Cells, Aging, and Human Disease is the first book to explore aging all the way from genes to clinical application, analyzing the fundamental cellular changes which underlie human age-related disease. With over 4,000 references, this text explores both the fundamental processes of human aging and the tissue-by-tissue pathology, detailing both breaking research and current state-of-the-art clinical interventions in aging and age-related disease. Far from merely sharing a common onset late in the lifespan, age-related diseases are linked by fundamental common characteristics at the genetic and cellular levels. Emphasizing human cell mechanisms, the first section presents and analyzes our current knowledege of telomere biology and cell senescence. In superb academic detail, the text brings the reader up to date on telomere maintenance, telomerase dynamics, and current research on cell senescence--and the general model--cell senescence as the central component in human senescence and cancer. For each human malignancy, the chapter reviews and analyzes all available data on telomeres and telomerase, as well as summarizing current work on their clinical application in both diagnosis and cancer therapy. The second edition, oriented by organs and tissues, explores the actual physiological impact of cell senescence and aging on clinical disease. After a summary of the literature on early aging syndromes--the progerias--the text reviews aging diseases (Alzheimer's dementia, osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, immune aging, presbyopia, sarcopenia, etc.) in the context of the tissues in which they occur. Each of the ten clinical chapters--skin, cardiovascular system, bone and joints, hematopoetic and immune systems, endocrine, CNS, renal, muscle, GI, and eyes--examines what we know of their pathology, the role of cell sensescence, and medical interventions, both current and potential.
One of Wall Street Journal’s "Best Books for Science Lovers" in 2015 Science is on the cusp of a revolutionary breakthrough. We now understand more about aging—and how to prevent and reverse it—than ever before. In recent years, our understanding of the nature of aging has grown exponentially, and dramatic life extension—even age reversal—has moved from science fiction to real possibility. Dr. Michael Fossel has been in the forefront of aging research for decades and is the author of the definitive textbook on human aging. In The Telomerase Revolution, he takes us on a detailed but highly accessible scientific journey, providing startling insights into the nature of human aging. Twenty years ago, there was still considerable debate of the nature of human aging, with a variety of competing theories in play. But scientific consensus is forming around the telomere theory of aging. The essence of this theory is that human aging is the result of cellular aging. Every time a cell reproduces, its telomeres (the tips of the chromosomes) shorten. With every shortening of the telomeres, the cell’s ability to repair its molecules decreases. It ages. Human aging is the result of the aging of the body’s trillions of cells. But some of our cells don’t age. Sex cells and stem cells can reproduce indefinitely, without aging, because they create telomerase. Telomerase re-lengthens the telomeres, keeping these cells young. The Telomerase Revolution describes how telomerase will soon be used as a powerful therapeutic tool, with the potential to dramatically extend life spans and even reverse human aging. Telomerase-based treatments are already available, and have shown early promise, but much more potent treatments will become available over the next decade. The Telomerase Revolution is the definitive work on the latest science on human aging, covering both the theory and the clinical implications. It takes the reader to the forefront of the upcoming revolution in human medicine.
Aging represents a physiological and per se non-pathological and multifactorial process involving a set of key genes and mechanisms being triggered by different endogenous and exogenous factors. Since aging is a major risk factor in connection with a variety of human disorders, it is increasingly becoming a central topic in biochemical and medical research. The plethora of theories on aging – some of which have been discussed for decades – are neither isolated nor contradictory but instead can be connected in a network of pathways and processes at the cellular and molecular levels. This book summarizes the most prominent and important approaches, focusing on telomeres, DNA damage and oxidative stress as well as on the possible role of nutrition, the interplay between genes and environment (epigenetics) and intracellular protein homeostasis and introduces some genes that have actually extended life spans in animal models. Linking these different determinants of aging with disease, this volume aims to reveal their multiple interdependencies. We see that there is no single “perfect” theory of aging and that instead it is possible to define what the authors call the molecular aging matrix of the cell. A better knowledge of its key mechanisms and the mutual connections between its components will lead to a better understanding of age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.
This book brings together some of the best researchers in the field of aging and neurodegenerative diseases and presents up-to-date information concerning new developments in this exciting area of research in quite separate fields of biomedical science. It includes a wide range of issues such as basic and applied concepts, methods, and techniques used in this area. The chapters examine and evaluate our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in these fields such as increased protein oxidation and macromolecular modifications associated with aging. This is a novel strategy for the visualization of ROS-induced protein oxidation and protection by antioxidants in living cells using fluorescent probes, thermochemiluminescence (TCL) methodology for determination of the oxidative status of biological systems in experimental and clinical setups, protein degradation, proteasome inactivation observed in the aging process or caused by oxidative stress. Other topics addressed are the oxidative stress theory of aging, oxidation and removal of protein aggregates in neurodegeneration, causes and consequences of oxidative stress in Alzheimers disease, assessment of antioxidants as a therapeutic for neurodegenerative diseases, rafts and prions, the many forms of the prion protein and its subcellular pathways, signaling pathways in protection of neural tissues by ischemic and drug-induced preconditioning, folding of proteins associated with neurodegenerative disorders and aging and neuroprotection in immuno-mediated neurodegeneration from infection to autoimmunity.
This book provides an overview of recent advances in the study of aging and aging related diseases, discussing the topics at individual, organ, tissue, cell, and molecular levels. It also presents studies on the biomarkers of aging and anti-aging interventions. Aging has been becoming a global health problem. However it was not possible to determine aging as we usually diagnose a disease because there are few biomarkers for age estimation. Since ancient times, people have been seeking anti-aging substances and methods for achieving immortality, while the scientific study of aging has only existed for 100 years. This book appeals to researchers both in institutes and in pharmaceutical companies interested in further studies in this field.
Extensively revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge in the study of aging, this Fourth Edition offers a complete profile of the aging process at all levels, from molecules and cells to demography and evolution. Written by international experts in current basic and clinical aging research, this text includes aspects of individual, comparative, and differential aging, and discussions of theories and mechanisms of aging. This invaluable reference illustrates how bodily systems, organs, and functions are affected with aging, describes how genetic and environmental factors influence age-related changes, and addresses some of the clinical consequences of these changes for health and longevity. Well illustrated, with numerous tables and graphs, this book presents up-to-date information from internationally renowned experts in various bio-medical fields. New updated information includes: emphasis on emerging technologies and recent advances in biology and bioengineering that allow greater and longer independence of the elderly recent therapeutic developments in key diseases such as Alzheimer's, osteopenia, osteoporosis, high cholesterol, diabetes, gastritis, sexual impotence, and using transgenic animals as models of aging evaluation of the latest knowledge on the roles of oxidants and antioxidants, and correlates them with other aging-based theories expanded discussion of nutrition and physical exercise chapters on gene and stem cell interventions related to the aging process updated tables to reflect current trends, new research data, and up-to-date statistical information
The proportion of elderly people continues to increase in the western world-nearly a quarter of the population will be over 65 years by the year 2050. Since aging is accompanied by an increase in diseases and by a deterioration in well-being, finding solutions to these social, medical and psychological problems is necessarily a major goal for society. Scientists and medical practitioners are therefore faced with the urgent task of increasing basic knowledge of the biological processes that cause aging. More resources must be put into this research in order to achieve better understanding of the cellular mechanisms that underlie the differences in life span between species and to answer the difficult questions of why some individuals age more quickly than others, and why some develop liver problems, some have heart problems, and others brain problems. The results of such a wide program of research will provide important information about the causes of many life-threatening and/ or debilitating diseases of old age; it will help find ways to prevent some of the ailments that result from aging, and it may well lead to discoveries enabling the prolongation of human life.
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
The functionality of adult tissue stem cells from various organ systems declines during aging. This publication summarizes novel molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of aging-associated deficiencies as discussed by leading experts during the 5th Else Kröner-Fresenius Symposium. It is the first book that explicitly focuses on molecular mechanisms of stem cell aging and its consequences for disease and cancer development including both cell-intrinsic mechanisms as well as aging-induced alterations in the stem cell niche and the systemic environment. Cutting-edge information on stem cells, aging, cancer, and disease make this publication of special interest to basic researchers in the respective fields. Further, it is also intended for medical doctors in the fields of geriatrics, internal medicine, and cancer as it provides a novel understanding of the evolution of tissue dysfunction, diseases and cancer as a consequence of aging.