Understand and support executive function in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with this fully-explained, innovative model. Showing how to use an individual's strengths to address executive functioning weaknesses, this approach will also help to build a strong foundation for social and communication skills. Advocating a person-centred approach, the author describes the importance of identifying the individual's preferred style of engagement and communication, and how sensory experiences impact their thoughts, feelings, and actions. She explains how to use this information to identify the individual's strengths and weaknesses across eight key areas which are the building blocks of executive functions: attention; memory; organization; time management; initiative; behavior; goal setting and flexibility. These areas can be used daily to establish predictability and offer a foundation for interpreting, processing and understanding the world with flexibility. Professionals and parents can also use them as the basis of an Individualized Education Plan (IEP), or to create personalized interventions and support at school or at home.
This book presents an innovative model for supporting executive function in students with attention, memory, organization, planning, inhibition, initiative, and flexibility difficulties, including those with ADHD, ADD, autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. The author advocates a student-centred approach in which educators first explore 8 key 'ingredients' with the student: relationships; strengths and weaknesses; self-advocacy and responsibility; review and preview; motivation and incentive; synthesis and analysis; rhythm and routine; and practice and repetition. She provides a step-by-step explanation of how these 'ingredients' can then be used in different ways and in different combinations to successfully address particular areas of difficulty. The approach is clearly explained, and the book contains many useful examples, practical tips and strategies, suggested conversation starters, sample time management plans and other tools that can be adapted to meet the particular needs of individual students. Original and effective, the approach outlined in this book will be of interest to teachers and other professionals involved in supporting executive function in students of all ages, as well as parents and carers.
Executive Functions in Children's Everyday Lives captures the diversity and complexity of the executive system that underlies children's everyday life experiences. Acquisition of executive functions, such as interpreting communication cues and the perspectives of others, is foundational to and a function of children's early social and communicative competencies. From the soccer field to the classroom, executive functions support children's strategic thinking and control of their environment. Knowing about executive functions and how this system of cognitive resources emerges in young children is important in understanding children's development. Recent research points to the importance of also considering environmental influences on the executive system. This book is unique in its focus on how experiences in children's early lives influence and are influenced by executive functions. Viewing executive functions through this broad lens is critical for professionals who intervene when children's access to executive functions is less than optimal. This book addresses a wide range of topics, including the neurological basis of executive functions in young children, the assessment of children's executive functions, theoretical and historical conceptions of executive functions, the relations between executive functions and theory of mind, multilingualism, early school transitions, and the relationship of executive functions to Autism and ADHD. This volume will be useful to professionals in applied psychology, undergraduate and graduate students, and social science and applied researchers.
In her book An Autism Upgrade. On Patterns and Processes Pia Hämäläinen (b. 1966; BA), an autistic theorist, discusses the process view of reality as fundamental for autism. She elaborates on Simon Baron-Cohen's theory of autistic persons as natural pattern seekers discussing the roles of data-centricity, entropy and complexity theory - the science of pattern formation. Hämäläinen generalizes the process of writing to encompass the constant re-constructing of the self and reality, and proposes various ways for managing process-based patterns.
Flexible and Focused: Teaching Executive Function Skills to Individuals with Autism and Attention Disorders is a manual written for individuals who work with learners who struggle with executive function deficits. The manual takes the perspective that executive function skills can be improved through effective intervention, just like any other skills. This how-to manual provides practical strategies for teaching learners to be focused, organized, flexible, and able to effectively manage themselves. Ready-to-use lessons, data sheets, worksheets, and other tools for practitioners, educators, and parents are provided to help them tackle common problems associated with executive function deficits in learners of any diagnosis, ages 5 to adult. The principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA), which form the foundation of this manual, are translated into simple, easy-to-use procedures. Lessons for improving executive function skills in real-life everyday situations are provided in the following areas: Self-awareness Inhibition and impulse control Self-management Attention Organization Problem solving Time management Planning Working memory Emotional self-regulation Flexibility Provides an overview of what constitutes executive function skills Outlines how techniques based on applied behavior analysis can be used to teach skills Presents step-by-step lessons for practitioners, educators, and parents to implement with individuals with executive function deficits Includes data sheets, task analyses, worksheets, and visual aids
Executive dysfunction occurs in many clinical conditions and has significant impact on multiple facets of life. This book summarizes executive function and dysfunction for practitioners, researchers and educators, covering lifespan development, assessment, impact and interventions. Drawing together clinical, neurobiological and developmental viewpoints, the authors summarize the latest research findings in practical and applied terms, and review conceptual approaches to assessing and identifying executive function and dysfunction. Several chapters are devoted to practical aspects of executive dysfunction, including research-based treatment strategies, educational implications, forensic cautions and intervention resources. Executive dysfunction in ADHD, LD, MR, autism, mood disorders, epilepsy, cancer and TBI is covered, with test performance, neuroimaging and clinical presentation for these clinical conditions. The book concludes with anticipation of future work in the field. This is a key reference for medical, psychological and educational professionals who work with children, adolescents and young adults in clinical and educational settings.
In the essay Elaborating on the Double Empathy Problem - An Essay on the Compatibility of Neurotypicality and Autism Pia Hämäläinen (BA), an autistic theorist, discusses various perspectives related to the double empathy problem, a term coined by Damian Milton in 2012. According to Milton, communication challenges are a two-way street concerning the perspective taking of both neurotypical and autistic individuals. Proceeding from presenting state of the art of research on the double empathy problem, Hämäläinen discusses various perspectives relevant to the issue including, among others, the dynamics of autism, the structure of the autistic self, different kinds of empathy, pattern seeking as it relates to traditional vs. process philosophy, and the phenomenon of prediction. Hämäläinen shares her ideas for possible solutions of the problem and concludes the essay with a consideration of the roles of inclusion, equity, and economy as they relate to solving the double empathy problem.
The study of bilingualism has charted a dramatically new, important, and exciting course in the 21st century, benefiting from the integration in cognitive science of theoretical linguistics, psycholinguistics, and cognitive psychology (especially work on the higher-level cognitive processes often called executive function or executive control). Current research, as exemplified in this book, advances the study of the effects of bilingualism on executive function by identifying many different ways of being bilingual, exploring the multiple facets of executive function, and developing and analyzing tasks that measure executive function. The papers in this volume (21 chapters), by leading researchers in bilingualism and cognition, investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects (or lack thereof) of bilingualism on cognition in children, adults, and the elderly. They take us beyond the standard, classical, black-and-white approach to the interplay between bilingualism and cognition by presenting new methods, new findings, and new interpretations.