'Complex sociotechnical systems' are systems made up of numerous interacting parts, both human and non-human, operating in dynamic, ambiguous and safety critical domains. Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is a structured framework specifically developed for considering the development and analysis of these complex socio-technical systems. Unlike many human factors approaches, CWA does not focus on how human-system interaction should proceed (normative modelling) or how human-system interaction currently works (descriptive modelling). Instead, through a focus on constraints, it develops a model of how work can be conducted within a given work domain, without explicitly identifying specific sequences of actions (formative modelling). The framework leads the analyst to consider the environment the task takes place within, and the effect of the imposed constraints on the way work can be conducted. It provides guidance through the process of answering the questions of why the system exists, what activities can be conducted within the domain as well as how these activities can be achieved, and who can perform them. The first part of the book contains a comprehensive description of CWA, introducing it to the uninitiated. It then presents a number of applications in complex military domains to explore and develop the benefits of CWA. Unlike much of the previous literature, particular attention is placed on exploring the CWA framework in its entirety. This holistic approach focuses on the system environment, the activity that takes place within it, the strategies used to conduct this activity, the way in which the constituent parts of the system (both human and non-human) interact and the behaviour required. Each stage of this analysis identifies the constraints governing the system; it is contended that through this holistic understanding of constraints, recommendations can be made for the design of system interaction; increasing the ability of users to cope with unanticipated, unexpected situations. This book discusses the applicability of the approach in system analysis, development and evaluation. It provides process to what was previously a loosely defined framework.
Despite continued interest in Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) techniques for the analysis and design of complex, human-technology systems, few published accounts exist that document all of the five recommended phases of CWA in real world applications. Delineating a work-centered conceptual framework that guides the design of technology, Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis provides the understanding necessary to apply these robust techniques to real world, large scale system design problems in a variety of domains. The book provides a complete CWA analysis for a complex, simulated air traffic control environment and a three phase analysis of an actual healthcare system. It includes detailed applications of work domain, control tasks, and strategies analysis for systems including military command and control, transportation, and emergency management. The contributors present discussions and examples of techniques drawn from research and design traditions other than CWA that can be used to complement and enrich CWA analyses in areas of social and organization analysis, and knowledge and skills analysis. They emphasize important theoretical and application oriented advances in CWA related to the integration of CWA within a larger system design. The concluding chapter examines the progress of CWA as a cognitive engineering tool, then outlines its theoretical underpinnings and a path for the future of this approach. The book demonstrates how these methods can be applied in complex, real world design contexts, subject to constraints of cost, time, and information. It shows the how, when, and where CWA techniques can be integrated into the systems engineering design process and provides concrete evidence for the value that the CWA approach provides in every domain.
This book describes, for the first time in pedagogical form, an approach to computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems developed over the last 30 years by Jens Rasmussen and his colleagues at Risø National Laboratory in Roskilde, Denmark. This approach is represented by a framework called cognitive work analysis. Its goal is to help designers of complex sociotechnical systems create computer-based information support that helps workers adapt to the unexpected and changing demands of their jobs. In short, cognitive work analysis is about designing for adaptation. The book is divided into four parts. Part I provides a motivation by introducing three themes that tie the book together--safety, productivity, and worker health. The ecological approach that serves as the conceptual basis behind the book is also described. In addition, a glossary of terms is provided. Part II situates the ideas in the book in a broader intellectual context by reviewing alternative approaches to work analysis. The limitations of normative and descriptive approaches are outlined, and the rationale behind the formative approach advocated in this book is explored. Part III describes the concepts that comprise the cognitive work analysis framework in detail. Each concept is illustrated by a case study, and the implications of the framework for design and research are illustrated by example. Part IV unifies the themes of safety, productivity, and health, and shows why the need for the concepts in this book will only increase in the future. In addition, a historical addendum briefly describes the origins of the ideas described in the book.
Over the past decade, Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) has been one of the popular human factors approaches for complex systems evaluation and design applications. This is reflected by a diverse range of applications across safety critical domains. The book brings together a series of CWA applications and discussions from world-leading human factors researchers and practitioners. It begins with an overview of the CWA framework, including its theoretical underpinnings, the methodological approaches involved (including practical guidance on each phase), and previous applications of the framework. The core of the book is a series of CWA applications, undertaken in a wide range of safety critical domains for a range of purposes. These serve to demonstrate the contribution that CWA can make to real-world projects and provide readers with inspiration for how such analyses can be practically carried out. Following this, a series of applications in which new approaches or adaptations have been added to the framework are presented. These show how practical applications feedback into the theories/approaches underpinning CWA. The closing chapter then speculates on future applications of the framework and on a series of new research directions required in order to enhance its utility. In emphasising the practical realities of performing CWA, and the real-world impacts it can provide, the book tackles several common misconceptions in a constructive and persuasive way. It provides a welcome demonstration of how CWA can be a powerful ally in tackling complexity-related problems that afflict systems in all areas.
In complex sociotechnical systems such as military, health care, and nuclear power systems, poor performance or errors resulting from inadequate designs can have catastrophic consequences. Although considered challenging to learn and execute well, work domain analysis can be used as a framework to assist in the design of these systems. Work Domain Analysis: Concepts, Guidelines, and Cases helps you develop a deep understanding of this framework—not by oversimplifying the principles but by explaining its concepts and methodology in considerable depth. Building on the foundational concepts of cognitive work analysis by providing the first comprehensive treatment of work domain analysis, the book begins with fundamental topics such as abstraction, decomposition, and structural means-ends and part-whole relations, clearly outlining the basic characteristics of a work domain model. It then explores more advanced topics such as the development of multiple models of a system and the distinction between causal and intentional systems and illustrates them with numerous examples across a range of systems including warships, libraries, and petrochemical plants. It also provides comprehensive guidelines for performing work domain analysis. The author provides three detailed case studies that examine the impact, unique contribution, and feasibility of applying work domain analysis in industrial settings. These case studies demonstrate that work domain analysis can be used to address a range of problems beyond interface design, such as team design, training, and the evaluation of system design concepts. They also provide concrete illustrations of the guidelines for work domain analysis. Without an appreciation of the variety of applications of work domain analysis, and its suitability for implementation in industrial settings, the benefits of this approach may not be fully realized. This book supplies the deep knowledge of this tool that will lead both to more powerful and innovative applications of the approach and to designs that support flexibility or adaptation in the workplace, making systems safer, healthier, and more productive for workers.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications.
This book provides a framework for integrating complex systems that are problem-centric, human-centered, and provides an interdisciplinary, multi-methodological purview of multiple perspectives surrounding the human factors/human actors within living ecosystems. This book will provide useful theoretical and practical information to human factors, human-computer interaction, cognitive systems engineering personnel who are currently engaged in human-centered design or other applied aspects of modeling, simulation, and design that requires joint understanding of theory and practice.
Thoroughly updated and revised, this Second Edition is the only book currently on the market to present the most important and commonly used methods in human resource management in such detail. The authors clearly outline how organizations can create programs to improve hiring and training, make jobs safer, provide a satisfying work environment, and help employees to work smarter. Throughout, they provide practical tips on how to conduct a job analysis, often offering anecdotes from their own experiences.
The first edition of Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety took the medical and ergonomics communities by storm with in-depth coverage of human factors and ergonomics research, concepts, theories, models, methods, and interventions and how they can be applied in health care. Other books focus on particular human factors and ergonomics issues such as human error or design of medical devices or a specific application such as emergency medicine. This book draws on both areas to provide a compendium of human factors and ergonomics issues relevant to health care and patient safety. The second edition takes a more practical approach with coverage of methods, interventions, and applications and a greater range of domains such as medication safety, surgery, anesthesia, and infection prevention. New topics include: work schedules error recovery telemedicine workflow analysis simulation health information technology development and design patient safety management Reflecting developments and advances in the five years since the first edition, the book explores medical technology and telemedicine and puts a special emphasis on the contributions of human factors and ergonomics to the improvement of patient safety and quality of care. In order to take patient safety to the next level, collaboration between human factors professionals and health care providers must occur. This book brings both groups closer to achieving that goal.
"This book provides a compendium of terms, definitions, and explanations of concepts in various areas of systems and design, as well as a vast collection of cutting-edge research articles from the field's leading experts"--Provided by publisher.
HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks provides a thorough pedagological survey of the science of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). HCI spans many disciplines and professions, including anthropology, cognitive psychology, computer graphics, graphical design, human factors engineering, interaction design, sociology, and software engineering. While many books and courses now address HCI technology and application areas, none has addressed HCI’s multidisciplinary foundations with much scope or depth. This text fills a huge void in the university education and training of HCI students as well as in the lifelong learning and professional development of HCI practitioners. Contributors are leading researchers in the field of HCI. If you teach a second course in HCI, you should consider this book. This book provides a comprehensive understanding of the HCI concepts and methods in use today, presenting enough comparative detail to make primary sources more accessible. Chapters are formatted to facilitate comparisons among the various HCI models. Each chapter focuses on a different level of scientific analysis or approach, but all in an identical format, facilitating comparison and contrast of the various HCI models. Each approach is described in terms of its roots, motivation, and type of HCI problems it typically addresses. The approach is then compared with its nearest neighbors, illustrated in a paradigmatic application, and analyzed in terms of its future. This book is essential reading for professionals, educators, and students in HCI who want to gain a better understanding of the theoretical bases of HCI, and who will make use of a good background, refresher, reference to the field and/or index to the literature. Contributors are leading researchers in the field of Human-Comptuter Interaction Fills a major gap in current literature about the rich scientific foundations of HCI Provides a thorough pedogological survey of the science of HCI
Cognitive systems engineering has been widely and successfully applied in the design of safety critical systems such as nuclear power, aviation, and military command-and-control. More recently, these methods are being applied to the design of health and medical systems in order to improve health care quality, reduce errors and adverse events, and improve efficiencies. Cognitive Systems Engineering in Health Care provides an overview of cognitive systems engineering principles in the context of health care. It contains state-of-the-art examples of cognitive systems applications that can be adapted by health care practitioners interested in systematic engineering approaches to systems improvement. The book highlights current cognitive engineering-oriented research, analyses, and applications in settings such as cardiac surgery, obstetrics, and emergency medicine. It focuses on the impact cognitive engineering analyses can have in supporting communication and coordination with health care teams. The text then demonstrates the use of cognitive engineering methods to inform the design of information technology. It then details the systematic adaptation and application of specific cognitive engineering methods in the medical domain. The book concludes with examples of how in-depth cognitive engineering analyses can lead to demonstrated improvements in health care environments. Through a series of sample studies, the book gives you a deeper understanding of how cognitive engineering approaches might be applied in the health care domain. You’ll see common themes that underline the complexity of the health care domain and this insight can build a deep respect for the expertise of the practitioners who work in it. By identifying the abstractions that hold constant in this domain, you can build solutions for that will evolve to handle new applications, challenges, and approaches.
Human Factors and Ergonomics have made a considerable contribution to the research, design, development, operation and analysis of transportation systems which includes road and rail vehicles and their complementary infrastructure, aviation and maritime transportation. This book presents recent advances in the Human Factors aspects of Transportation. These advances include accident analysis, automation of vehicles, comfort, distraction of drivers (understanding of distraction and how to avoid it), environmental concerns, in-vehicle systems design, intelligent transport systems, methodological developments, new systems and technology, observational and case studies, safety, situation awareness, skill development and training, warnings and workload. This book brings together the most recent human factors work in the transportation domain, including empirical research, human performance and other types of modeling, analysis, and development. The issues facing engineers, scientists, and other practitioners of human factors in transportation research are becoming more challenging and more critical. The common theme across these sections is that they deal with the intersection of the human and the system. Moreover, many of the chapter topics cross section boundaries, for instance by focusing on function allocation in NextGen or on the safety benefits of a tower controller tool. This is in keeping with the systemic nature of the problems facing human factors experts in rail and road, aviation and maritime research– it is becoming increasingly important to view problems not as isolated issues that can be extracted from the system environment, but as embedded issues that can only be understood as a part of an overall system.
A significant part of understanding how people use geographic information and technology concerns human cognition. This book provides the first comprehensive in-depth examination of the cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction for geographic information systems (GIS). Cognitive aspects are treated in relation to individual, group, behavioral, institutional, and cultural perspectives. Extensions of GIS in the form of spatial decision support systems and SDSS for groups are part of the geographic information technology considered. Audience: Geographic information users, systems analysts and system designers, researchers in human-computer interaction will find this book an information resource for understanding cognitive aspects of geographic information technology use, and the methods appropriate for examining this use.
This book looks at why ethnographic approaches are popular in the design of computing devices for the workplace, for the home and elsewhere. It presents a history of ethnography, both as it was practiced before computer science picked it up and since, most especially in the CSCW and HCI domains. The focus of the book is on the practical relationship between theory and practice, a relationship that is fundamental to successful design.
During the course of any sporting event, critical cognitive and physical tasks are performed within a dynamic, complex, collaborative system comprising multiple humans and artifacts, under pressurized, complex, and rapidly changing conditions. Highly skilled, well-trained individuals walk a fine line between task success and failure, with only slightly inadequate task execution leading to the latter. Promoting cross-disciplinary interaction between the human factors and sports science disciplines, Human Factors Methods and Sports Science: A Practical Guide provides practical guidance on a range of methods for describing, representing, and evaluating human, team, and system performance in sports domains. Traditionally, the application of human factors and ergonomics methods in sports has focused on the biomechanical, physiological, environmental, and equipment-related aspects of sports performance. However, various human factors methods, applied historically in the complex safety critical domains, are suited to describing and understanding sports performance. This book delineates the similarities in the concepts requiring investigation within sports and the more typical human factors domains. The book’s focus on cognitive and social human factors methods rather than mainly on the application of physiological ergonomics approaches sets it apart from other books in either field. It covers eight categories of human factor methods: data collection, task analysis, cognitive task analysis, human error identification, situation awareness measurement, workload measurement, team performance assessment, and interface evaluation methods. Constructed so that each chapter can be read non-linearly and independently from one another, the book provides an introduction and overview to each Human Factors topic area, and of each method discussed, along with practical guidance on how to apply them. It also includes detailed descriptions of the different methods, example applications, and theoretical rationale. This allows the concepts to be easily found and digested, and the appropriate method to be easily selected and applied.
Work Process Knowledge brings together the findings of twenty-four leading researchers on new forms of work and the demands these place on workers' knowledge and skill. Their findings, based on a new set of investigations in a wide range of manufacturing and service industries, identify the kinds of knowledge required to work effectively in the post-Taylorist industrial organization. Raising fundamental issues for current industrial policy, science and technology policy, and ways of managing the post-Taylorist organization and developing human resources, this book will be of essential interest to academics and professionals working in the fields of management, human resource development, and workplace learning.