Human experience with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare has been limited, especially in comparison to conventional forms of warfare. Our experience with nuclear warfare is confined to a period of less than one week during the end of World War II, when the United States successfully used two nuclear weapons against targets in Japan. The course of biological warfare and modern use of biological weapons are difficult to track owing to the difficulty of differentiating deliberate use from natural outbreaks. However, the keen potential of biological weapons in acts of terror was shown in the mass disruption caused in the fall 2001 experience in the U.S. with the release of anthrax through the American postal system. Chemical weapons have been used in a handful of conflicts since their introduction to modern warfare during World War I, most recently during the Iran-Iraq War during the 1980s. Despite this limited experience, NBC warfare continues to exert a certain fascination among states. The A to Z of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare covers the development and use of NBC weapons as well as efforts to limit or control the use of these weapons through a chronology, a bibliography, an introductory essay, and dictionary entries. Over 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries provide a unique selection of terms related to NBC warfare, ranging from basic descriptions of substances used in NBC warfare to details on incidents and episodes where NBC weapons were used. Entries are structured around historical events, persons important to NBC warfare, countries where such weapons have been developed or used, and international treaties and treaty-related organizations.
This is the second edition of this publication which focuses on the public health aspects of the possible deliberate use of biological or chemical agents. Issues discussed include: the key principles for public health planning, risk assessment, hazard identification and evaluation, risk management strategies, and response planning as part of existing national emergency plans, disease surveillance and early warning systems, the national and international legal framework, and international sources of assistance. Technical annexes cover a range of issues including chemical agents, toxins, biological agents, principles of protection, precautions against the sabotage of drinking water, food and other products, information resources and the affiliation of WHO Member States to the international treaties on biological and chemical weapons.
Human experience with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare has been limited, especially in comparison to conventional forms of warfare. Our experience with nuclear warfare is confined to a period of less than one week during the end of World War II, when the United States successfully used two nuclear weapons against targets in Japan. The course of biological warfare and modern use of biological weapons are difficult to track owing to the difficulty of differentiating deliberate use from natural outbreaks. However, the keen potential of biological weapons in acts of terror was shown in the mass disruption caused in the fall 2001 experience in the U.S. with the release of anthrax through the American postal system. Chemical weapons have been used in a handful of conflicts since their introduction to modern warfare during World War I, most recently during the Iran-Iraq War during the 1980s. Despite this limited experience, NBC warfare continues to exert a certain fascination among states. The Historical Dictionary of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare covers the development and use of NBC weapons as well as efforts to limit or control the use of these weapons through a chronology, a bibliography, an introductory essay, and dictionary entries. Over 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries provide a unique selection of terms related to NBC warfare, ranging from basic descriptions of substances used in NBC warfare to details on incidents and episodes where NBC weapons were used. Entries are structured around historical events, persons important to NBC warfare, countries where such weapons have been developed or used, and international treaties and treaty-related organizations.
This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 700 cross-referenced entries onterms related to nuclear, biological and chemical warfare.
It is no secret that twentieth-century Britain was governed through a culture of secrecy, and secrecy was particularly endemic in military research and defence policy surrounding biological and chemical warfare. More generally, it is hard to exaggerate the role of secrecy in all past biological and chemical warfare programmes and several recent historical surveys of biological and chemical warfare research have emphasised that all state sponsored programmes, together with sub-state organised activities, were cloaked in utmost secrecy. Of these research programmes, Britain carried out one of the most significant in scale and scope in the twentieth century. Yet, partly because of the secrecy surrounding the programme, there is still little academic literature on its historical development. Equally, and despite secrecy being a pervasive feature of past and contemporary societies, social scientists and historians have paid relatively little scholarly attention to the nature, mechanics and effects of secrecy, particularly with regard to secrecy in relation to the production and governance of science and technology. Drawing on classical sociological writing on secrecy by Simmel, Merton and Shils this groundbreaking book by Brian Balmer draws on recently declassified documents to investigate significant episodes in the history of biological and chemical warfare. At the same time, it draws on more contemporary perspectives in science and technology studies that understand knowledge and social order as co-produced within heterogeneous networks of 'things and people' in order to develop a theoretical set of arguments about how the relationship between secrecy and science might be understood.
A thorough handbook covering the facts, history, and controversies surrounding our most controversial and misunderstood unconventional weapons. * Outstanding research aids include key Internet and published references and an index offering rapid access to entries on key figures, government agencies, and defensive equipment * A chronology of chemical-biological warfare incidents from the mid-20th century onward offers a thorough historical overview
Extensively revised and updated, this second edition of the bestselling Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents goes well beyond the “dirty thirty” commonly discussed agents and provides rapid access to a wide range of agents that can be used as weapons. This edition incorporates additional classes of agents, expands existing classes, and increases the number of agents described. Expanding the scope of the original, this edition is rich with scientific data and provides more information on the chemical, physical, and biological properties of these agents and their health effects. Highly organized and cross-referenced to provide instant access to the most authoritative data, this handbook is divided into classes based on the common military groupings of chemical, biological, and toxin agents. Additional classes are provided where the divisions are too broad for appropriate identification, along with classes for non-traditional agents and improvised industrial materials. At the end of each class section is detailed technical information about individual agents, components, precursors, and decomposition products within that class. Employing four indices along with the handbook’s own identification number, each entry follows a standard format for that class including toxicology, characteristics, hazards, protection, and medical response. Other information is provided where applicable such as chemical formula, routes of exposure, medicinal uses, threat or treaty listing, and descriptions of the disease as it appears in humans, animals, and plants. All values are based on a “standard” man model to allow for consistency of data and evaluations. Still the gold-standard reference in the field, Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition raises the bar in terms of both quality and quantity and assures accuracy across the widest variety of military, scientific, and medical sources available.
The spread of harmful chemicals and biological organisms can injure and kill thousands of people and make an infected area unlivable for some time to come. In the age of modern terrorism, many people fear militant organizations will unleash chemical and biological weapons in public places. This book provides readers with an overview of what these weapons are, who uses them and why, and explains how much of a threat they are to our way of life. Over time, countries have pledged to ban the use of CBWs in various agreements, with limited success.
Crucial information on nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons From the diseased animal carcass hurled over the wall of a besieged castle to the nuclear suitcase bomb carried by a clandestine operative, the threat of unconventional weapons has always been a feature of warfare. Today's danger comes mainly from the potential use of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by international terrorists or rogue states. False alarms and misinformation about these weapons have abounded in the jittery post-9/11 atmosphere. To understand and deal with the actual threat posed requires basing response plans, policy, and reporting on actual facts. Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction separates fact from fiction about NBC weaponry by providing clear, technically precise information. For each family of weapon, coverage in this handbook includes: * History and background information * Agent types and delivery mechanisms * Effects of exposure * Protection * Safe storage and handling * Decontamination * Medical treatments Drawing from a broad array of military, scientific, and safety resources, this text offers both accessibility to the general public and accuracy and depth for professional emergency responders. Additional resources include a bibliography of references and a list of addresses and telephone numbers of federal and military agencies and professional organizations of interest. With full coverage of WMDs, from high-tech, genetically modified organisms to rudimentary radiological "dirty bombs," Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction is an essential reference for understanding and responding to these dangerous warfare agents.
Web of Prevention provides a timely contribution to the current debate about life science research and its implications for security. It is an informative guide for both experts and the public. It is a forward-looking contribution covering both ends of the equation and creates momentum for the current discussion on effective preventive measures and effective control measures. While there are no guarantees for preventing misuse, there are nonetheless crucial steps the world community can take towards the overarching goal of a global network for the life sciences. This book sheds light on concrete steps toward the achievement of this worthy goal. "This book with its collection of essays provides an in-depth analysis of the various mutually reinforcing elements that together create and strengthen a web of prevention - or of assurance - that is vital to ensure that the advances in the life sciences are not misused to cause harm. All those engaged in the life sciences and in policy making in governments around the world should read this book so they can take steps to strengthen the web preventing biological weapons". From the Foreword by Dr Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack, Chief, Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch, Office for Disarmament Affairs, United Nations. "Since September 11, 2001 in many countries renewed attention has been given to how research in the life sciences might inadvertently or intentionally facilitate the development of biological or chemical weapons. This state-of-the-art volume examines the full extent of the issues and debates. Coverage includes an overview of recent scientific achievements in virology, microbiology, immunology and genetic engineering with a view to asking how they might facilitate the production of weapons of mass destruction by state, sub-state or terrorist organizations. Consideration is given to what we have and haven't learned from the past. Employing both academic analysis and reflections by practitioners, the book examines the security-inspired governance regimes for the life sciences that are under development. Ultimately the authors examine what is required to form a comprehensive and workable web of prevention and highlight the importance of encouraging discussions between scientists, policy makers and others regarding the governance of vital but potentially dangerous research". Dr Graham S. Pearson, Visiting Professor of International Security, University of Bradford, UK and previously Director-General, Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, UK
The Eleventh Plague deals with a terrifying and compelling subject: biological and chemical warfare. Using historical and contemporary examples, Cole explains what biological and chemical weapons are, how they are developed and tested, and what their effects can be. He vividly describes the very real threat that Iraq would use chemical weapons in the Gulf War - real enough that every man, woman, and child in Israel had to wear a gas mask. He also analyzes the possibility that the so-called Gulf War syndrome may have been due to biological or chemical weapons, a possibility that federal investigations have yet to confirm or disprove. Cole lucidly describes the wide range of possible responses to the threat of biological or chemical warfare. But every expert admits that absolute protection may be impossible. Materials can be easy to get, even easier to transport, and virtually impossible to trace. The Eleventh Plague arms us with a frightening knowledge. What do recent political and technical developments suggest for the future? And how will we fight this increasingly ominous, deadly plague?
This title examines one of the worlds critical issues, biological and chemical warfare. Readers will learn the historical background of this issue leading up to its current and future impact on society. The Hague Peace Conventions, the Geneva Protocol, and the Chemical Weapons Convention are discussed in detail. Programs that protect the United States against biological or chemical attack are also introduced. Engaging text, informative sidebars, and color photographs present information realistically, leaving readers with a thorough, honest interpretation of biological and chemical warfare. Features include a timeline, facts, additional resources, Web sites, a glossary, a bibliography, and an index. Essential Issues is a series in Essential Library, an imprint of ABDO Publishing Company.
Following the 9/11 attacks and the anthrax letters that appeared in their wake, the threat posed by the widespread accessibility of chemical and biological weapons has continually been used to stir public fear and opinion by politicians and the media alike. In Chemical and Biological Weapons, Edward M. Spiers cuts through the scare tactics and hype to provide a thorough and even-handed examination of the weapons themselves—the various types and effects—and their evolution from World War I to the present. Spiers describes the similarities and differences between the two types of weapons and how technological advancements have led to tactical innovations in their use over time. As well, he gives equal attention to the international response to the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons, analyzing global efforts aimed at restraining their use, such as deterrence and disarmament, and the effectiveness of these approaches in the twentieth century. Using Iraq as a case study, Spiers also investigates its deployment of chemical weapons in the Iran-Iraq War and the attempts by the international community to disarm Iraq through the United Nations Special Commission and the United States-led war in 2003. A timely and balanced historical survey, Chemical and Biological Weapons will be of interest to readers studying the proliferation and use of chemical and biological warfare and the reactions of the international community throughout the last several decades.