Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author’s own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphasis is given to the important role of electrical double layers in colloidal suspension. Written for students, scientists and researchers both in academia and industry and chemical engineers working in the fields of colloid and surface chemistry, biological chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, chemical technology, and polymer technology this book will help them to exploit recent developments recognizing the potential applications of colloid science in enhancing the efficiency of their processes or the quality and range of their products. Written by world leading expert in the field of colloids and surface chemistry Outlines the underlying fundamental science behind colloidal organization phenomena Written in an easy and accessible style, utilizing full color and minimal usage of mathematical equations
This thesis presents an in-depth study on the effect of colloidal particle shape and formation mechanism on self-organization and the final crystal symmetries that can be achieved. It demonstrates how state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction techniques can be used to produce detailed characterizations of colloidal crystal structures prepared using different self-assembly techniques, and how smart systems can be used to investigate defect formation and diffusion in-situ. One of the most remarkable phenomena exhibited by concentrated suspensions of colloidal particles is the spontaneous self-organization into structures with long-range spatial and/or orientational orders. The study also reveals the subtle structural variations that arise by changing the particle shape from spherical to that of a rounded cube. In particular, the roundness of the cube corners, when combined with the self-organization pathway, convective assembly or sedimentation, was shown to influence the final crystal symmetries.
This work aims to familiarize students with the fundamentals of colloid and surface science, from various types of colloids and colloidal phenomena, and classical and modern characterization/measurement techniques to applications of colloids and surface science in engineering, technology, chemistry, physics and biological and medical sciences. The Journal of Textile Studies proclaims "High praise from peers . . .contains valuable information on many topics of interest to food rheologists and polymer scientists ...[The book] should be in the libraries of academic and industrial food research organizations" and Chromatographia describes the book as "...an excellent textbook, excellently organised, clearly written and well laid out."
This encyclopedia uniquely concentrates on biocolloids and biointerfaces rather than the broader field of colloid and interface science. Biocolloids and biointerfaces are the youngest but increasingly prominent studied area of colloid and interface science, and this encyclopedia uses "soft particles" and "soft interface" as surface models in observing phenomena in biological systems. Provides a detailed description of the fundamental theories, dealing with the physicochemical and theoretical aspects of biocolloid and biointerface science Offers a detailed description of soft interfaces or surfaces Includes detailed description of applications of fundamental biocolloid and biointerface theories to nano-, bio, and environmental sciences A useful and timely resource for researchers and graduates in the field of biocolloid and biointerface science, as well as engineers in the field of nanotechnology, bioscience, and environmental science.
Structural organization or disorganization in macromolecular systems has been an important subject of polymer physical chemistry during the last one or two decades. This volume summarizes the main lectures presented at the Osaka University Macromolecular Symposium OUMS '98 on Molecular Interactions and Time-Space Organization in Macromolecular Systems, where the following topics were discussed:crystallization kinetics, liquid crystals, phase separation, gelation, adhesion, complex formation, and self-organization, with emphasis on molecular interactions. Both these topics are hot issues at present and frequently are taken up as a main theme at a particular symposium. The present symposium invited leading theorists and experimentalists in these fields as guest speakers and is expected to attract the interest of a significant range of readers.
Small solid particles adsorbed at liquid interfaces arise in many industrial products and process, such as anti-foam formulations, crude oil emulsions and flotation. They act in many ways like traditional surfactant molecules, but offer distinct advantages. However, the understanding of how these particles operate in such systems is minimal. This book brings together the diverse topics actively being investigated, with contributions from leading experts in the field. After an introduction to the basic concepts and principles, the book divides into two sections. The first deals with particles at planar liquid interfaces, with chapters of an experimental and theoretical nature. The second concentrates on the behaviour of particles at curved liquid interfaces, including particle-stabilized foams and emulsions and new materials derived from such systems. This collection will be of interest to academic researchers and graduate students in chemistry, physics, chemical engineering, pharmacy, food science and materials science.
This thesis deals with the processes that create ordered assemblies from disordered nanoparticles. Ordered packings of nanoscale particles can exhibit unusual properties. This work investigates the self-assembly of such particles, a process widely employed for the generation of ordered structures, but not yet well understood. In situ methods are used to observe the assembly of sub-micron polymer lattices and sub-10 nm gold particles into crystalline monolayers and aggregates. On the basis of these results, the book develops new models that describe the competition between different influences, such as thermal agitation and directional forces. It suggests necessary criteria that lead to the emergence of order.
Written by outstanding experts in the colloids field, this book deals with the recent developments in the synthesis, modification, utilization and application of colloids. The types covered range from metal nanoparticles through to inorganic particles and polymer latexes. Strategies for their modification to impart new properties will be outlined and ordered assemblies derived from colloid particles and some applications for colloids are shown. A multidisciplinary audience spread throughout academia and industry alike will certainly appreciate this first concise collection of knowledge in book form for this topic.
Colloids in the Aquatic Environment covers the proceedings of the International Symposium by the same title, held at the University College London on September 7-9, 1992, organized by the SCI Colloid and Surface Chemistry Group. This book is divided into 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of surface structure and reactivity. The succeeding chapters deal with molecular mass determination of humic substances from natural waters, the biospecific mechanism of double layer formation, the dynamics of colloid deposition in porous media, and the evaluation of surface area and size distributions of soil particles. These topics are followed by discussions of the transport and capture of colloids; colloidal stability of natural organic matter; the hydrolytic precipitation and modeling ion binding by humic acids; and the thermodynamic aspects and photoelectrophoresis of colloids. Other chapters explore the colloidal transfer in several aquatic environments. The final chapters consider the mechanism of colloid detachment, speciation, partitioning, and stability. These chapters also look into a hybrid equilibrium model of solute transport in porous media in the presence of colloids. This book will be of great value to civil and environmental engineers.
This book presents leading-edge research on colloids and surface science and spans a wide range of topics including biological interactions at surfaces, molecular assembly of selective surfaces, role of surface chemistry in microelectronics and catalysis, tribology, and colloidal physics in the context of crystallisation and suspensions; fluid interfaces; adsorption; surface aspects of catalysis; dispersion preparation, characterisation and stability; aerosols, foams and emulsions; surfaces forces; micelles and microemulsions; light scattering and spectroscopy; nanoparticles; new material science; detergency and wetting; thin films, liquid membranes and bilayers; surfactant science; polymer colloids; rheology of colloidal and disperse systems; electrical phenomena in interfacial and disperse systems.
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2011 in the subject Materials Science, Asian Insitute of Technology, language: English, abstract: A novel approach of multilayered thin film based on layer-by-layer deposition using colloidal nanoparticles was carried out in this work. The films were made by the self-assembly of oppositely charged metal and dielectric nanoparticles, alternately capped with polymers. Synthesized colloidal suspensions of gold nanoparticles (~20nm) and silica nanoparticles (~30nm) were used as the building blocks for the self-organisation of the films. Capping with PDDA and chitosan was used effectively to control the optical absorption of the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the gold nanoparticles. Using different combinations of layer formation, absorption characteristics in the near-ultraviolet (NUV), green and blue region were controlled through capping and varying the thickness of the film. Capping with chitosan or PDDA reduced the absorption peak of the coated silica nanoparticles in a similar fashion. Peak absorption in the UV range was achieved by assembling bare silica nanoparticles layers onto layers of gold nanoparticles. Transmission color was controlled (less than 1% color distance per added bi-layer) by changing the film thickness. Optical modeling of multilayer thin films constructed with oppositely charged nanoparticles helped us to understand phenomenon such as surface plasmon resonance, absorbance, transmittance and reflectance. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory in this case is applied in quasi-static limit to multilayer composite consisting of host material silica and inclusion material gold nanoparticles. Maxwell Garnett optical simulations is correlated with experimental spectra obtained for the thin film composites. The thickness of layers, size and spacing of metal inclusion is varied to alter the optical properties for the required device applications. The multilayered thin film of gold and silica resembles a structure consisting of large charge sheets of metal separated by a dielectric layer. When the applied electric potential reaches a threshold value, it drives the electrons to tunnel through the charge sheets producing a rectification effect. Therefore current-voltage measurements of the multilayer thin films were performed to calculate the threshold voltages. The electrical capacitance in these multilayer devices was modified with the change in thickness of the dielectric layers between two conducting layers and calculated by capacitance-voltage measurements of multilayer stack. [...]
Amidst developments in nanotechnology and successes in catalytic emulsion polymerization of olefins, polymerization in dispersed media is arousing an increasing interest from both practical and fundamental points of view. This text describes ultramodern approaches to synthesis, preparation, characterization, and functionalization of latexes, nanoparticles, and numerous additional colloidal polymer systems. In chapters contributed by leading international researchers, it communicates critical parameters for method selection, presents guidelines for controlling structural and colloid properties, presents recent results and information on polymer colloids, and describes other tools to assist in the production of desirable outcomes.
Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials. Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientation of the assembled nanoparticles to achieve structural accord at the particle-particle interface, the removal of adsorbates and solvent molecules, and, finally, the irreversible formation of chemical bonds to produce new single crystals, twins, and intergrowths. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals provides a current understanding of the mechanisms related to nucleation and growth for use in controlling nanocrystal morphology and physical-chemical properties, and is essential reading for any chemist or materials scientist with an interest in using nanocrystals as building blocks for larger structures. This book provides a compendium for the expert reader as well as an excellent introduction for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking a gateway into this dynamic area of research.
The field of photonic band gap (PGB) materials, also called photonic crystals, is one of the most exciting new areas in physics and engineering. The materials play a unique role in controlling the propagation of electromagnetic waves, and innovative ways to manipulate such waves can have a profound influence on science and technology. The present book provides an excellent survey of the field of photonic crystals, random lasers and light localization, covering theoretical and experimental aspects as well as applications. The introductory lectures are accessible to non-specialists. New fabrication techniques and structures are presented with either dielectric or metallic components. Microwave, far-IR and optical applications are discussed (filters, mirrors, switches, waveguides, bends, splitters, antennas, etc.). Transmission, band structure and finite difference-time domain techniques are presented. Reviews of the random laser area and light localization are also presented.
This handbook brings together, under a single cover, all aspects of the chemistry, physics, and engineering of surfaces and interfaces of materials currently studied in academic and industrial research. It covers different experimental and theoretical aspects of surfaces and interfaces, their physical properties, and spectroscopic techniques that have been applied to a wide class of inorganic, organic, polymer, and biological materials. The diversified technological areas of surface science reflect the explosion of scientific information on surfaces and interfaces of materials and their spectroscopic characterization. The large volume of experimental data on chemistry, physics, and engineering aspects of materials surfaces and interfaces remains scattered in so many different periodicals, therefore this handbook compilation is needed. The information presented in this multivolume reference draws on two decades of pioneering research on the surfaces and interfaces of materials to offer a complete perspective on the topic. These five volumes-Surface and Interface Phenomena; Surface Characterization and Properties; Nanostructures, Micelles, and Colloids; Thin Films and Layers; Biointerfaces and Applications-provide multidisciplinary review chapters and summarize the current status of the field covering important scientific and technological developments made over past decades in surfaces and interfaces of materials and spectroscopic techniques with contributions from internationally recognized experts from all over the world. Fully cross-referenced, this book has clear, precise, and wide appeal as an essential reference source long due for the scientific community. The complete reference on the topic of surfaces and interfaces of materials The information presented in this multivolume reference draws on two decades of pioneering research Provides multidisciplinary review chapters and summarizes the current status of the field Covers important scientific and technological developments made over past decades in surfaces and interfaces of materials and spectroscopic techniques Contributions from internationally recognized experts from all over the world.
Certain stable lipid nanoemulsions, existing in natural waters and certain artificial media, display - upon intravenous injection - a marked capability for rapid active targeting, both to tumors and to certain lesion sites. This category of lipid nanoemulsions contains no phospholipids, no proteins nor peptides, no carbohydrates, and no chemical modification of the lipophilic drugs is required; consequently it avoids various past problems reported for earlier versions of targeted nanoemulsions. The book covers in detail the underlying chemical and biochemical principles of stable lipid nanoemulsions as well as many current and potential applications in nanomedicine such as targeted chemotherapy. It is in harmony with goals of the current US National Nanotechnology Initiative, which include nanomedical approaches to drug delivery that focus on developing nanoscale particles to improve drug bioavailability i.e. often using targeted nanoparticles for delivering drugs with cell precision and less side effects. Despite the obvious practical importance to various fields including nanomedicine there is currently no comprehensive book available in the literature. The proposed book will effectively fill this gap. Detailed coverage of the underlying chemical and biochemical principles of stable lipid nanoemulsions. The book includes many current and potential applications in nanomedicine such as targeted chemotherapy. Contains 67 figures (including 13 microscope photos) and 26 tables Over 1200 literature references, many of them of very recent date.