Science

Aqueous Microwave Assisted Chemistry

Author: Vivek Polshettiwar

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 146

The demands for green and sustainable synthetic methods in the fields of healthcare and fine chemicals, combined with the pressure to produce these substances expeditiously and in an environmentally benign fashion, pose significant challenges to the synthetic chemical community. Green chemistry can avoid pollution by utilizing techniques that are environmentally friendly by design and one of the best green techniques is the use of microwave (MW) assisted aqueous synthetic protocols. Fusing MW technique with water (as a benign reaction medium) can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these two individual components in isolation. Selective microwave heating can be exploited to develop a high yield protocol and the use of water expedites the MW-protocol with more energy efficiency. This book provides an overview of the various processes developed using aqueous microwave chemistry and is written for chemists, chemical engineers and researchers in the early stages who want to develop sustainable and green processes. Written by well known microwave experts, the book is a comprehensive examination of the field and is the first book that deals strictly with aqueous microwave chemistry and represents a significant effort towards green chemistry. It covers all the microwave-assisted aqueous reactions in depth, including heterocycle synthesis, metal catalysis, enzyme catalysis, polymer synthesis, nanomaterials synthesis and nano-catalysis. Each chapter contains representative experimental procedures, helping the reader quickly replicate some of the experiments to gain hands-on experience.
Science

Aqueous Microwave Assisted Chemistry

Author: Vivek Polshettiwar

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 372

The demands for green and sustainable synthetic methods in the fields of healthcare and fine chemicals, combined with the pressure to produce these substances expeditiously and in an environmentally benign fashion, pose significant challenges to the synthetic chemical community. Green chemistry can avoid pollution by utilizing techniques that are environmentally friendly by design and one of the best green techniques is the use of microwave (MW) assisted aqueous synthetic protocols. Fusing MW technique with water (as a benign reaction medium) can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these two individual components in isolation. Selective microwave heating can be exploited to develop a high yield protocol and the use of water expedites the MW-protocol with more energy efficiency. This book provides an overview of the various processes developed using aqueous microwave chemistry and is written for chemists, chemical engineers and researchers in the early stages who want to develop sustainable and green processes. Written by well known microwave experts, the book is a comprehensive examination of the field and is the first book that deals strictly with aqueous microwave chemistry and represents a significant effort towards green chemistry. It covers all the microwave-assisted aqueous reactions in depth, including heterocycle synthesis, metal catalysis, enzyme catalysis, polymer synthesis, nanomaterials synthesis and nano-catalysis. Each chapter contains representative experimental procedures, helping the reader quickly replicate some of the experiments to gain hands-on experience.
Science

Microwave Chemistry

Author: Giancarlo Cravotto

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 551

View: 298

Microwave Chemistry has changed the way to work in chemical laboratories and is an established state-of-the-art technology to accelarate and enhance chemical processes. This book not only gives an overview of the technology, its historical development and theoretical background, but also presents its exceptionally broad spectrum of applications. Microwave Chemistry enables graduate students and scientist to learn and apply its methods successfully.
Science

Advances in Microwave Chemistry

Author: Bimal K Banik

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 522

View: 744

Advances in Microwave Chemistry discusses the novel bond formation methodologies, synergistic effects of microwaves with other entities, sample preparation including digestion, combustion, and extraction techniques, as well as selectivity in chemical processes. Recent updates are provided on microwave-assisted syntheses of pharmacologically significant aza-, oxo- and other heterocycles, including lactams, nucleosides, bile acids and sterols, the preparation of nanomaterials, composites, and absorber layer materials for thin film. This book also incorporates comparative discussions involving microwave irradiation with conventional methods in different aspects of organic, inorganic, medicinal, and green chemistry. Key Features: Provides a comparative discussion on microwave irradiation with conventional methods in different aspects of organic, inorganic, medicinal, and green chemistry Presents recent applications of microwave radiation in biocatalysis Offers a complete package correlating various aspects of microwaves in organic syntheses, the biological impact of products formed in reactions, pharmacological features, and environmental sustainability of the procedures Explains microwave-induced reactions on structurally complex bile acids and sterols Stands as a valuable and unique addition to the well-established book series, New Directions in Organic and Biological Chemistry
Science

Microwave-Induced Synthesis of Aromatic Heterocycles

Author: Abdul Rauf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 93

View: 144

For more than a century, heterocycles have played a crucial role in the biological and industrial development of society, becoming one of the most researched areas within organic chemistry. The first chapter of Microwave-Induced Synthesis of Aromatic Heterocycles is based on microwave theory, the latest developments in instrumentation technology, and the various microwave technologies used for synthesis. The remainder of the chapters are divided into two sections. Section A deals with the five-membered heterocycles (pyrazoles, isoxazoles, triazoles, oxadiazoles, thiazoles, imidazoles, oxazoles, oxazolines etc.) and in Section B, various six-membered heterocycles (triazines, benzoxazoles, benzimidazoles, benzothiazoles) are presented. Both sections contain a detailed, recent literature review of microwave assisted synthesis and its applicability to various aromatic heterocyclics.
Science

Microwave Chemical and Materials Processing

Author: Satoshi Horikoshi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 394

The principal aim of this book is to introduce chemists through a tutorial approach to the use of microwaves by examining several experiments of microwave chemistry and materials processing. It will subsequently enable chemists to fashion their own experiments in microwave chemistry or materials processing. Microwave heating has become a popular methodology in introducing thermal energy in chemical reactions and material processing in laboratory-scale experiments. Several research cases where microwave heating has been used in a wide range of fields have been reported, including organic synthesis, polymers, nanomaterials, biomaterials, and ceramic sintering, among others. In most cases, microwave equipment is used as a simple heat source. Therefore the principal benefits of microwave radiation have seldom been taken advantage of. One reason is the necessity to understand the nature of electromagnetism, microwave engineering, and thermodynamics. However, it is difficult for a chemist to appreciate these in a short time, so they act as barriers for the chemist who might take an interest in the use of microwave radiation. This book helps to overcome these barriers by using figures and diagrams instead of equations as much as possible.
Science

Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry

Author: Allen J. Bard

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 537

View: 465

Electrochemical processes play an increasingly large role in our daily lives; whether in producing or saving energy, rust protection or nerve stimuli in our bodies. This 11-volume encyclopedia provides both an easy introduction to all topics related to modern electrochemistry as well as a comprehensive overview of the subject. Unrivalled in its breadth and depth, this first-class reference work has been created and written by renowned scientists, covering everything from fundamental research to areas of application. Editors-in-Chief: Allen Bard, Martin Stratmann Volume 1: Thermodynamics and Electrified Interfaces (Editors: Eliezer Gileadi, Micheal Urbakh) Volume 2: Interfacial Kinetics and Mass Transport (Editor: Ernesto Julio Calvo) Volume 3: Instrumentation and Electroanalytical Chemistry (Editor: Pat Unwin) Volume 4: Corrosion and Oxide Films (Editors: Martin Stratmann, Gerald S. Frankel) Volume 5: Electrochemical Engineering (Editor: Digby D. Macdonald) Volume 6: Semiconductor Electrodes and Photoelectrochemistry (Editor: Stuart Licht) Volume 7: Inorganic Electrochemistry (Editors: William E. Geiger, Chris Pickett) Volume 8: Organic Electrochemistry (Editor: Hans J. Schäfer) Volume 9: Bioelectrochemistry (Editor: George S. Wilson) Volume 10: Modified Electrodes (Editors: Israel Rubinstein, Masamichi Fujihira) Volume 11: Index
Science

Microwaves in Catalysis

Author: Satoshi Horikoshi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 354

A comprehensive overview covering the principles and preparation of catalysts, as well as reactor technology and applications in the field of organic synthesis, energy production, and environmental catalysis. Edited and authored by renowned and experienced scientists, this reference focuses on successful reaction procedures for applications in industry. Topics include catalyst preparation, the treatment of waste water and air, biomass and waste valorisation, hydrogen production, oil refining as well as organic synthesis in the presence of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts and continuous-flow reactions. With its practical relevance and successful methodologies, this is a valuable guide for chemists at universities working in the field of catalysis, organic synthesis, pharmaceutical or green chemistry, as well as researchers and engineers in the chemical industry.
Science

Nontraditional Activation Methods in Green and Sustainable Applications

Author: Bela Torok

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 604

View: 190

Nontraditional Activation Methods in Green and Sustainable Applications: Microwaves; Ultrasounds; Photo-, Electro- and Mechan-ochemistry and High Hydrostatic Pressure provides a broad overview of non-traditional activation methods to help readers identify and use appropriate approaches in reducing the environmental impact of their work. Sections discuss the fundamental principles of each method and provide examples of their practical use, illustrating their usefulness. Given the importance of expanding laboratory based technologies to the industrial level, chapters that cover both existing and potential industrial and environmental applications are also included. Highlighting the usefulness and adaptability of these methods for a range of practical applications, this book is a practical guide for both those involved with the design and application of synthetic methodologies and those interested in the implementation and impact of green chemistry principles in practice, from synthetic and medicinal chemists, to food developers and environmental policy planners. Discusses, and critically assesses, the advantages of non-traditional activation methods in green and sustainable chemistry applications Features individual chapters written by renowned experts in the field Contains extensive, state-of-the-art reference sections, providing critically filtered information to readers
Science

Laboratory Experiments Using Microwave Heating

Author: Nicholas E. Leadbeater

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 103

Allowing many chemical reactions to be completed within minutes, microwave heating has revolutionized preparative chemistry. As a result, this technology has been widely adopted in both academic and industrial laboratories. Integrating microwave-assisted chemistry into undergraduate laboratory courses enables students to perform a broader range of reactions in the allotted lab period. As a result, they can be introduced to chemistry that would otherwise have been inaccessible due to time constraints (for example, the need for an overnight reflux). Laboratory Experiments Using Microwave Heating provides 22 experiments encompassing organic, inorganic, and analytical chemistry performed using microwave heating as a tool, making them fast and easy to accomplish in a laboratory period. Utilizing the time-saving experiments described in this book also permits students to repeat experiments if necessary or attempt additional self-designed experiments during the lab course. A number of the chemical transformations use water as a solvent in lieu of classical organic solvents. This contributes to greener, more sustainable teaching strategies for faculty and students, while maintaining high reaction yields. All the experiments have been tested and verified in laboratory classes, and many were even developed by students. Each chapter includes an introduction to the experiment and two protocols—one for use with a smaller monomode microwave unit employing a single reaction vessel and one for use with a larger multimode microwave unit employing a carousel of reaction vessels.
Technology & Engineering

Advanced Functional Materials: Properties and Applications

Author: Inamuddin,

Publisher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 178

View: 322

Contributors of this collection have extensive experience at various field of development the materials and technology for advanced applications. This book is a result of collaboration between all contributing authors who agreed to share their research expertise as well as visions for the future materials development.

Microwave Assisted Decomposition of Tri-butyl Phosphate in Aqueous Effluent-streams

Author: John Rawcliffe

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 949

An investigation into the microwave assisted remediation of organic containing aqueous solutions has been conducted. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), the nuclear thel reprocessing solvent, and its diluents, are known to be responsible for the formation of interfacial deposits (cruds) in the alkali solvent wash stage of the Purex process for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The presence of cruds in the process is managed by regular wash out and the collected cruds are separated from aqueous washings and stored. Chemical oxidation of the cruds is one way of destroying them. This project explored microwave assisted oxidation, using TBP as a simple simulant for the crud. Low concentration TBP streams were circulated through an activated carbon loaded glass reaction vessel. The vessel was then subject to microwave radiation applied in short pulses. Studies were performed to assess the variation in reaction parameters using two oxidants; air and hydrogen peroxide. The analytical techniques used to assess the extent of decomposition were ion chromatography and UV-V is spectroscopy. Results showed TBP was found to decompose to orthophosphate ions in solution and to di-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP).