The British Army's campaigns in Egypt and the Sudan from 1882 to 1899 were among the most dramatic and hard-fought in British military history. In 1882, the British sent an expeditionary force to Egypt to quell the Arabic Revolt and secure British control of the Suez Canal, its lifeline to India. The enigmatic British Major General Charles G. Gordon was sent to the Sudan in 1884 to study the possibility of evacuating Egyptian garrisons threatened by Muslim fanatics, the dervishes, in the Sudan. While the dervishes defeated the British forces on a number of occasions, the British eventually learned to combat the insurrection and ultimately, largely through superior technology and firepower, vanquished the insurgents in 1898. British Operations in Egypt and the Sudan: A Selected Bibliography enumerates and generally describes and annotates hundreds of contemporary, current, and hard-to-find books, journal articles, government documents, and personal papers on all aspects of British military operations in Egypt and the Sudan from 1882 to 1899. Arranged chronologically and topically, chapters cover the various campaigns, focusing on specific battles, leading military personalities, and the contributions of imperial nations as well as supporting services of the British Army. This definitive volume is an indispensable reference for researching imperialism, colonial history, and British military operations, leadership, and tactics.
The British Empire at war in the deserts of Egypt and the Sudan This special Leonaur edition combines into a single volume two works concerning the campaigns of the British Army in Egypt and the Sudan during the later Victorian era. The text is supported by maps sometimes absent in other editions of the text. The first work concerns the Egyptian Campaign of 1882, sometimes referred to as the Anglo-Egyptian (or Second Anglo-Egyptian) War. The motivation for the conflict arose from a military coup by Egyptian army officers against the Khedive, in the form of Tewfik Pasha, which led the British to believe their own essential interests in the region would be destabilised. In response a substantial naval and military force was despatched which resulted in the bombardment of Alexandria. The British army under Wolseley marched on Cairo and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Tel-el-Kabir which led to a period of occupation of the country. The second work in this substantial book concerns the various campaigns against the Mahdists of the Sudan from 1884 to their final defeat at Omdurman in 1898. This is well known period of British imperial history. Even casual students of the period are aware of the rise of the Mahdist movement, the siege of Khartoum held by the enigmatic General 'Chinese' Gordon, the slaughter of Hicks Pasha and his army, the abortive race to relieve Gordon and monumental battles such as El-Teb, Tamai, Abu Klea and Atbara. These were iconic times for the British Empire when 'the Gatling jammed and the colonel was dead' and the ferocious 'fuzzy wuzzy's' achieved the unthinkable and broke the British infantry square. Two excellent histories and highly recommended. Leonaur editions are newly typeset and are not facsimiles; each title is available in softcover and hardback with dustjacket; our hardbacks are cloth bound and feature gold foil lettering on their spines and fabric head and tail bands.
Egypt by Egypt. Information Bureau, Washington, D.C.
A chronological account of Anglo-Egyptian political relations from 1947 to 1956 - a crucial point in more than 70 years of British involvement in Egypt for they marked a turning-point in political relations.
The first major in-depth examination of Kitchener’s campaign in the Sudan for decadesWritten in a lively manner as if the author witnessed events for himselfExtensive use of primary and period sources, which present the reader with greater detail on the subject than ever beforeA large number of period images and maps, many of which have not appeared in print for over 100 years Perhaps one of the most dramatic events of the late Victorian period was the death of General Charles ‘Chinese’ Gordon at the hands of the Mahdi’s fanatical warriors as they finally broke their way into the Sudanese city of Khartoum. The story is well-known, recounted in numerous books and celebrated in the film Khartoum (1966) starring Charlton Heston. However, what is perhaps less well-known is the subsequent – and far more successful – campaign fought by the British against the Mahdi’s successor, the Khalifa, by General Kitchener, the Sirdar of the Egyptian Army, over a decade later. The Sirdar and the Khalifa: Kitchener’s Re-conquest of Sudan, 1896-98 examines Kitchener’s belated campaign to reconquer the Sudan and avenge the death of General Gordon, a war that began in 1896 and ended less than two years later with the epic Battle of Omdurman. The true story of the Omdurman campaign is a classic tale of British soldiers battling a fanatical Dervish enemy in the harsh terrain of the desert. It is also the campaign that made Kitchener a household name, one that would last to this very day. 68 colour illustrations and 7 maps
This paper analyzes the Mahdist Revolution in the Sudan from 1881 to 1885. Mohammed Ahmed bin Abdallah proclaimed himself the Mahdi (the expected one or the deliverer in the Islamic faith) and fought the colonial Egyptian government of the Sudan and the British. Britain was drawn into the conflict by its interest in the Suez Canal, its heavy financial investments in Egypt, and its participation in suppressing the Arabi revolt. Mohammed Ahmed successfully defeated the Egyptian and British forces brought against him and established an Islamic state in the Sudan. He succeeded by effectively combining religious, economic, cultural, and military strategy under charismatic leadership.
First published in 1934, The Winning of the Sudan details the British conquest of the country following the fall of Khartoum and the death of General Gordon. The campaign culminated in the Battle of Omdurman and the Anglo-Egyptian domination of Sudan that lasted until 1956.
Designed to fill an overlooked gap, this book, originally published in 1972, provides a single unified introduction to bibliographical sources of British military history. Moreover it includes guidance in a number of fields in which no similar source is available at all, giving information on how to obtain acess to special collections and private archives, and links military history, especially during peacetime, with the development of science and technology.
The war-time series for 1939-46, edited by A. J. Toynbee, comprises the following volumes: [v.1] The world in March 1939, edited by A. J. Toynbee and F. T. Ashton-Gwatkin.--[v.2] The Middle East in the war, by G. Kirk.--[v.3] America, Britain & Russia, their co-operation and conflict, 1941-1946, by W. H. McNeill.--[v.4] Hitler's Europe, edited by A. Toynbee and V. M. Toynbee.--[v.5] The Middle East, 1945-1950, by G. Kirk.--[v.6] The realignment of Europe, edited by A. Toynbee and V. M. Toynbee.--[v.7] The Far East, 1942-1946, by F. C. Jones, H. Borton and B. R. Pearn.--[v.8] Four-power control in Germany and Austria, 1945-1946. I. Germany, by M. Balfour. II. Austria, by J. Mair.--[v.9] The war and the neutrals, edited by A. Toynbee and V. M. Toynbee.--[v.10] The eve of war, 1939, edited by A. Toynbee and V. M. Toynbee.--[v.11] The initial triumph of the Axis, edited by A. Toynbee and V. M. Toynbee.
In the early 1880s, Britain intervened in independent Egypt and seized control of the Suez Canal. British forces were soon deployed to Egypt's southern colony, the Sudan, where they confronted a determined and capable foe amid some of the world's most inhospitable terrain. In 1881 an Islamic fundamentalist revolt had broken out in the Sudan, led by a religious teacher named Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who proclaimed himself al-Mahdi, 'The Guided One'. In 1884, Mahdist forces besieged the Sudanese capital of Khartoum; Colonel Charles Gordon was sent to the city with orders to evacuate British personnel, but refused to leave. Although the British despatched a relief column to rescue Gordon, the Mahdists stormed Khartoum in January 1885 and he was killed. British troops abandoned much of the Sudan, but renewed their efforts to reconquer it in the late 1890s, in a bloody campaign that would decide the region's fate for generations. Written by leading expert Ian Knight, this fully illustrated study examines the evolving forces, weapons and tactics employed by both sides in the Sudan, notably at the battles of Abu Klea (16–18 January 1885), Tofrek (22 March 1885) and Atbara (8 April 1898).
The battle took place at Kerreri, 11km north of Omdurman in the Sudan. Kitchener commanded a force of 8,000 British regulars and a mixed force of 17,000 Sudanese and Egyptian soldiers. He arrayed his force in an arc around the village of Egeiga close to the bank of the Nile, where a gunboat flotilla waited in support, facing a wide, flat plain with hills rising to the left and right. The British and Egyptian cavalry were placed on either flank. Al-Taashi's followers, known as Ansar and sometimes referred to as Dervishes, numbered around 50,000, including some 3,000 cavalry. In a few hours and at a loss of less than 400 officers and men killed and wounded, the Anglo-Egyptian army defeated the 50,000 brave tribesmen who charged their enemy, regardless of the hail of Maxim bullets, many of them armed only with spears, swords and ancient chainmail armour.In concise detail, with orders of battle, maps and over fifty images, the author shows how Omdurman was a superb example of tactics in warfare. First-hand accounts from both sides help the reader to understand all the horrors and glory of that day including the famous charge of the 21st Lancers, often called the last great cavalry charge of the British Army. This was arguably the height of British Empire military dominance.