What does it mean to be at the forefront of a characterization technique? Novel implementation and research, finding new ways to visualize composites, and new techniques all play a role. Yet with the myriad of advances in the field, keeping up with new and advanced techniques, often from many different areas, has become a challenge. Biomineralization Sourcebook: Characterization of Biominerals and Biomimetic Materials emphasizes the interplay between multiple techniques at their current frontiers and explores how such studies may be carried out. The book addresses atomic and molecular structure: how it is described, detected, and assessed for importance. It then highlights additional measurements especially well-suited to looking at two- and three-dimensional systems with heterogeneous, if not hierarchical, structure. These systems enable particular aspects of biominerals and biomimetic models to be scrutinized. The text presents state-of-the-art methods to assess properties of the composite, and represents current approaches and aspirations to measuring entire biological working structures while retaining as much fine-grained biophysical information as possible. In all these chapters, authors showcase discoveries from their own programs. Along the way, the book takes you on a tour from microscopy's eighteenth century roots, to the recent literature and diverse research programs of the contributing investigators, to the multi-million dollar National Laboratory facilities that all play their roles to illuminate the ever-fascinating biominerals. A snapshot of the state of the art in a spectrum of experimental techniques applied to a common interdisciplinary goal, where the ability to use the more advanced techniques often requires funding for collaboration and travel, the book will deepen the appreciation for the massive interdisciplinary effort underway, educate researchers across the field, and motivate new collaborations.
Provides assistance in locating federal health agencies and their data on public health concerns, including resources on national health objectives, statistics, trends, programs, regulations, research, diseases, and advocacy groups.
Physical Chemistry of Gas-Liquid Interfaces, the first volume in the Developments in Physical & Theoretical Chemistry series, addresses the physical chemistry of gas transport and reactions across liquid surfaces. Gas–liquid interfaces are all around us, especially within atmospheric systems such as sea spry aerosols, cloud droplets, and the surface of the ocean. Because the reaction environment at liquid surfaces is completely unlike bulk gas or bulk liquid, chemists must readjust their conceptual framework when entering this field. This book provides the necessary background in thermodynamics and computational and experimental techniques for scientists to obtain a thorough understanding of the physical chemistry of liquid surfaces in complex, real-world environments. Provides an interdisciplinary view of the chemical dynamics of liquid surfaces, making the content of specific use to physical chemists and atmospheric scientists Features 100 figures and illustrations to underscore key concepts and aid in retention for young scientists in industry and graduate students in the classroom Helps scientists who are transitioning to this field by offering the appropriate thermodynamic background and surveying the current state of research
The Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook contains extensive, interdisciplinary coverage of carbon nanomaterials, encompassing the full scope of the field—from physics, chemistry, and materials science to molecular biology, engineering, and medicine—in two comprehensive volumes. Written in a tutorial style, this second volume of the sourcebook: Focuses on nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanofibers, nanoporous structures, and nanocomposites Describes the fundamental properties, growth mechanisms, and processing of each nanomaterial discussed Explores functionalization for electronic, energy, biomedical, and environmental applications Showcases materials with exceptional properties, synthesis methods, large-scale production techniques, and application prospects Provides the tools necessary for understanding current and future technology developments, including important equations, tables, and graphs Each chapter is dedicated to a different type of carbon nanomaterial and addresses three main areas: formation, properties, and applications. This setup allows for quick and easy search, making the Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook: Nanoparticles, Nanocapsules, Nanofibers, Nanoporous Structures, and Nanocomposites a must-have reference for scientists and engineers.
This book has been created for patients who have decided to make education and research an integral part of the treatment process. Although it also gives information useful to doctors, caregivers and other health professionals, it tells patients where and how to look for information covering virtually all topics related to tooth decay (also dental caries; dental cavities; tooth cavities), from the essentials to the most advanced areas of research. The title of this book includes the word official. This reflects the fact that the sourcebook draws from public, academic, government, and peer-reviewed research. Selected readings from various agencies are reproduced to give you some of the latest official information available to date on tooth decay. Given patients' increasing sophistication in using the Internet, abundant references to reliable Internet-based resources are provided throughout this sourcebook. Where possible, guidance is provided on how to obtain free-of-charge, primary research results as well as more detailed information via the Internet. E-book and electronic versions of this sourcebook are fully interactive with each of the Internet sites mentioned (clicking on a hyperlink automatically opens your browser to the site indicated). Hard-copy users of this sourcebook can type cited Web addresses directly into their browsers to obtain access to the corresponding sites. In addition to extensive references accessible via the Internet, chapters include glossaries of technical or uncommon terms.