History

China Under Mongol Rule

Author: John D. Langlois Jr.

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 516

View: 374

Encompassing history, politics, religion, and art, this collection of essays on Chinese civilization under the Mongols challenges the previously held views that Mongol rule had only negative consequences. Originally published in 1981. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
History

China Under Mongol Rule

Author: Herbert Franke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 180

View: 475

Offers a description of China in the time of Mongol rule. Among the topics addressed are a Chinese historiography for that time; the progression from tribal chieftains to universal emperors and gods; Yuang China and Tibet; and a Sino-Uighur family portrait.
History

The Politics of Chinese Medicine Under Mongol Rule

Author: Reiko Shinno

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 194

View: 941

Under the rule of the descendants of Chinggis Khan (1167-1227), China saw the development of a new culture in which medical practice came to be considered a highly respected occupation for elite men. During this period, further major steps were also taken towards the codification of medical knowledge and promotion of physicians’ social status. This book traces the history of the politics, institutions, and culture of medicine of China under Mongol rule, through the eyes of a successful South Chinese official Yuan Jue (1266-1327). As the first comprehensive monograph on history of medicine in China under the Mongols, it argues that this period was a separate moment in Chinese history, when a configuration of power different from that of previous and succeeding periods created its own medical culture. The Politics of Chinese Medicine under Mongol Rule emphasizes the impact of the political and institutional changes caused by the Mongols and their collaborators on the social and cultural history of medicine, which culminated in the medical theory of Zhu Zhenheng (1282–1358), still influential in East Asian medicine. Using a variety of Chinese-language sources including gazetteers, legal texts, biographies, poems, and medical texts, it analyses the roles of the Mongols and West and Central Asians as cultural brokers and also as unifiers of China. Further, it views North and South Chinese elites as agents of historical change rather than as victims of Mongol oppression. Underlining the complexity of the history of China under the Mongols and the significance of time and geography for the study of this history, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of Chinese medical history, Chinese social and cultural history, and medieval global history.
History

The Mongols

Author: David Morgan

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 238

View: 888

This up-to-date chronicle benefits from new discoveries and a broad range of source material. David Morgan explains how the vast Mongolian Empire was organized and governed, examing the religious and policital character of the steppe nomadic society.
Religion

East Syriac Christianity in Mongol-Yuan China

Author: Li Tang

Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page: 169

View: 752

East Syriac Christianity in Mongol-Yuan China (12th-14 Centuries) offers a comprehensive history of East Syriac (known as "Nestorian") Christianity in China under the Mongol rule. Christianity in its East Syrian form first reached China in A.D. 635 through the missionary efforts of the Church of East in Persia. The religion flourished in China for 210 years until A.D. 845 when a persecution towards all foreign religions was carried out under the reign of Emperor Wuzong (r. 840-846). The comeback of Christianity to China was made possible after the 13th century Mongol conquest of Eurasia and China. East Syriac Christianity spread again widely in Mongol-Yuan China, mainly as a result of the relocation of Turkic-speaking Christians from Central Asia and the Mongolian Steppe such as the Kerait, Ongut, Uighurs, Naimans etc, who had converted to East Syriac Christianity by the 12th century. Li Tang has studied and analysed Chinese Dynastic histories and local chronicles, medieval Syriac and Persian historical writings, as well as European medieval travelogues. A special emphasis is placed on biographies contained in Chinese historical records. An English translation to several newly unearthed tombstone inscriptions in Syro-Turkic or Chinese is rendered. Through studying these literary sources and archaeological finds, Tang is able to reconstruct and elaborate on the history of the spread of East Syriac Christianity in Mongol-Yuan China (12th-14th centuries) from various perspectives such as the origin, migration and missionary activities of the East Syrian Christians as well as their political, economic and social status in medieval China.
History

The Politics of Chinese Medicine Under Mongol Rule

Author: Reiko Shinno

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 194

View: 998

Under the rule of the descendants of Chinggis Khan (1167-1227), China saw the development of a new culture in which medical practice came to be considered a highly respected occupation for elite men. During this period, further major steps were also taken towards the codification of medical knowledge and promotion of physicians’ social status. This book traces the history of the politics, institutions, and culture of medicine of China under Mongol rule, through the eyes of a successful South Chinese official Yuan Jue (1266-1327). As the first comprehensive monograph on history of medicine in China under the Mongols, it argues that this period was a separate moment in Chinese history, when a configuration of power different from that of previous and succeeding periods created its own medical culture. The Politics of Chinese Medicine under Mongol Rule emphasizes the impact of the political and institutional changes caused by the Mongols and their collaborators on the social and cultural history of medicine, which culminated in the medical theory of Zhu Zhenheng (1282–1358), still influential in East Asian medicine. Using a variety of Chinese-language sources including gazetteers, legal texts, biographies, poems, and medical texts, it analyses the roles of the Mongols and West and Central Asians as cultural brokers and also as unifiers of China. Further, it views North and South Chinese elites as agents of historical change rather than as victims of Mongol oppression. Underlining the complexity of the history of China under the Mongols and the significance of time and geography for the study of this history, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of Chinese medical history, Chinese social and cultural history, and medieval global history.
Juvenile Nonfiction

The Mongol Empire

Author: Carolyn DeCarlo

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN:

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 321

Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, a confederation of nomadic farmers transformed into a powerful military force. This text demonstrations how an aggressive empire could have been established from such agrarian roots, inviting the reader to follow the rise of the Mongol Empire from its founding through its expansion into the Golden Horde in the West under the leadership of Batu and his successors and the Yuan Dynasty in the East under Kublai Khan. It also features the Mongol Empire's important role in the development of trade between the East and the West during the Middle Ages, particularly as recorded by Venetian merchant Marco Polo.
Intellectuals

Along the Silk Roads in Mongol Eurasia

Author: Michal Biran

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Intellectuals

Page: 360

View: 168

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Chinggis Khan and his heirs established the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world, extending from Korea to Hungary and from Iraq, Tibet, and Burma to Siberia. Ruling over roughly two thirds of the Old World, the Mongol Empire enabled people, ideas, and objects to traverse immense geographical and cultural boundaries. Along the Silk Roads in Mongol Eurasia reveals the individual stories of three key groups of people--military commanders, merchants, and intellectuals--from across Eurasia. These annotated biographies bring to the fore a compelling picture of the Mongol Empire from a wide range of historical sources in multiple languages, providing important insights into a period unique for its rapid and far-reaching transformations. Read together or separately, they offer the perfect starting point for any discussion of the Mongol Empire's impact on China, the Muslim world, and the West and illustrate the scale, diversity, and creativity of the cross-cultural exchange along the continental and maritime Silk Roads. Features and Benefits: Synthesizes historical information from Chinese, Arabic, Persian, and Latin sources that are otherwise inaccessible to English-speaking audiences. Presents in an accessible manner individual life stories that serve as a springboard for discussing themes such as military expansion, cross-cultural contacts, migration, conversion, gender, diplomacy, transregional commercial networks, and more. Each chapter includes a bibliography to assist students and instructors seeking to further explore the individuals and topics discussed. Informative maps, images, and tables throughout the volume supplement each biography.
History

The Mongol Unification of China

Author: Stephen G. Haw

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 367

The Mongol conquests of China in the thirteenth century have typically been seen as a disaster for the subject Chinese peoples, placing them under the yoke of an invader insensitive to Chinese cultural values, distrustful of Chinese influences and inept in government. This book assesses the Mongol achievements in China and re-considers their significance, arguing that the Mongols did not merely cause harm but also brought many benefits, not least bringing together nearly the whole of what was later referred to as ‘China’ and devising a system of government that, more or less successfully, held it together. It provides an account of the turbulent period immediately preceding the Mongol conquest of China, presenting evidence that strongly suggests the first use of gunpowder weapons in China. It goes on to examine the manner in which China was brought under Mongol rule, with particular focus on some of the major campaigns including the submission of the Uighur, the conquest of the Jin and Song empires, the campaigns in Dali, Yunnan and Korea, and the occupation of Tibet. Investigates the impact of Mongol rule, including the important lessons learned from ruling northern China and the later dynasties established by great Mongol rulers such as Khubilai Khan. Finally, it examines the reasons behind the collapse of the Mongol empire in China and the legacy left by Mongol rule.
History

The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy

Author: Reuven Amitai

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 361

View: 387

The Mongol Empire was founded by Chinggis Khan in the early thirteenth century. Within the span of two generations it embraced most of Asia. It left a lasting impact on this area and its people, which was often far from negative! The volume offers fresh perspectives on the Mongol Empire and its legacy. Various authors approach the matter from a variety of views, including political, military, social, cultural and intellectual. In doing so, they shed a new light on the Mongol Empire. This publication has also been published in hardback, please click here for details.
BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Khubilai Khan

Author: Morris Rossabi

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN:

Category: BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Page: 326

View: 137

Living from 1215 to 1294, Khubilai Khan is one of history’s most renowned figures. Morris Rossabi draws on sources from a variety of East Asian, Middle Eastern, and European languages as he focuses on the life and times of the great Mongol monarch. This 20th anniversary edition is updated with a new preface examining how twenty years of scholarly and popular portraits of Khubilai have shaped our understanding of the man and his time.
Biography & Autobiography

The Mongol Empire

Author: John Man

Publisher: Random House

ISBN:

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 400

View: 642

Genghis Khan is one of history's immortals: a leader of genius, driven by an inspiring vision for peaceful world rule. Believing he was divinely protected, Genghis united warring clans to create a nation and then an empire that ran across much of Asia. Under his grandson, Kublai Khan, the vision evolved into a more complex religious ideology, justifying further expansion. Kublai doubled the empire's size until, in the late 13th century, he and the rest of Genghis’s ‘Golden Family’ controlled one fifth of the inhabited world. Along the way, he conquered all China, gave the nation the borders it has today, and then, finally, discovered the limits to growth. Genghis's dream of world rule turned out to be a fantasy. And yet, in terms of the sheer scale of the conquests, never has a vision and the character of one man had such an effect on the world. Charting the evolution of this vision, John Man provides a unique account of the Mongol Empire, from young Genghis to old Kublai, from a rejected teenager to the world’s most powerful emperor.
Mongolia

Mongol Rule

Author: Dr. D. Eisma

Publisher: Leiden University Press

ISBN:

Category: Mongolia

Page: 82

View: 482

The Mongol, first mentioned in Chinese histories of the Tang dynasty, unified the tribes of the Eurasian steppe and conquered most of the Eurasian world in the 13th century. After conquest, they had to rule the conquered territories, but had no previous experience with government other than ruling nomad tribes in the steppe and some knowledge gained from neighbouring states. Chinggis Qan, the great conqueror, who was of the opinion that he who could run a family and a yurt could also run an empire, laid the foundation for the Mongol rule. How the Mongol adapted or did not adapt to ruling large areas with a sedentary population, is being discussed in this study by bringing together essential knowledge on Mongol rule from the early beginnings down to the present, and giving special attention to Mongol sociopolitics. In the long run survival of the Mongol identity was based on their nomad traditions, since the steppe nomads were the only ones who knew how to survive as a people in the harsh steppe conditions. Their life, their habits, skills and customs were adapted to the steppe and when they had to adapt to a sedentary life, submit, or flee, the steppe was the only place where they could go and maintain their identity and independence. Remarkably this is also implied in one of Chinggis Qan's alleged sayings that 'those of his descendants who would keep to his customs, would rule in happiness forever'! History bears out that keeping to the nomad traditions meant the survival of the Mongol, which makes the relation between Mongol rulers and their subject people of primary interest.
History

The Political History of the Yuan Dynasty

Author: Li Shi

Publisher: DeepLogic

ISBN:

Category: History

Page:

View: 383

The book is the volume of “The Political History of the Yuan Dynasty” among a series of books of “Deep into China Histories”. The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949.Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.
History

Daily Life in the Mongol Empire

Author: George Lane

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 633

Discusses daily life in the Mongol empire, examining such topics as housing, clothing, food, medicine, religion, law, and folk tales.
Art

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire

Author: Houston Museum of Natural Science

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN:

Category: Art

Page: 317

View: 769

Mongolia : heartland of Asia / James Bosson -- Mongolia : ancient hearth of Central Asia / Steven B. Young -- Tree rings, climate history, and Genghis Khan / Gordon C. Jacoby -- Masters of the steppe : peoples of Mongolia / David Sneath -- Mongolian shamanism : the mosaic of performed memory / Manduhai Buyandelger -- Sounds from nature : music of the Mongols / Peter K. Marsh -- Precursor to empire : early cultures and prehistoric peoples / William Honeychurch, William W. Fitzhugh, and Chunag Amartuvshin -- Empire building before the Mongols : legacies of the Turks and Uyghurs / Jonathan K. Skaff and William Honeychurch -- Genghis Khan emerges : power and polity on the steppe / Isenbike Togan -- Genghis Khan / Morris Rossabi -- Mongol women / Morris Rossabi -- "All the Khan's horses " / Morris Rossabi -- Introduction to "The secret history of the Mongols" / Paul Kahn -- Rule by divine right / Shagdaryn Bira -- Ancient cities of the steppe / J. Daniel Rogers -- Searching for Genghis : excavations of the ruins at Avraga / Noriyuki Shiraishi -- The crossroads in Khara Khorum : excavations at the center of the Mongol empire / Ulambayar Erdenebat and Ernst Pohl -- The search for Khara Khorum and the palace of the Great Khan / Hans-Georg Hüttel -- John of Plano Carpini and William of Rubruck / David Morgan -- Xi Xia : the first Mongol conquest / Ruth W. Dunnell -- The Mongolian western empire / David Morgan -- Rashid al-Din / David Morgan -- The Golden Horde and Russia / Daniel C. Waugh -- Conquerors and craftsmen : archaeology of the Golden Horde / Mark G. Kramarovsky -- The Mongols at war / Timothy May -- The vision in the dream : Kublai Khan and the conquest of China / Morris Rossabi -- Emissaries, East and West : Rabban Sauma and Marco Polo / Morris Rossabi -- Ibn Battuta / Ross E. Dunn -- The Yuan synthesis : Chinese influence on the Mongol culture (1271-1368) / François Louis -- Chinese influence on Iranian art in the Mongol empire / Willem J. Vogelsang -- A marriage of convenience : Goryeo-Mongol relations in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries / George L. Kallander -- The lost fleet of Kublai Khan : Mongol invasions of Japan / James P. Delgado, Randall J. Sasaki and Kenzo Hayashida -- Forensics in the Gobi : the mummies of Hets Mountain Cave / Bruno Frohlich [und weitere] -- Cave burials of Mongolia / Ulambayar Erdenebat -- Mongolia from empire to republic, 1400 to 1921 / Pamela K. Crossley -- Buddhism in Mongolia / Shagdaryn Bira -- Genetic legacy of Genghis Khan / Theodore G. Schurr -- I conquer like a barbarian! : Genghis Khan in the western popular imagination / Peter K. Marsh and Myagmar Saruul-Erdene -- Today's Genghis Khan : from hero to outcast to hero again / Nomin Lkhagvasuren
History

Imperial China 900-1800

Author: Frederick W. Mote

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 1106

View: 899

In this history of China for the 900-year span of the late imperial period, Mote highlights the personal characteristics of the rulers and dynasties and probes the cultural theme of Chinese adaptations to recurrent alien rule. Generational events, personalities, and the spirit of the age combine to yield a comprehensive history of the civilization.