This book presents recent advances in studies of light propagation, scattering, emission and absorption in random media. Many natural and biological media vary randomly in time and space. Examples are terrestrial atmosphere and ocean, biological liquids and tissues to name but a few.
by Meždunarodnaja Konferencija Impulʹsnye Lazery na Perechodach Atomov i Molekul
The authors of this book present the theoretical fundamentals of atmospheric optics as a science of the propagation, transformation and generation in the atmosphere of electromagnetic radiation from the ultraviolet to microwave range of the spectrum. The main characteristics of the planets of the solar system and atmospheres are described. Special attention is given to the equation of transfer of radiation in different spectrum ranges; the absorption of radiation by atmospheric gases and aerosol, molecular, aerosol and different types of non-resonant scattering; atmospheric diffraction; reflection of radiation from the surface; and glow of the atmosphere. They present the method of calculating radiation for the solar and thermal ranges of the spectrum. The monograph will be of interest to experts working in the areas of the physics and optics of the atmosphere and also suitable for students and postgraduates studying the physics of atmosphere, meteorology, physical ecology and monitoring of the environment.
The exclusive role of natural ecosystems is a key factor in the maintenance of the biospheric equilibrium. The current global crisis is largely caused by their dramatic decline by 43% in the past hundred years. Ignoring the immutable laws and limitations which determine the existence of all living things in the biosphere could lead humanity to an ecological catastrophe. This book presents the ecological, demographic, economic and socio-psychological manifestations of the global crisis and outlines the immutable laws and limitations which determine the existence of all living things in the biosphere. The authors are eminently qualified to write about the problems associated with the global crisis and consider the causes behind humanity's conflict with its environment. V. Danilov-Danilian, Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russia's former Minister of the Environment, and K. Losev, professor at Moscow State university, are leading Russian ecologists and I. Reyf is a journalist who specializes in ecology and global development. Dr. Danilov-Danilian works on the economics of nature management, economic and mathematical model building, sustainable development theory and ecology. Dr Losev is the chief researcher and head of the division of the VINITI. All the authors have published numerous papers, articles and books on such subjects as glaciology, hydrology, environment studies, global change and sustainable development.
The book introduces optical wave propagation in the irregular turbulent atmosphere and the relations to laser beam and LIDAR applications for both optical communication and imaging. It examines atmosphere fundamentals, structure, and content. It explains specific situations occurring in the irregular atmosphere and for specific natural phenomena that affect optical ray and laser beam propagation. It emphasizes how to use LIDAR to investigate atmospheric phenomena and predict primary parameters of the irregular turbulent atmosphere and suggests what kinds of optical devices to operate in different atmospheric situations to minimize the deleterious effects of natural atmospheric phenomena.
"The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the U.S. IOOS and the optics community at large for the real-time QC of optics measurements using an agreed-upon, documented, and implemented standard process. This manual is also a deliverable to the U.S. IOOS Regional Associations and the ocean observing community and represents a contribution to a collection of core variable QC documents. Optics observations covered by these test procedures are collected in oceans and lakes in real time or near-real time. These tests draw from existing expertise in programs such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS), and the NOAA-funded California Current Ecosystem research project"--Page 3. [doi:10.7289/V5XW4H05 (https://doi.org/10.7289/V5XW4H05)].
The blossoming of adaptive optical techniques has brought about a revolution in the field of astronomical observation. Coupled with the new generation of large, ground-based telescopes, it allows us to achieve an unprecendented angular resolution in the analysis of faint astronomical sources at optical wavelengths. This book provides the basic concepts of adaptive optics, discusses the possible instrumental strategies and the state-of-the-art technical achievements of this development and presents the key astrophysical programs which will most benefit from it. Over fifteen well-known experts have contributed to making this volume a comprehensive one, with steady progression as well as full coverage of the various aspects of the field. Students graduating in optical sciences and astrophysics, astronomers, engineers interested in atmospheric turbulence compensation will find this book a reference text on the subject.
The NATO ARW in Irkutsk was an excellent occasion for the coming together of Eastern and Western scientists who are involved in tropospheric science; the workshop has greatly contributed to the scientific and social understanding among the participants from the many different countries. Many new personal contacts were made which will help to strengthen future collaborations. In particular, the Lake Baikal area and the Limnological Institute offer splendid opportunities for environmental research which, in part, is already on going. For most participants it was the first time to see the impressive nature of the Lake Baikal region. Hopefully, there will be a chance for a follow-up event in Siberia where researchers from the East and West can again meet and engage in fruitful scientific dialogue. The book contains extended abstracts of the lectures and the poster presentations presented at the NATO ARW "Global Atmospheric Change and its Impact on Regional Air Quality" Irkutsk, Lake Baikal, Russian Federation, August 21-27, 2001. The ARW was composed of 22 oral presentations by key lecturers and 6 additional shorter oral presentations from participants. In a special poster session the 36 poster contributions were presented and discussed. Unfortunately not all contributors submitted extended abstracts, however, to compensate two contributions have been added from 2 participants who were originally invited but were unable to attend.
A comprehensive, up-to-date review of the physics and applications of a major class of laser, the most important example of which is the copper vapour laser. A collection of 50 papers written by the world's leaders in the field. Papers cover: the early history of pulsed metal vapour lasters; the plasma kinetics and excitation mechanisms of self terminating and recombination metal vapour lasers; beam quality issues for applications; frequency harmonic generation for mid-UV applications; high-precision processing of metals, ceramics, glasses and plastics using metal vapour lasers; applications in medicine, including oncology and dermatology; applications in science such as spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A practical source of information on the physics, engineering and applications of metal vapour lasers. Audience: scientists, teachers and graduate researchers working in the fields of gas lasers, laser optics, gas discharges, optoelectronics and laser applications in industry, science and medicine.
This book presents current knowledge on chemistry and physics of Arctic atmosphere. Special attention is given to studies of the Arctic haze phenomenon, Arctic tropospheric clouds, Arctic fog, polar stratospheric and mesospheric clouds, atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer as related to the polar environment. The atmosphere-cryosphere feedbacks and atmospheric remote sensing techniques are presented in detail. The problems of climate change in the Arctic are also addressed.
Radiophysical tools for measuring atmospheric dynamics include sodars, Doppler radars, and Doppler lidars. Among these, coherent Doppler lidars (CDLs) have been considered the best for remote measurement of wind turbulence. This is important not only for understanding the exchange processes in the boundary layer, but also in the applied aspect, such as aviation safety. CDLs significantly extend possibilities of experimental investigation of not only wind turbulence, but also coherent structures such as aircraft wake vortices. The authors of this book conducted field tests of the developed methods of lidar measurements of the wind velocity, atmospheric turbulence parameters, and aircraft wake vortices. This valuable resource, containing over 500 equations based on original results from the authors’ work, gives professionals a comprehensive description of the operating principles of continuous wave and pulsed coherent Doppler lidars. This book studies the possibilities of obtaining information about wind turbulence from data measured by continuous wave and pulsed CDLs. The procedures for estimation are described, as well as algorithms for numerical simulation. Results on the vortex behavior and evolution are then presented.