Science

Organic Synthesis Using Biocatalysis

Author: Animesh Goswami

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 630

Organic Synthesis Using Biocatalysis provides a concise background on the application of biocatalysis for the synthesis of organic compounds, including the important biocatalytic reactions and application of biocatalysis for the synthesis of organic compounds in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical areas. The book provides recipes for carrying out various biocatalytic reactions, helping both newcomers and non-experts use these methodologies. It is written by experts in their fields, and provides both a current status and future prospects of biocatalysis in the synthesis of organic molecules. Provides a concise background of the application of biocatalysis for the synthesis of organic compounds Expert contributors present recipes for carrying out biocatalytic reactions, including subject worthy discussions on biocatalysis in organic synthesis, biocatalysis for selective organic transformation, enzymes as catalysis for organic synthesis, biocatalysis in Industry, including pharmaceuticals, and more Contains detailed, separate chapters that describe the application of biocatalysis
Science

Biocatalysis

Author: W.-D. Fessner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 398

Here, leading contributors from the forefront of this exciting technology present authoritative and timely reviews on the state of the art of biocatalysis. They cover the whole spectrum from the discovery of novel enzymes - by modern screening, evolutionary or immunological approaches - through immobilization techniques for technical processes, to their use in the asymmetric synthesis of important target compounds.
Technology & Engineering

Biocatalysis

Author: D.A. Abramowicz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 674

The action of enzymes fascinated mankind long before they were rec ognized for the complex chemicals that they are. The first application of these remarkable compounds to produce ethanol by fermentation is lost to antiquity. Payer and Persoz (Ann. Chim. Phys. , 53, 73 (1833ii)) appear to have provided the first step toward understanding this com plex area when they reported the isolation of diastase in 1833. These workers showed that diastase could catalyze the hydrolysis of starches to sugars. Somewhat earlier Kirchhoff (Schwigger's Journal, 4, 108 (1812)) had shown that a small amount of dilute acid could hydrolyze a seemingly endless amount of starch to sugars. The genius of Berzelius recognized the commonality of these two observations in connection with a few other isolated observations and in 1834 coined the term catalysis to describe such actions. Professor Leibig was one of the giants of the chemical world in 1840. In addition to his own work, Liebig was training the world's next generation of chemists in his laboratory in Giessen. This cadre of chemists were very impressed by the master teacher so that is it only natural that Liebig's views should dominate with this next generation of chemists. Leibig was, in the 1830s and 1840s, developing his mastery of agricultural chemistry. The mechanism of putrefication was of great concern to Leibig, and he turned to the newly defined area of catalysis for an explanation.
Medical

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Author: Peter Grunwald

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 838

View: 947

This volume provides an insight into the future strategies for commercial biocatalysis with a focus on sustainable technologies, together with chemoenzymatic and biotechnological approaches to synthesize various types of approved and new active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via proven and latest synthetic routes using single-step biocatalytic or enzyme cascade reactions. Many of these drugs act as enzyme inhibitors, as discussed in a chapter with a variety of examples. The targeted enzymes are involved in diseases such as different cancers, metastatic and infectious diseases, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disorders. The biocatalysts employed for API synthesis include hydrolytic enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenases, laccases, imine reductases, reductive aminases, peroxygenases, cytochrome P450 enzymes, polyketide synthases, transaminases, and halogenases. Many of them have been improved with respect to their properties by engineering methods. The book discusses the syntheses of drugs, including alkaloids and antibiotics, non-ribosomal peptides, antimalarial and antidiabetic drugs, prenylated xanthones, antioxidants, and many important (chiral) intermediates required for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.
Technology & Engineering

Future Directions in Biocatalysis

Author: Tomoko Matsuda

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 460

View: 535

Future Directions in Biocatalysis, Second Edition, presents the future direction and latest research on how to utilize enzymes, i.e., natural catalysts, to make medicines and other necessities for humans. It emphasizes the most important and unique research on biocatalysis instead of simply detailing the ABC’s on the topic. This book is an indispensable tool for new researchers in the field to help identify specific needs, start new projects that address current environmental concerns, and develop techniques based on green technology. It provides invaluable hints and clues for conducting new research on enzymes, with final sections outlining future directions in biocatalysis further expanding the science into new applications. Gives future directions in the area of biocatalysis research Presents research topics based on their uniqueness, originality, and novelty Includes many explanatory figures to demonstrate concepts to both organic chemists and biochemists Shows that there is no boundary between organic chemistry and biochemistry
Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis and Nanotechnology

Author: Peter Grunwald

Publisher: Pan Stanford Series on Biocatalysis

ISBN:

Category: Biocatalysis

Page: 836

View: 757

Nanobiocatalysis has rapidly developed into a subarea of enzyme biotechnology. It combines the advances in nanotechnology that have generated nanoscale materials of different sizes, shapes, and physicochemical properties, and the excellent characteristics of biocatalysts into an innovative technology. This book provides an overview of the various relations between nanotechnology and biocatalysis. It discusses the fabrication and application of nanomaterials for the immobilization of enzymes used in the sustainable production of goods and chemicals. Nanosupports have several advantages compared with bulk solid materials because of their high surface area, which results in a significantly reduced mass transfer limitation and comparatively high enzyme loading. These characteristics are also of great use for applications in the fields of enzymatic biosensors, biofuel cells, bioelectronics, and photoelectrochemical analyte detection, where conductive nanomaterials improve the rate of electron transfer. The book also presents an overview of nanotoxicology and covers nanostructured enzyme catalysis in organic solvents and its potential application for biodiesel production, probing of enzymatic activity, and identification of enzyme functions of inorganic nanoparticles as enzyme mimics.
Science

Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations 3

Author: John Whittall

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 119

Biocatalysts are increasingly used by chemists engaged in fine chemical synthesis within both industry and academia. Today, there exists a huge choice of high-tech enzymes and whole cell biocatalysts, which add enormously to the repertoire of synthetic possibilities. Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations 3 will be a companion book to Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations (2009) and Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations 2 (2012). Following the successful format of the two volumes, it will be a “how-to” guide focusing on commercially available enzymes and strains of microorganisms that are readily obtained from culture collections. The source of starting materials and reagents, hints, tips and safety advice (where appropriate) will be given to ensure, as far as possible, that the procedures are reproducible. Comparisons to alternative methodology will be given and relevant references to the primary literature will be cited. Contents include: Biotransformation Process Technology Industrial Biooxidation Hydrolase catalysed hydrolysis/synthesis Reduction Oxidation Halogenation Transferase catalysed glycosylation, methylation, etc C-C bond formation Tandem Biocatalytic Reactions Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations, Volume 3 is an essential collection of validated biocatalytic methods which will find a place on the bookshelves of synthetic organic chemists, pharmaceutical chemists, and process R&D chemists in industry and academia.
Medical

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Author: Peter Grunwald

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 460

View: 204

This volume of Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis starts with a discussion on the importance of biocatalytic synthesis approaches for a sustainable and environmentally friendly production of pharmaceuticals and active pharmaceutical ingredients. Among the enzymes discussed in detail with respect to their pharmaceutical relevance are cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases playing an important role in modulating signal transduction in various cell types; human DOPA decarboxylase, related to Parkinson's disease and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency; and phospholipase D enzymes as drug targets. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations are novel therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia. An additional chapter is devoted to the use of enzymes for prodrug activation in cancer therapy. The other topics include small-molecule inhibitors targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer, β-Lactams and related compounds as antibacterials, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants for the treatment of thromboembolic diseases, and the molecular mechanisms for statin pleiotropy and its clinical relevance in cardiovascular diseases. The last chapter is a review of lysosomal storage disorders with an overview of approved drugs for treating these disorders by enzyme replacement therapy.
Science

Biocatalysis

Author: Qayyum Husain

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 739

This book introduces readers to industrially important enzymes and discusses in detail their structures and functions, as well as their manifold applications. Due to their selective biocatalytic capabilities, enzymes are used in a broad range of industries and processes. The book highlights selected enzymes and their applications in agriculture, food processing and discoloration, as well as their role in biomedicine. In turn, it discusses biochemical engineering strategies such as enzyme immobilization, metabolic engineering, and cross-linkage of enzyme aggregates, and critically weighs their pros and cons. Offering a wealth of information, and stimulating further research by presenting new concepts on enzymatic catalytic functions in basic and applied contexts, the book represents a valuable asset for researchers from academia and industry who are engaged in biochemical engineering, microbiology and biotechnology.
Technology & Engineering

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 584

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter. * Updated references * Studying bioprocessing problems, looking at opportunities for improvements and technology developments
Biocatalysis

Biocatalysis

Author: Gonzalo de Gonzalo

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN:

Category: Biocatalysis

Page: 511

View: 573

Implementing biocatalytic strategies in an industrial setting is a challenging task, especially when commercial scale necessitates a balance between industrial need and economic viability. With invited contributions from a wide range of chemical and pharmaceutical companies, this book bridges the gap between academia and industry. Contributors discuss current processes, types of biocatalysts and improvements, industrial motivation and the key aspects needed for economic success. Focussing on industry related issues, this book will be a useful tool for future research by both practitioners and academics.
Science

Biocatalysis

Author: Herfried Griengl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 473

The book contains in its first part reviews on modelling of enzyme properties in organic solvents, lipase-catalysed synthesis of carboxylic amides, chemoenzymatic synthesis of lipidated peptides and chemoenzymatic transformations in nucleoside chemistry. In the second part contributions on recent developments in biocatalysis are given: lipase and esterase catalysed resolutions, investigations on regio- and stereoselective biocatalytic acylations in steroid side-chains and of substrate- and stereospecificity of Penicillin G amidases, deracemisation for amino acid synthesis, biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitriles, enzymatic and microbial hydroxylation of dienes and alpha-methyl esters, enantioselective sulphoxidations by peroxidases.
Medical

Pharmaceutical Biocatalysis

Author: Peter Grunwald

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 424

View: 168

Volume 7 of the Jenny Stanford Series on Biocatalysis deals with several different aspects of pharmaceuticals, which include not only various applications of drugs and their metabolism but also natural resources for active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as the removal of pharmaceutical pollution. In detail, novel approaches for developing microbial fermentation processes to produce vitamin B6 using microorganisms are described together with novel routes for vitamin B6 biosynthesis. The other topics discussed are new approaches for producing the successful anticancer drug Taxol from naturally occurring precursors, molecular farming through plant engineering as a cost-effective means to produce therapeutic and prophylactic proteins, and successful screening of potent microorganisms producing L-asparaginase for various chemotherapeutic applications. Furthermore, microbial biotransformations in the production and degradation of fluorinated pharmaceuticals are described. The other chapters inform the reader about the biotransformation of xenobiotics/drugs in living systems, the degradation of pharmaceuticals by white-rot fungi and their ligninolytic enzymes, and the removal of pharmaceutical pollution from municipal sewage using laccase.
Science

Marine Enzymes for Biocatalysis

Author: Antonio Trincone

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 321

Marine bioprospecting is a highly topical subject - in both applied and basic research - but, as yet, the marine ecosystem is a relatively unexplored source of natural bioactive substances with potential therapeutic activity. This book addresses the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis through a series of chapters from leading scientists within academic and industrial fields. Biocatalytic processes can take advantage of the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes, such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and so on, whilst also taking into consideration substrate specificity and affinity. These evolved properties are linked to the metabolic functions of the enzymes and to the ecological aspects of the natural source. New properties can also be discovered at the molecular level of catalysis, particularly concerning the stereochemical characteristics of products. Marine enzymes for biocatalysis initially examines the nature and level of interest in marine biological diversity, and outlines the fundamentals of biocatalysis. It goes on to detail sources of marine enzymes, and to analyse examples from both chemical and stereochemical viewpoints of catalysis, including microbial enzymes and animal or plant sources. The book goes on to explore the future potential of marine bioprospecting in biocatalysis. Compiles studies from leading scientists in a direct and accessible format. Includes practical descriptions of results, adding further details not often covered in formal articles Takes a molecular view which fully explains the enzymatic aspects of reactions, particularly regarding biocatalytic characteristics and descriptions of bioprocesses Selects examples of chemical and stereochemical aspects of enzymatic action with respect to known terrestrial counterparts
Science

Biocatalysis

Author: Andreas S. Bommarius

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 188

The whole range of biocatalysis, from a firm grounding in theoretical concepts to in-depth coverage of practical applications and future perspectives. The book not only covers reactions, products and processes with and from biological catalysts, but also the process of designing and improving such biocatalysts. One unique feature is that the fields of chemistry, biology and bioengineering receive equal attention, thus addressing practitioners and students from all three areas.
Science

Multi-scale Quantum Models for Biocatalysis

Author: Darrin M. York

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 164

“Multi-scale Quantum Models for Biocatalysis” explores various molecular modelling techniques and their applications in providing an understanding of the detailed mechanisms at play during biocatalysis in enzyme and ribozyme systems. These areas are reviewed by an international team of experts in theoretical, computational chemistry, and biophysics. This book presents detailed reviews concerning the development of various techniques, including ab initio molecular dynamics, density functional theory, combined QM/MM methods, solvation models, force field methods, and free-energy estimation techniques, as well as successful applications of multi-scale methods in the biocatalysis systems including several protein enzymes and ribozymes. This book is an excellent source of information for research professionals involved in computational chemistry and physics, material science, nanotechnology, rational drug design and molecular biology and for students exposed to these research areas.
Science

Applied Biocatalysis

Author: John Whittall

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 382

Provides clear and comprehensive coverage of recently developed applied biocatalysis for synthetic organic chemists with an emphasis to promote green chemistry in pharmaceutical and process chemistry This book aims to make biocatalysis more accessible to both academic and industrial synthetic organic chemists. It focuses on current topics within the applied industrial biocatalysis field and includes short but detailed experimental methods on timely novel biocatalytic transformations using new enzymes or new methodologies using known enzymes. The book also features reactions that are “expanding and making the enzyme toolbox available to chemists”—providing readers with comprehensive methodology and detailed key sourcing information of a wide range of enzymes. Chapters in Applied Biocatalysis: The Chemist’s Enzyme Toolkit are organized by reaction type and feature a short introductory section describing the current state of the art for each example. Much of the book focuses on processes for which the enzymes are readily available so that organic chemists can synthesize appropriate quantities of chemicals with available materials in a standard chemical laboratory. Advanced methods are included to present examples of new enzymes that might encourage collaboration with suppliers or academic groups and that will educate chemists of rapidly expanding future possibilities. Focuses on current topics within the applied industrial biocatalysis field Offers experimental methods on novel biocatalytic transformations using new enzymes or new methodology using known enzymes Covers the hot topics of enzyme and chemoenzymatic cascades and biocatalysis in flow Edited by noted experts from both academia and industry with years of experience in the field of biocatalysis—particularly, the industrial applications of enzymes Written for synthetic organic chemists working in all industries but especially the pharmaceutical industry and for those in academia with an eye for biocatalysis, Applied Biocatalysis: The Chemist’s Enzyme Toolkit will also benefit academic groups in chemistry and related sciences that are using enzymes for synthetic purposes, as well as those working in the area of enzymology and molecular biology.

Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis

Author: Nicholas J. Turner

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 429

View: 977

The application of biocatalysis in organic synthesis is rapidly gaining popularity amongst chemists. Compared to traditional synthetic methodologies biocatalysis offers a number of advantages in terms of enhanced selectivity (chemo-, regio-, stereo-), reduced environmental impact and lower cost of starting materials. Together these advantages can contribute to more sustainable manufacturing processes across a wide range of industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to biofuels. The biocatalytic toolbox has expanded significantly in the past five years and given the current rate of development of new engineered biocatalysts it is likely that the number of available biocatalysts will double in the next few years. This textbook gives a comprehensive overview of the current biocatalytic toolbox and also establishes new guidelines or rules for “biocatalytic retrosynthesis”. Retrosynthesis is a well known and commonly used technique whereby organic chemists start with the structure of their target molecule and generate potential starting materials and intermediates through a series of retrosynthetic disconnections. These disconnections are then used to devise a forward synthesis, in this case using biocatalytic transformations in some of the key steps. Target molecules are disconnected with consideration for applying biocatalysts, as well as chemical reagents and chemocatalysts, in the forward synthesis direction. Using this textbook, students will be able to place biocatalysis within the context of other synthetic transformations that they have learned earlier in their studies. This additional awareness of biocatalysis will equip students for the modern world of organic synthesis where biocatalysts play an increasingly important role. In addition to guidelines for identifying where biocatalysts can be applied in organic synthesis, this textbook also provides examples of current applications of biocatalysis using worked examples and case studies. Tutorials enable the reader to practice disconnecting target molecules to find the ‘hidden’ biocatalytic reactions which can be applied in the synthetic direction. The book contains a complete description of the current biocatalyst classes that are available for use and also suggests areas where new enzymes are likely to be developed in the next few years. This textbook is an essential resource for lecturers and students studying synthetic organic chemistry. It also serves as a handy reference for practicing chemists who wish to embed biocatalysis into their synthetic toolbox.
Technology & Engineering

Enzyme Biocatalysis

Author: Andrés Illanes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 993

This book was written with the purpose of providing a sound basis for the design of enzymatic reactions based on kinetic principles, but also to give an updated vision of the potentials and limitations of biocatalysis, especially with respect to recent app- cations in processes of organic synthesis. The ?rst ?ve chapters are structured in the form of a textbook, going from the basic principles of enzyme structure and fu- tion to reactor design for homogeneous systems with soluble enzymes and hete- geneous systems with immobilized enzymes. The last chapter of the book is divided into six sections that represent illustrative case studies of biocatalytic processes of industrial relevance or potential, written by experts in the respective ?elds. We sincerely hope that this book will represent an element in the toolbox of gr- uate students in applied biology and chemical and biochemical engineering and also of undergraduate students with formal training in organic chemistry, biochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical reaction kinetics. Beyond that, the book pretends also to illustrate the potential of biocatalytic processes with case studies in the ?eld of organic synthesis, which we hope will be of interest for the academia and prof- sionals involved in R&D&I. If some of our young readers are encouraged to engage or persevere in their work in biocatalysis this will certainly be our more precious reward.
Science

Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis

Author: Nicholas J Turner

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 468

The application of biocatalysis in organic synthesis is rapidly gaining popularity amongst chemists. Compared to traditional synthetic methodologies biocatalysis offers a number of advantages in terms of enhanced selectivity (chemo-, regio-, stereo-), reduced environmental impact and lower cost of starting materials. Together these advantages can contribute to more sustainable manufacturing processes across a wide range of industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to biofuels. The biocatalytic toolbox has expanded significantly in the past five years and given the current rate of development of new engineered biocatalysts it is likely that the number of available biocatalysts will double in the next few years. This textbook gives a comprehensive overview of the current biocatalytic toolbox and also establishes new guidelines or rules for “biocatalytic retrosynthesis”. Retrosynthesis is a well known and commonly used technique whereby organic chemists start with the structure of their target molecule and generate potential starting materials and intermediates through a series of retrosynthetic disconnections. These disconnections are then used to devise a forward synthesis, in this case using biocatalytic transformations in some of the key steps. Target molecules are disconnected with consideration for applying biocatalysts, as well as chemical reagents and chemocatalysts, in the forward synthesis direction. Using this textbook, students will be able to place biocatalysis within the context of other synthetic transformations that they have learned earlier in their studies. This additional awareness of biocatalysis will equip students for the modern world of organic synthesis where biocatalysts play an increasingly important role. In addition to guidelines for identifying where biocatalysts can be applied in organic synthesis, this textbook also provides examples of current applications of biocatalysis using worked examples and case studies. Tutorials enable the reader to practice disconnecting target molecules to find the ‘hidden’ biocatalytic reactions which can be applied in the synthetic direction. The book contains a complete description of the current biocatalyst classes that are available for use and also suggests areas where new enzymes are likely to be developed in the next few years. This textbook is an essential resource for lecturers and students studying synthetic organic chemistry. It also serves as a handy reference for practicing chemists who wish to embed biocatalysis into their synthetic toolbox.