Medical

Cellular Cancer Markers

Author: Carleton T. Garrett

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 484

View: 838

In Cellular Cancer Markers leading pathologists and physicians review today's most promising cellular cancer markers, an important emerging class of prognostic markers that can be used in the clinical evaluation of cancer patients. The markers reviewed have been chosen because they are biologically relevant to the growth of cells and possess an accurate and reproducible assay for detection. They also are predictors of tumor behavior, are useful in making clinical decisions, and are cost effective. Cellular Cancer Markers provides a status report for markers of tumor cell activation, proliferation, and longevity that makes possible an informed judgment regarding the value of many newly proposed tumor markers. It also offers insight into the latest approaches to diagnosing cancer and an appreciation of how these marker-based tests can clarify the prognosis of cancer.
Medical

Tumor Markers

Author: Saad Eissa

Publisher: Hodder Education

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 406

View: 611

This book is a comprehensive introduction to the expression of tumor markers in association with various neoplasms, the methods used in their detection and their clinical relevance to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It will be an invaluable guide for clinicians, pathologists and research workers requiring an in-depth introduction to this subject and, with sections devoted to the exploitation of new techniques in immunohistochemistry, flow cytomtry, cancer genetics and molecular biology for the identification of tumor markers, can also be used as a laboratory reference.
Medical

Human Cytogenetic Cancer Markers

Author: Sandra R. Wolman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 485

View: 414

Seventeen cutting-edge chapters review both basic research and clinical applications of chromosomal markers of cancer. The new markers offer great promise, not only for their clinical utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and disease monitoring, but also for their contributions to a better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor development and progression. The chapters-all written by leading authorities-skillfully reveal fresh insights into the translational role of cytogenetics in identifying the cellular and molecular changes that occur in cancer. Coverage is devoted to many tissue systems-colon, breast, prostate, lung, skin, brain, and kidney-where the diagnostic and prognostic utility of chromosome markers is clearly demonstrated. A seminal book certain to become the front-line reference and authoritative resource needed by all scientists and clinicians engaged in cancer research, diagnosis, and management.
Medical

Genetic and Phenotypic Markers of Tumors

Author: Stuart A. Aaronson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 380

View: 106

The study of tumor markers is not only one of the most important but also one that offers one of the richest perspectives in biology and clinical oncology. The aim of scientists in this field is to adduce evidence of a property that is typical of and exclusive to tumor cells, and which is easy to determine, in order to immediately recognize, or even better, to foresee, neoplastic transformations. Unfortunately, despite the large number of scientists and laboratories engaged in this work, the ideal tumor marker has not yet been identified. However, it is worth noting that new trends in molecular biology and immunovirology have recently opened up new avenues that may lead to the eventual resolution of this problem. In this book, different approaches to the identification of tumor markers, from the points of view of biochemistry, immunology, and molecular biology, are compared in order to explore possible interrelationships and to stimulate scientific collaboration among scientists active in these fields, both in basic research and in clinical applications. We wish to thank all the contributors and also the publisher, especially Dr. Robert Andrews, for making the publication of this book possible.
Medical

Tumor Marker and Carcinogenesis

Author: Manjul Tiwari

Publisher: River Publishers

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 164

View: 993

Cancer may be regarded as a group of diseases characterized by an abnormal growth of cells, an ability to invade adjacent tissue and even distant organs, and the eventual death of the affected patient if the tumor has progressed beyond that stage when it can be successfully removed. Cancer can occur at any site or tissue of the body and may involve any type of cells. In 1995, the south East Asia Region of WHO found that a great majority of cancers of the oral cavity occur in India. These and other international variations in the pattern of oral cancer are attributed to multiple factors such as environmental factors, food habits, life style, genetic factor, or even inadequacy in detection and reporting of cases. Oral cancers are also predominantly environment related and have socio-cultural relationships. The majority of malignancies arising in oral mucosa are epithelial in origin, approximately 90% being squamous cell carcinomas. Management of oral carcinoma includes early diagnosis, accurate assessment of prognosis, and proper therapeutic intervention. Tumor markers play an important role in all the aspect of management of oral cancer. Tumor markers are a group of proteins (oncoprotein, immunoglobulin, albumin, globulin), hormones (adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH), calcitonin, catecholamines), enzymes (acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, creatine kinase), receptors (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, interleukin-2 receptor, and epidermal growth factor receptor), and other cellular products that are over expressed (produced in higher than normal amounts) by malignant cells. Tumor markers are usually normal cellular constituents that are present at normal or very low levels in the blood of healthy individuals, and the Carcinogenesis (meaning literally, the creation of cancer) is the process by which normal cells are transformed in to cancer cells. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process resulting from the sequential perturbation of both positive and regulatory networks that normally allow the somatic cell to live a cooperative existence within the society of normal cells that comprise an organism. Normal cells are even programmed to give their own life for the good of the organism. Any genetic or epigenetic changes that allow a cell to escape these societal constraints represent a step toward cancer. Survival of the fittest cells allows for the clonal expansion of progeny cells with ever increasing numbers of genetic or epigenetic changes that favor even greater antisocial and selfish behavior of the cancer cell within the organism. Carcinogenesis is caused by mutation of the genetic material of normal cells, which upsets the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. This results in uncontrolled cell division and tumor formation. The uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation of cells can lead to benign tumors. Some of these types of cells may turn in to malignant tumors.
Medical

Serological Tumour Markers

Author: J. E. Roulston

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 175

View: 525

Gives an overview of the current status, potential and clinical application of one of the latest techniques in cancer screening. The authors outline the principles and practice of serological tumour markers and provide a concise context for their application.
Science

Human Tumor Markers

Author: F. Cimino

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 935

View: 341

Medical

Cancer Diagnostics

Author: Robert M. Nakamura

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 508

View: 682

Reviews recent and emerging clinical laboratory tests that can help in the early detection, evaluation, and prediction of human tumors. Emphasizing the importance of molecular and genetic RNA/DNA tets that detect persons at high risk for specific cancers, the authors explore these novel serological assays, cellular assays useful for anatomic pathology, and molecular and genetic assays.
Medical

Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis

Author: M. A. Hayat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 602

View: 191

Cancer is the leading cause of death, in the number of older cancer patients is after cardiovascular diseases, in the expected. Approximately, 77% of all types United States. A total of ? 1,399,790 new of cancers are diagnosed in persons of 55 cancer cases and ? 564,830 deaths were years and older. It was estimated that o- reported in the year 2006 in the country. third of the 559,650 cancer deaths in 2007 Approximately, one in every two men and in the United States were related to ov- one in every three women in the country weight or obesity, physical inactivity, and will have some type of cancer during nutrition, and thus could also be prevented their lifetime. Healthcare costs exceed (Am. Cancer Society, 2007). However, 1. 7 trillion dollars per year in the United in developed countries, including United States, which is ? 15% of the country’s States, the average person of 65 years can gross domestic product. expect to live another 15 years in a fairly Tobacco use is the most serious prevent- good health. Persons of 75 or 85 years old able cause of cancer. Tobacco use causes have an average expectancy of 10 and 6 cancer of the lung, throat, mouth, pancreas, years, respectively. urinary bladder, stomach, liver, kidney, and During the last three decades, intensive other types. Passive smoking causes lung clinical research has resulted in reduced cancer.
Medical

Human Cytogenetic Cancer Markers

Author: Sandra R. Wolman

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 485

View: 939

Seventeen cutting-edge chapters review both basic research and clinical applications of chromosomal markers of cancer. The new markers offer great promise, not only for their clinical utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and disease monitoring, but also for their contributions to a better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor development and progression. The chapters-all written by leading authorities-skillfully reveal fresh insights into the translational role of cytogenetics in identifying the cellular and molecular changes that occur in cancer. Coverage is devoted to many tissue systems-colon, breast, prostate, lung, skin, brain, and kidney-where the diagnostic and prognostic utility of chromosome markers is clearly demonstrated. A seminal book certain to become the front-line reference and authoritative resource needed by all scientists and clinicians engaged in cancer research, diagnosis, and management.
Medical

High-Risk Breast Cancer

Author: Joseph Ragaz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 383

View: 895

The most meaningful reward to clinicians and researchers is the absence of recurrent malignancy in their patients. While in some patients the disease will be cured by resection alone, in other similarly staged cases the disease will recur despite adequate loco regional and systemic therapies. Hence, risk assessment is a complex issue with many related or unrelated prognostic factors determining outcome. The purpose of this volume is to review some of the most relevant prognostic factors of newly diagnosed breast cancer, focusing on fea tures determining the magnitude of risk. The ultimate value of establishing the significance of each prognostic factor in a given patient will be the resulting ability to plan individu alized therapies for patients at different risk of recurrence at the time of diagnosis. To secure the maximum benefit for high-risk patients, while avoiding undue toxicity in those with low-risk lesions, a well-integrated analysis of all known prognostic factors will be essential in the early postdiagnos tic period. In addition to well-established staging criteria such as axillary nodes, tumor size, receptors, scanning and radiographic examinations, the more sophisticated labora tory techniques, as discussed by several authors herein, will playa crucial role in risk assessment. Most of them, - ploidy determination, oncogenes, tumor markers, monoclonal anti bodies, growth factors, etc. -are presently available in only a minority of treatment centers.
Medical

Molecular Markers of Brain Tumor Cells

Author: Bela Bodey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 362

View: 902

Childhood brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases characterized by the abnormal growth of tissue contained within the skull. Other than leukemia and lymphoma, brain tumors are the most common type of neoplasms that occur in children. The leading cause of death from childhood neoplasms among persons up to 19 years is brain tumors. As such, this book is a review of the most recent molecular biological research concerning brain tumors with references and comparisons to a variety of neoplastic disorders. The book then uses this information to foreshadow the direction that future anti-neoplastic therapies will take. Because of the wide spectrum of the objectives of the book, any individual involved in cancer research will greatly benefit from the work. Histopathologists, neuropathologists, clinical and research oncologists, and medical students will find this book to be an invaluable resource as a reference guide. Patients and their families will also find the book useful as it offers a comprehensive update on new, non-classical therapeutic modality options and contains a detailed description and analysis of brain tumors. Such an endeavor has yet to be undertaken by any other book and may prove to be the most comprehensive book on brain tumors thus far.
Medical

The Cancer Clock

Author: Sotiris Missailidis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 300

View: 303

Cancer is the second biggest killer in the world, and almost every family has had either direct or indirect experience of it. This text provides the reader with a complete overview of the various aspects associated with the disease. Written in a clear, accessible manner, it is richly illustrated and includes problems/solutions, self-assessment questions, summary sections and information boxes all designed to enhance student understanding. Taking an interdisciplinary approach by covering such a broad range of topics, this accessible text acts as a reference for any questions on the cancer topic, providing useful, need-to-know information for students and professionals alike.
Medical

Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Malignancies

Author: Christopher Benz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 382

View: 479

The first edition of Oncogenes (1989) focused on several of the better known transforming mechanisms and surveyed a spectrum of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Several of the nearly 50 known oncogenes most relevant to human disease were examined. In contrast, this volume presents a very different profile and balance of subject material that reflects the rapidly changing field of molecular oncology and its newly emerging concepts. Among the most important discoveries of the past 4 years are the identification of nearly a dozen different tumor suppressor genes and the finding of an entirely new class of cancer-causing gene (bcl-2) that acts by inhibiting cell death rather than stimulating cell proliferation. This edition begins by reviewing selected malignancies in which our earlier search for clinically relevant oncogenes has led to more focused studies on gain-of-function and loss-of-function genetic abnormalities, as well as autocrine and paracrine growth factor loops known to regulate tumor physiology and malignant cell behavior. Curiously, many of these genetic and functional abnormalities are shared by several different tumor types and are not uniformly present in all tumors of the same type. This observation brings up molecular questions about the tissue-specific determinants that underlie individual cancers and also gives added impetus to the suggestion that molecular abnormalities (referred to as tumor markers) be included among the histopathologic features used for clinical diagnosis and manage ment.

Marker Evaluation of Human Breast and Bladder Cancers

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 10

View: 416

We are investigating multiple markers in human breast and bladder cancers. Our aim is to identify markers that are clinically relevant and that contribute to our understanding of the disease process in individual patients. Good markers accurately assess the malignant potential of a cancer in an individual patient. Thus, they help identify those cancers that will recur, and they may be used to predict more accurately time to recurrence, response to treatment, and overall prognosis. Therapy and patient management may then be optimized to the individual patient. Relevant markers reflect the underlying pathobiology of individual tumors. As a tissue undergoes transformation from benign to malignant, the cells lose their differentiated phenotype. As a generalization, the more the cellular phenotype, cellular proliferation and cellular genotype depart from normal, the more advanced is the tumor in its biological evolution and the more likely it is that the patient has a poor prognosis. We use three studies to illustrate our investigation of potential tumor markers. Breast cancers are labeled in vivo with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to give a direct measure of the tumor labeling index. Bladder cancers are analyzed immunocytochemically using an antibody against proliferation. Finally, the techniques of molecular genetics are used to detect allelic loss in breast cancers. 6 refs., 3 figs.
Science

Cellular and Molecular Biology of Mammary Cancer

Author: E. Anderson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 881

The idea for this book arose during the 1985 Gordon Conference on "Mammary Gland Biology". New developments in the methodology of cell biology and the explosive growth of molecular biology had begun to impact upon our understanding of mammary gland growth and function. It seemed a propitious time for summarizing the current status of knowledge of the cell and molecular biology of mammary cancer and for attempting to outline future areas of concern and interest. The reviews presented here were completed by the Fall of 1986. Although new insights will surely continue to emerge, it is hoped that the material in this volume will form not only a current update but a basic core of information for future experiments. We have not attempted to cover all areas of mammary gland transformation. Those areas where recent detailed reviews are already available have been omitted. Also, the areas of normal gland development, cell ultrastructure, hormone responsiveness, chemotherapy and clinical aspects of mammary cancer have not been included. Instead, we have selected those areas where the development of new methodology, reagents and results have led to new ideas about mammary gland function and development as they are related to neoplasia.
Medical

Cancer Markers

Author: Stewart Sell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 541

View: 962

Developmental cancer products (oncodevelopmental markers, ODM) not only serve as diagnostic and prognostic indicators but also may be used to study the nature of the carcinogenic process and the biology of tumors. For many years oncologists have searched for markers of cancer cells that would permit unequivocal recognition of cancer in contrast to noncancerous tissue. The earliest and still most widely used method of identification of cancer tissue or cells is the structural resemblance of cancer tissue to fetal or immature tissue. Pathologists not only recognize cancer by its morphologic similarity to fetal tissues, but also in many instances can relate the behavior of a given tumor to the degree of tissue differentiation. Thus, poorly differentiated tumors that resemble fetal tissue generally grow more rapidly and metastasize earlier than do well-differentiated tumors that more closely resemble adult tissue. In recent years the commonality of fetal and cancer tissue has been extended to products of tumor cells that, can be analyzed by biochemical, immunological, or physiological techniques. Increas ingly, products of cancer cells similar to fetal products are being identified and studied. These products range from cell-surface markers (fetal or differentiation antigens), placental proteins, hormones, and isoenzymes to a multitude of products, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alphafetoprotein (AFP), lymphocyte markers, and nucleic acids, such as tRNA, that are produced in small amounts by v vi PREFACE continually differentiating cells in the adult but in much greater amounts by tumors.