computing, Validated Numerics, Interval Methods

Scan 2000, the GAMM - IMACS International Symposium on Scientific Computing, Computer Arithmetic, and Validated Numerics and Interval 2000, the International Conference on Interval Methods in Science and Engineering were jointly held in Karlsruhe, September 19-22, 2000. The joint conference continued the series of 7 previous Scan-symposia under the joint sponsorship of GAMM and IMACS. These conferences have traditionally covered the numerical and algorithmic aspects of scientific computing, with a strong emphasis on validation and verification of computed results as well as on arithmetic, programming, and algorithmic tools for this purpose. The conference further continued the series of 4 former Interval conferences focusing on interval methods and their application in science and engineering. The objectives are to propagate current applications and research as well as to promote a greater understanding and increased awareness of the subject matters. The symposium was held in Karlsruhe the European cradle of interval arithmetic and self-validating numerics and attracted 193 researchers from 33 countries. 12 invited and 153 contributed talks were given. But not only the quantity was overwhelming we were deeply impressed by the emerging maturity of our discipline. There were many talks discussing a wide variety of serious applications stretching all parts of mathematical modelling. New efficient, publicly available or even commercial tools were proposed or presented, and also foundations of the theory of intervals and reliable computations were considerably strengthened.
## Computational Complexity and Feasibility of Data Processing and Interval Computations

Targeted audience • Specialists in numerical computations, especially in numerical optimiza tion, who are interested in designing algorithms with automatie result ver ification, and who would therefore be interested in knowing how general their algorithms caIi in principle be. • Mathematicians and computer scientists who are interested in the theory 0/ computing and computational complexity, especially computational com plexity of numerical computations. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who are interested in computational complexity of different numerical methods and in learning general techniques for estimating this computational complexity. The book is written with all explanations and definitions added, so that it can be used as a graduate level textbook. What this book .is about Data processing. In many real-life situations, we are interested in the value of a physical quantity y that is diflicult (or even impossible) to measure directly. For example, it is impossible to directly measure the amount of oil in an oil field or a distance to a star. Since we cannot measure such quantities directly, we measure them indirectly, by measuring some other quantities Xi and using the known relation between y and Xi'S to reconstruct y. The algorithm that transforms the results Xi of measuring Xi into an estimate fj for y is called data processing.
## Interval Computations

## Applications of Interval Arithmetic in Signomial Programming

Many problems in engineering design can be found formulated as a nonlinear program where a criterion function of the design variables is minimized, or maximized, subject to certain inequality and equality constraints which define the problem. Such a formulation allows the engineer to use optimization theory and numerical algorithms to find the best design, or global solution, among the possibily infinite number of reasible designs. However, optimization methods are guaranteed to yield the global solution only if the nonlinear program has a certain structure; and in many cases only a solution which is guaranteed to be locally optimal can be obtained. The problem of multiple local solutions in nonlinear programs is of major concern to both the engineer and operations researcher. If all the functions in the nonlinear program are sums of power functions, then the nonlinear program is a signomial program. All the methods presented here use interval arithmetic, a generalization of ordinary arithmetic in which the basic elements are closed intervals of the real line. This study brings interval arithmetic and signomial programming together.
## Interval Analysis: A New Tool for Applied Mathematics

Interval arithmetic has been found to be useful in numerical analysis as an automatic means to bound data, truncation, and roundoff errors in computations. Now that the speed of microprogrammed interval arithmetic approaches that of standard floating-point operations, a wider range of application to engineering and other problems has become feasible. Since, in many practical situations, data are only known to lie within intervals and only ranges of values are sought as satisfactory answers, straightforward interval computation can yield the desired results. Examples of this type of application are worst-case analysis of the stability of structures and the performance of electrical circuits. The recently developed theory of integration of interval functions also bears directly on the problems of solution of integral equations and the minimization of functionals defined in terms of integrals. Since certain chaotic phenomena, such as catastrophes and turbulence, are difficult to describe by single-valued functions, the introduction of interval functions and the corresponding analysis may lead to simpler models which will yield results of accuracy satisfactory for practical purposes.
## Modal Interval Analysis

This book presents an innovative new approach to interval analysis. Modal Interval Analysis (MIA) is an attempt to go beyond the limitations of classic intervals in terms of their structural, algebraic and logical features. The starting point of MIA is quite simple: It consists in defining a modal interval that attaches a quantifier to a classical interval and in introducing the basic relation of inclusion between modal intervals through the inclusion of the sets of predicates they accept. This modal approach introduces interval extensions of the real continuous functions, identifies equivalences between logical formulas and interval inclusions, and provides the semantic theorems that justify these equivalences, along with guidelines for arriving at these inclusions. Applications of these equivalences in different areas illustrate the obtained results. The book also presents a new interval object: marks, which aspire to be a new form of numerical treatment of errors in measurements and computations.
## Computer Arithmetic and Validity

This is the revised and extended second edition of the successful basic book on computer arithmetic. It is consistent with the newest recent standard developments in the field. The book shows how the arithmetic and mathematical capability of the digital computer can be enhanced in a quite natural way. The work is motivated by the desire and the need to improve the accuracy of numerical computing and to control the quality of the computed results (validity). The accuracy requirements for the elementary floating-point operations are extended to the customary product spaces of computations including interval spaces. The mathematical properties of these models are extracted into an axiomatic approach which leads to a general theory of computer arithmetic. Detailed methods and circuits for the implementation of this advanced computer arithmetic on digital computers are developed in part two of the book. Part three then illustrates by a number of sample applications how this extended computer arithmetic can be used to compute highly accurate and mathematically verified results. The book can be used as a high-level undergraduate textbook but also as reference work for research in computer arithmetic and applied mathematics.
## Computational Interval Methods for Engineering Applications

Computational Interval Methods for Engineering Applications explains how to use classical and advanced interval arithmetic to solve differential equations for a wide range of scientific and engineering problems. In mathematical models where there are variables and parameters of uncertain value, interval methods can be used as an efficient tool for handling this uncertainty. In addition, it can produce rigorous enclosures of solutions of practical problems governed by mathematical equations. Other topics discussed in the book include linear differential equations in areas such as robotics, control theory, and structural dynamics, and in nonlinear oscillators, such as Duffing and Van der Pol. The chaotic behavior of the enclosure of oscillators is also covered, as are static and dynamic analysis of engineering problems using the interval system of linear equations and eigenvalue problems, thus making this a comprehensive resource. Explains how interval arithmetic can be used to solve problems in a range of engineering disciplines, including structural and control Gives unique, comprehensive coverage of traditional and innovative interval techniques, with examples addressing both linear and nonlinear differential equations Provides full mathematical details of the governing differential equations used to solve a wide range of problems
## Modal Interval Analysis

This book presents an innovative new approach to interval analysis. Modal Interval Analysis (MIA) is an attempt to go beyond the limitations of classic intervals in terms of their structural, algebraic and logical features. The starting point of MIA is quite simple: It consists in defining a modal interval that attaches a quantifier to a classical interval and in introducing the basic relation of inclusion between modal intervals through the inclusion of the sets of predicates they accept. This modal approach introduces interval extensions of the real continuous functions, identifies equivalences between logical formulas and interval inclusions, and provides the semantic theorems that justify these equivalences, along with guidelines for arriving at these inclusions. Applications of these equivalences in different areas illustrate the obtained results. The book also presents a new interval object: marks, which aspire to be a new form of numerical treatment of errors in measurements and computations.
## Geometric Computations with Interval and New Robust Methods

This undergraduate and postgraduate text will familiarise readers with interval arithmetic and related tools to gain reliable and validated results and logically correct decisions for a variety of geometric computations plus the means for alleviating the effects of the errors. It also considers computations on geometric point-sets, which are neither robust nor reliable in processing with standard methods. The authors provide two effective tools for obtaining correct results: (a) interval arithmetic, and (b) ESSA the new powerful algorithm which improves many geometric computations and makes them rounding error free. Familiarises the reader with interval arithmetic and related tools to gain reliable and validated results and logically correct decisions for a variety of geometric computations Provides two effective methods for obtaining correct results in interval arithmetic and ESSA
## Numerical Validation in Current Hardware Architectures

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the Dagstuhl Seminar 08021 on Numerical Validation in Current Hardware Architectures held at Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, in January 2008. The 16 revised full papers presented were selected during two rounds of reviewing and improvements. The papers are organized in topical sections on languages, software systems and tools, new verification techniques based on interval arithmetic, applications in science and engineering, and novel approaches to verification.

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