The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reflects the growing international consensus that the earth's climate is being changed by anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. Evidence presented by the IPCC and others points to the potential for increasingly dangerous weather, new disease outbreaks, regional water shortages, the loss of habitat and species, and other disturbing developments that could have profound social and economic impacts. Opinions on what should be done, however, remain sharply divided within and among countries. Though monumental in its efforts, the Kyoto Protocol has left much to be agreed upon and achieved, with the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide—the United States—rejecting it. In G lobal Warming: Looking Beyond Kyoto , some of the best-known and respected authorities in climate policy provide a comprehensive agenda for global collective action. Representing both industrialized and developing nations, the contributors present a thought-provoking examination of the economic, social, and political context of climate policy within their countries. With Kyoto's emissions targets set to expire in 2012, these authors call for a multilateral approach that goes beyond the mitigation-focused Kyoto policies, balancing them with strategies for adaptation. They also stress the importance of generating policies that work within a time frame commensurate with that of climate change itself. Informed, insightful, and even-handed, this book gives a new impetus to the increasingly important global climate policy debate. Contributors include R.K. Pachauri (Energy Resources Institute and the IPCC), Richard S. Lindzen (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Stefan Rahmstorf (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research), Stephen H. Schneider and Thomas Heller (Stanford University), Robert Mendelsohn and William D. Nordhaus (Yale University), Gernot Klepper and Sonja Peterson (Kiel Institute for World Economics), Robert N. Stavins (Harvard University), Alexander Golub (Environmental Defense), Howard Dalton (U.K. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), John Stone (Carleton University, Ottawa), Jyoti Parikh (Integrated Research and Action for Development), and Shen Longhai (China Energy Conservation Association)
Atmospheric carbon dioxide by National Research Council (U.S.). Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee
This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) Observed Warming and Metrics of Climate Change (CC); (3) Attribution of Observed Changes Due to Greenhouse Gases (GG): Human-Related Influences on CC; Trends in Atmospheric Concentrations of GG; GG Emissions and Growth Globally; (4) Impacts of CC: Extent of Arctic Sea Ice Near Lowest Recorded Levels; Melting of Greenland Ice Sheet; Melting and Thickening of Ice in Antarctica; Some Permanent Ice Fields Not Melting; Contributions of Melting Ice and Warming Oceans to Sea Level Rise; Hydrological Changes in the Western U.S.; (5) Without Further GHG Mitigation Policies, GHG Emissions Will Grow; (6) Future Climate Projections; (7) Abrupt ¿Tipping Points¿ in the Climate System; Projections of Future Impacts. Illus.
A concise overview of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), a promising but overlooked climate change mitigation pathway. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2), and these CO2 emissions are a major driver of climate change. Carbon capture offers a path to climate change mitigation that has received relatively little attention. In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Howard Herzog offers a concise guide to carbon capture, covering basic information as well as the larger context of climate technology and policy. Carbon capture, or carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), refers to a suite of technologies that reduce CO2 emissions by “capturing” CO2 before it is released into the atmosphere and then transporting it to where it will be stored or used. It is the only climate change mitigation technique that deals directly with fossil fuels rather than providing alternatives to them. Herzog, a pioneer in carbon capture research, begins by discussing the fundamentals of climate change and how carbon capture can be one of the solutions. He explains capture and storage technologies, including chemical scrubbing and the injection of CO2 deep underground. He reports on current efforts to deploy CCS at factories and power plants and attempts to capture CO2 from the air itself. Finally, he explores the policies and politics in play around CCS and argues for elevating carbon capture in the policy agenda.
The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing a program of emissions abatement or mitigation will show results over a timescale of many decades. How do we actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make a bigger difference more quickly? As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses CDR, the carbon dioxide removal of greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere and sequestration of it in perpetuity. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration introduces possible CDR approaches and then discusses them in depth. Land management practices, such as low-till agriculture, reforestation and afforestation, ocean iron fertilization, and land-and-ocean-based accelerated weathering, could amplify the rates of processes that are already occurring as part of the natural carbon cycle. Other CDR approaches, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration, direct air capture and sequestration, and traditional carbon capture and sequestration, seek to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and dispose of it by pumping it underground at high pressure. This book looks at the pros and cons of these options and estimates possible rates of removal and total amounts that might be removed via these methods. With whatever portfolio of technologies the transition is achieved, eliminating the carbon dioxide emissions from the global energy and transportation systems will pose an enormous technical, economic, and social challenge that will likely take decades of concerted effort to achieve. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration will help to better understand the potential cost and performance of CDR strategies to inform debate and decision making as we work to stabilize and reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Prior to the 2009 Copenhagen climate conference, it became evident that no discernible global warming had occurred since 1998, despite a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions. Consequently, the catastrophic man-made global warming hypothesis of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was conveniently rebranded as climate change'. This book allows readers, with little or no understanding of the issues behind the climate change debate, to obtain an appreciation as to why so much doubt and suspicion has been cast over the IPCC and its gold standard climate science' (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report) often referred to as the settled science' backed by a consensus of scientists. This book reveals that what the public has been led to believe about man-made global warming alarmism, and about the IPCC, often is misleading or just plain wrong, and that the IPCC's climate alarmism is not actually backed by science but rather by shonky predictions from unreliable computer models. It also makes it evident that man-made global warming alarmism has been driven largely by politics and environmentalism using any means possible to justify action to halt catastrophic man-made global warming (climate change) warming that has not, in fact, been happening. This book will leave the reader better informed about the IPCC and its climate alarmism, and about carbon dioxide, the temperature data, climate model predictions and misleading claims, as well as about the efforts of sceptics in revealing why the hypothesis of the IPCC, and its alarmist claims, are not valid.
Atmospheric temperature by Climate Change Science Program (U.S.)
Author: Great Britain. Committee on Climate Change
Publisher: The Stationery Office
Category: Carbon dioxide mitigation
Climate change resulting from CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions poses a huge threat to human welfare. To contain that threat, the world needs to cut emissions by about 50 per cent by 2050, and to start cutting emissions now. A global agreement to take action is vital. A fair global deal will require the UK to cut emissions by at least 80 per cent below 1990 levels by 2050. In this report, the Committee on Climate Change explains why the UK should aim for an 80 per cent reduction by 2050 and how that is attainable, and then recommends the first three budgets that will define the path to 2022. But the path is attainable at manageable cost, and following it is essential if the UK is to play its fair part in avoiding the far higher costs of harmful climate change. Part 1 of the report addresses the 2050 target. The 80 per cent target should apply to the sum of all sectors of the UK economy, including international aviation and shipping. The costs to the UK from this level of emissions reduction can be made affordable - estimated at between 1-2 per cent of GDP in 2050. In part 2, the Committee sets out the first three carbon budgets covering the period 2008-22, and examines the feasible reductions possible in various sectors: decarbonising the power sector; energy use in buildings and industry; reducing domestic transport emissions; reducing emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases; economy wide emissions reductions to meet budgets. The third part of the report examines wider economic and social impacts from budgets including competitiveness, fuel poverty, security of supply, and differences in circumstances between the regions of the UK.
Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject Law - Public Law / Miscellaneous, grade: 1,3, University of Groningen, language: English, abstract: Climate change is undisputable one of the most important and most discussed topics in the 21st century so far. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change observed in his “Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change” in 2007 that within the period of 1906 to 2005 the climate changed significantly. Global warming, increasing precipitation and a sea-level rise are just some indicators supporting the findings. One of the major causes leading to climate change is the increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the air mainly due to the use of fossil fuels. The International Energy Agency outlined that with the lack of new energy sources or at least changed energy policies, the energy-related CO2 emissions in 2050 will be twice the level of 2007. Therefore, politicians and scientists all over the world are making a huge effort to develop and provide measures for reducing the emissions of CO2 and other global warming gases. Besides the more famous accomplishments such as the subsidization of renewable energy sources or emission trading a new technology emerged in the past decade, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). It can be described, in general, as a technique to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere by sequestrating it from fossil fuels and storing it into geological formations in the ground or in the sub-seabed. In chapter “B” this paper will give an overview about the technological concept of CCS and the various approaches that are currently examined by scientists. CCS is seen as one of the most feasible climate change mitigation options due to its capability to reduce the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere without abandoning the use of fossil fuels. To do justice to this rating, it is necessary to support the deployment of CCS by developing and constructing legal frameworks and regulations that are flexible enough to allow for new technological advancements. The European Union is taking a big step forward with its Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council by creating a regulatory framework for the geological storage of CO2.
Climate change is one of the major environmental concern of many countries in the world. Negotiations to control potential climate changes have been taking place, from Rio to Kyoto, for the last five years. There is a widespread consciousness that the risk of incurring in relevant economic and environmental losses due to climate change is high. Scientific analyses have become more and more precise on the likely impacts of climate change. According to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, current trends in greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions may indeed cause the average global temperature to increase by 1-3. 5 °C over the next 100 years. As a result, sea levels are expected to rise by 15 to 95 em and climate zones to shift towards the poles by 150 to 550 km in mid latitudes. In order to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change, the IPCC report concludes that a stabilization of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide - one of the major GHGs - at 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) is recommended. This would imply a reduction of global emissions of about 50 per cent with respect to current levels. In this context, countries are negotiating to achieve a world-wide agreement on GHGs emissions control in order to stabilize climate changes. Despite the agreement on targets achieved in Kyoto, many issues still remain unresolved.
While a number of gases are implicated in global warming, carbon dioxide is the most important contributor, and in one sense the entire phenomena can be seen as a human-induced perturbation of the carbon cycle. The Global Carbon Cycle offers a scientific assessment of the state of current knowledge of the carbon cycle by the world's leading scientists sponsored by SCOPE and the Global Carbon Project, and other international partners. It gives an introductory over-view of the carbon cycle, with multidisciplinary contributions covering biological, physical, and social science aspects. Included are 29 chapters covering topics including: an assessment of carbon-climate-human interactions; a portfolio of carbon management options; spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of carbon dioxide; socio-economic driving forces of emissions scenarios. Throughout, contributors emphasize that all parts of the carbon cycle are interrelated, and only by developing a framework that considers the full set of feedbacks will we be able to achieve a thorough understanding and develop effective management strategies. The Global Carbon Cycle edited by Christopher B. Field and Michael R. Raupach is part of the Rapid Assessment Publication series produced by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), in an effort to quickly disseminate the collective knowledge of the world's leading experts on topics of pressing environmental concern.