There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services. Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need
This chapter outlines the aims and scope of the book. An introduction is given to the current status of knowledge which is presented on the topic of the book. Arguments are presented for writing the book, in view of continued, long-term and process-based research needed for mitigating ecological and socio-economic risks to forests under global change. The book will conclude on suggestions for decision making and reasons for continued funding of related research.
Forests provide many supporting, regulating and cultural services. Extensive environmental changes have resulted in a substantial loss or degradation of forest ecosystem services (ES). Unclear interactions of climate-change phenomena make it difficult to estimate forest ES. Research on interactive effects of climate change and air pollution has become a central issue in forest science during the past decade. Climate change in interaction with air pollution brings novel combinations of severity and timing of multiple stresses, which may significantly affect many forest ES. The aims of the present chapter are to identify basic concepts of evaluating ES with a focus on forest ES, to provide physiological and ecological bases for their evaluation, and to discuss the interactive effects of climate change and air pollution on forest ES based on selected tree physiological functions. Climate regulation mediated by deforestation-induced changes in the hydrological cycle is discussed. Adaptive governance and communication to the public promotes sustainable forest–multi-stakeholder collaboration. A case study is presented evaluating selected ES in a forest–agricultural landscape in the Czech Republic on the basis of monitored energy, water and material flows estimation. From this study, it is apparent that future research must include multi-factorial anthropogenic and natural interactions of climatic changes and air pollution in conjunction with sustainable forest ES provisions. Sustainable forest management is an essential tool for reducing the vulnerability of forests to environmental change.
Atmospheric Pollution and Environmental Change is an introduction to the major pollutants causing concern today, a description of their sources and how their emissions and concentrations have changed through time. Approaching atmospheric change in the context of its effects on the natural environment, people and the global climate system, Atmospheric Pollution and Environmental Change examines: ·Atmospheric pollution at global, continental and local scales ·The development of policy at national and international levels ·The uses of computer models to help us understand and forecast the behaviour of pollutants and their impacts ·The success (or otherwise) of policies designed to reduce air pollution and the prospects for the future. With extensive references to useful web sites and further reading, Atmospheric Pollution and Environmental Change will be of great benefit to senior undergraduate and postgraduate students.
A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have significant ecological importance only at much smaller geographic scales. Complex interactive effects of air pollution and CC for selected future CC scenarios are reviewed. In addition, simulations of past, present, and future hydrologic, nutrient, and growth changes caused by interactive effects of air pollution and CC are described for two U.S. forest ecosystems. Impacts of O3, N deposition, and CC on growth and hydrology of mixed conifer forests in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California were projected with the DayCent model. Effects of N deposition, CO2 fertilization, N deposition, and CC on northern hardwood forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire were simulated with the PnET-BGC model. Projected changes in these forests can influence the provision of ecosystem services such as C sequestration and water supply. The extent of these effects will vary depending on the future intensity and extent of CC, air pollutant emission levels, the distribution of air pollution, and other factors such as drought, pest outbreaks, fire, etc. Our chapter ends with research and management recommendations intended to increase our ability to cope with uncertainties related to the future interactive effects of multiple air pollutants, atmospheric deposition, CC, and other biotic and abiotic stressors.
Fundamentals of Air Pollution is an important and widely used textbook in the environmental science and engineering community. Written shortly after the passage of the seminal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the third edition was quite timely. Surprisingly, the text has remained relevant for university professors, engineers, scientists, policy makers and students up to recent years. However, in light of the transition in the last five years from predominantly technology-based standards (maximum achievable control technologies or MACTs) to risk-based regulations and air quality standards, the text must be updated significantly. The fourth edition will be updated to include numerous MACTs which were not foreseen during the writing of the third edition, such as secondary lead (Pb) smelting, petroleum refining, aerospace manufacturing, marine vessel loading, ship building, printing and publishing, elastomer production, offsite waste operations, and polyethylene terephthalate polymer and styrene-based thermoplastic polymers production. * Focuses on the process of risk assessment, management and communication, the key to the study of air pollution. * Provides the latest information on the technological breakthroughs in environmental engineering since last edition * Updated information on computational and diagnostic and operational tools that have emerged in recent years.
This standard textbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-dateoverview of the direct and indirect impacts of air pollution onplant life. Written by an international team of experts, thebook covers the main historical aspects and sources ofpollutants, atmospheric transport and transformations ofpollutants, and issues of global change and the use of science inair pollution policy formulation. * covers all the main phytotoxic pollutants with due considerationgiven to impacts at all levels of plant organisation from molecularto ecological. * emphasises the effects of air pollutants in altering plantresponse to common stresses, both abiotic and biotic - fields inwhich considerable progress has been made since publication of thefirst edition. * includes coverage of how research leads to pollution controlpolicy development. Essential reading for students in Environmental Science,Biological Science and Agriculture, as well as environmentalconsultants and professionals involved in air quality research andthe application of air quality guidelines and advice.
Fundamentals of Air Pollution is an important and widely used textbook in the environmental science and engineering community. This thoroughly revised fifth edition of Fundamentals of Air Pollution has been updated throughout and remains the most complete text available, offering a stronger systems perspective and more coverage of international issues relating to air pollution. Sections on pollution control have been reorganized and updated to demonstrate the move from regulation and control approaches to green and sustainable engineering approaches. The fifth edition maintains a strong interdisciplinary approach to the study of air pollution, covering such topics as chemistry, physics, meteorology, engineering, toxicology, policy, and regulation. New material includes near-road air pollution, new risk assessment approaches, indoor air quality, the impact of biofuels and fuel additives, mercury emissions, forecasting techniques, and the most recent results from the National Air Toxics Assessment. Stronger systems approach, emphasizing the impact of air pollution on ecosystems and human health Risks, measures, models, and control of air pollution are discussed at scale – starting at the individual/niche level and expanding to planetary/global scale Increased emphasis on international issues, including coverage of European initiatives and discussions of the impact of emerging economies like India and China Updated references, standards, and methods throughout the book make this the most current air pollution text/reference on the market All new end-of-chapter problems enhance its usefulness as a course text
Air, the Environment and Public Health traces the theme of air and health from ancient civilisations onwards. The author explores the changing conceptions of air and health alongside historical developments in public health, and critically examines contemporary problems - conceptual, scientific, philosophical and ethical - in public health theory and practice. The first part surveys air and health in early civilisations, as well as the nineteenth-century debates around miasma and evolution. The second part explores the history of smoke pollution and health. Part three examines philosophical issues around modern air pollution epidemiology, and part four looks at climate change and ethical frameworks in public health. The book is a unique blend of public health science, history of medicine, ethics and philosophy. It will be of interest to those working or studying in public health, environmental health, medicine, history of medicine, environmental philosophy, and medical ethics.
This unique textbook examines the basic health and environmental issues associated with air pollution including the relevant toxicology and epidemiology. It provides a foundation for the sampling and analysis of air pollutants as well as an understanding of international air quality regulations. Written for upper-level undergraduate and introductory graduate courses in air pollution, the book is also a valuable desk reference for practicing professionals who need to have a broad understanding of the topic. Key features: - Provides the most up-to-date coverage of the basic health and environmental issues associated with air pollution. - Offers a broader examination of air pollution topics, beyond just the meteorological and engineering aspects of air pollution. - Includes the following Instructor Resources: Instructor's Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, and a TestBank. The Phalens have put together a timely book on a critically important topic that affects all of us -- air pollution – and they do so in a new and highly relevant way: they consider the broad societal health impacts from a fundamental science viewpoint. The epidemiology, toxicology, and risks of air pollutants are included, and ethical issues of concern are highlighted. This book is a must-read for students who wish to become professionals in the air quality field and for students of environmental science whose work includes air pollution issues. The book is a significant contribution to the discipline." - Cliff I. Davidson, Director, Center for Sustainable Engineering; Thomas C. and Colleen L. Wilmot Professor of Engineering, Syracuse Center of Excellence in Environmental and Energy Systems and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University "Truly, human well-being and public health in the 21st century may hinge on our ability to anticipate, recognize, evaluate, control, and confirm responsible management of air pollution. This timely, informative, and insightful text provides a solid introduction for students and a technically sound handbook for professionals seeking literacy and critical thinking, real-life examples, understanding (not just rote applications), opportunities for continuous improvement, and modern tools for assessing and managing current and evolving air pollution challenges." - Mark D. Hoover, PhD, CHP, CIH Aerosol and health science researcher, author, and editor