Combinatorics is a subject of increasing importance because of its links with computer science, statistics, and algebra. This textbook stresses common techniques (such as generating functions and recursive construction) that underlie the great variety of subject matter, and the fact that a constructive or algorithmic proof is more valuable than an existence proof. The author emphasizes techniques as well as topics and includes many algorithms described in simple terms. The text should provide essential background for students in all parts of discrete mathematics.
This is a textbook for an introductory combinatorics course that can take up one or two semesters. An extensive list of problems, ranging from routine exercises to research questions, is included. In each section, there are also exercises that contain material not explicitly discussed in the preceding text, so as to provide instructors with extra choices if they want to shift the emphasis of their course. Just as with the first edition, the new edition walks the reader through the classic parts of combinatorial enumeration and graph theory, while also discussing some recent progress in the area: on the one hand, providing material that will help students learn the basic techniques, and on the other hand, showing that some questions at the forefront of research are comprehensible and accessible for the talented and hard-working undergraduate. The basic topics discussed are: the twelvefold way, cycles in permutations, the formula of inclusion and exclusion, the notion of graphs and trees, matchings and Eulerian and Hamiltonian cycles. The selected advanced topics are: Ramsey theory, pattern avoidance, the probabilistic method, partially ordered sets, and algorithms and complexity. As the goal of the book is to encourage students to learn more combinatorics, every effort has been made to provide them with a not only useful, but also enjoyable and engaging reading.
This is a concise, up-to-date introduction to extremal combinatorics for non-specialists. Strong emphasis is made on theorems with particularly elegant and informative proofs which may be called the gems of the theory. A wide spectrum of the most powerful combinatorial tools is presented, including methods of extremal set theory, the linear algebra method, the probabilistic method and fragments of Ramsey theory. A thorough discussion of recent applications to computer science illustrates the inherent usefulness of these methods.
Combinatorics deals with simple combinatorial problems, recurrence relations, and generating functions, particularly the binomial expansions. The book expounds on the general rules of combinatorics, the rule of sum, the rule of product, samples, permutations, combinations, and arrangements of subjects with various restrictions. The text also explains ordered or unordered partitions of numbers, geometric methods, random walk problems, and variants of the arithmetical triangle. One example of the use of combinatorics is the choice of the number 3 in the genetic code. Another example involves the choice of crew for a spaceship where it is necessary to consider the psychological conditions of the applicants for space travel. The text also investigates the sieve of Erastothenes whose problem concerns finding all the primes in the sequence of natural numbers from 1 to N. The book also tackles the application of power series to proof of identities, the binomial series expansion, decomposition into elementary fractions, and nonlinear recurrence relation. The book can be highly educational and interesting to students or academicians involved in mathematics, algebra, and statistics.
Combinatorics, Second Edition is a well-rounded, general introduction to the subjects of enumerative, bijective, and algebraic combinatorics. The textbook emphasizes bijective proofs, which provide elegant solutions to counting problems by setting up one-to-one correspondences between two sets of combinatorial objects. The author has written the textbook to be accessible to readers without any prior background in abstract algebra or combinatorics. Part I of the second edition develops an array of mathematical tools to solve counting problems: basic counting rules, recursions, inclusion-exclusion techniques, generating functions, bijective proofs, and linear algebraic methods. These tools are used to analyze combinatorial structures such as words, permutations, subsets, functions, graphs, trees, lattice paths, and much more. Part II cover topics in algebraic combinatorics including group actions, permutation statistics, symmetric functions, and tableau combinatorics. This edition provides greater coverage of the use of ordinary and exponential generating functions as a problem-solving tool. Along with two new chapters, several new sections, and improved exposition throughout, the textbook is brimming with many examples and exercises of various levels of difficulty.
How many possible sudoku puzzles are there? In the lottery, what is the chance that two winning balls have consecutive numbers? Who invented Pascal's triangle? (it was not Pascal) Combinatorics, the branch of mathematics concerned with selecting, arranging, and listing or counting collections of objects, works to answer all these questions. Dating back some 3000 years, and initially consisting mainly of the study of permutations and combinations, its scope has broadened to include topics such as graph theory, partitions of numbers, block designs, design of codes, and latin squares. In this Very Short Introduction Robin Wilson gives an overview of the field and its applications in mathematics and computer theory, considering problems from the shortest routes covering certain stops to the minimum number of colours needed to colour a map with different colours for neighbouring countries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
A One-Stop Source of Known Results, a Bibliography of Papers on the Subject, and Novel Research Directions Focusing on a very active area of research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Compositions and Words provides an introduction to the methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in compositions and words. It also presents various tools and approaches that are applicable to other areas of enumerative combinatorics. After a historical perspective on research in the area, the text introduces techniques to solve recurrence relations, including iteration and generating functions. It then focuses on enumeration of basic statistics for compositions. The text goes on to present results on pattern avoidance for subword, subsequence, and generalized patterns in compositions and then applies these results to words. The authors also cover automata, the ECO method, generating trees, and asymptotic results via random compositions and complex analysis. Highlighting both established and new results, this book explores numerous tools for enumerating patterns in compositions and words. It includes a comprehensive bibliography and incorporates the use of the computer algebra systems MapleTM and Mathematica®, as well as C++ to perform computations.
The format of this book is unique in that it combines features of a traditional text with those of a problem book. The material is presented through a series of problems, about 250 in all, with connecting text; this is supplemented by 250 additional problems suitable for homework assignment. The problems are structured in order to introduce concepts in a logical order and in a thought-provoking way. The first four sections of the book deal with basic combinatorial entities; the last four cover special counting methods. Many applications to probability are included along the way. Students from a wide range of backgrounds--mathematics, computer science, or engineering--will appreciate this appealing introduction.
This text provides a theoretical background for several topics in combinatorial mathematics, such as enumerative combinatorics (including partitions and Burnside's lemma), magic and Latin squares, graph theory, extremal combinatorics, mathematical games and elementary probability. A number of examples are given with explanations while the book also provides more than 300 exercises of different levels of difficulty that are arranged at the end of each chapter, and more than 130 additional challenging problems, including problems from mathematical olympiads. Solutions or hints to all exercises and problems are included. The book can be used by secondary school students preparing for mathematical competitions, by their instructors, and by undergraduate students. The book may also be useful for graduate students and for researchers that apply combinatorial methods in different areas.
Enumerative Combinatorics presents elaborate and systematic coverage of the theory of enumeration. The first seven chapters provide the necessary background, including basic counting principles and techniques, elementary enumerative topics, and an extended presentation of generating functions and recurrence relations. The remaining seven chapters focus on more advanced topics, including, Stirling numbers, partitions of integers, partition polynomials, Eulerian numbers and Polya's counting theorem. Extensively classroom tested, this text was designed for introductory- and intermediate-level courses in enumerative combinatorics, but the far-reaching applications of the subject also make the book useful to those in operational research, the physical and social science, and anyone who uses combinatorial methods. Remarks, discussions, tables, and numerous examples support the text, and a wealth of exercises-with hints and answers provided in an appendix--further illustrate the subject's concepts, theorems, and applications.
Combinatorics and Graph Theory is designed as a textbook for undergraduate students of computer science and engineering and postgraduate students of computer applications. The book seeks to introduce students to the mathematical concepts needed to develop abstract thinking and problem solving—important prerequisites for the study of computer science. The book provides an exhaustive coverage of various concepts and remarkable introduction of several topics of combinatorics and graph theory. The book presents an informative exposure for beginners and acts as a reference for advanced students. It highlights comprehensive and rigorous views of combinatorics and graphs. The text shows simplicity and step-by-step concepts throughout and is profusely illustrated with diagrams. The real-world applications corresponding to the topics are appropriately highlighted. The chapters have also been interspersed throughout with numerous interesting and instructional notes. Written in a lucid style, the book helps students apply the mathematical tools to computer-related concepts and consists of around 600 worked-out examples which motivate students as a self-learning mode.KEY FEATURES Contains various exercises with their answers or hints. Lays emphasis on the applicability of mathematical structures to computer science. Includes competitive examinations’ questions asked in GATE, NET, SET, etc
Combinatorics is mathematics of enumeration, existence, construction, and optimization questions concerning finite sets. This text focuses on the first three types of questions and covers basic counting and existence principles, distributions, generating functions, recurrence relations, Pólya theory, combinatorial designs, error correcting codes, partially ordered sets, and selected applications to graph theory including the enumeration of trees, the chromatic polynomial, and introductory Ramsey theory. The only prerequisites are single-variable calculus and familiarity with sets and basic proof techniques. The text emphasizes the brands of thinking that are characteristic of combinatorics: bijective and combinatorial proofs, recursive analysis, and counting problem classification. It is flexible enough to be used for undergraduate courses in combinatorics, second courses in discrete mathematics, introductory graduate courses in applied mathematics programs, as well as for independent study or reading courses. What makes this text a guided tour are the approximately 350 reading questions spread throughout its eight chapters. These questions provide checkpoints for learning and prepare the reader for the end-of-section exercises of which there are over 470. Most sections conclude with Travel Notes that add color to the material of the section via anecdotes, open problems, suggestions for further reading, and biographical information about mathematicians involved in the discoveries.
What Is Combinatorics Anyway? Broadly speaking, combinatorics is the branch of mathematics dealing with different ways of selecting objects from a set or arranging objects. It tries to answer two major kinds of questions, namely, counting questions: how many ways can a selection or arrangement be chosen with a particular set of properties; and structural questions: does there exist a selection or arrangement of objects with a particular set of properties? The authors have presented a text for students at all levels of preparation. For some, this will be the first course where the students see several real proofs. Others will have a good background in linear algebra, will have completed the calculus stream, and will have started abstract algebra. The text starts by briefly discussing several examples of typical combinatorial problems to give the reader a better idea of what the subject covers. The next chapters explore enumerative ideas and also probability. It then moves on to enumerative functions and the relations between them, and generating functions and recurrences., Important families of functions, or numbers and then theorems are presented. Brief introductions to computer algebra and group theory come next. Structures of particular interest in combinatorics: posets, graphs, codes, Latin squares, and experimental designs follow. The authors conclude with further discussion of the interaction between linear algebra and combinatorics. Features Two new chapters on probability and posets. Numerous new illustrations, exercises, and problems. More examples on current technology use A thorough focus on accuracy Three appendices: sets, induction and proof techniques, vectors and matrices, and biographies with historical notes, Flexible use of MapleTM and MathematicaTM
About Book: Combinatorics is one of most logical and live field of mathematics. Concepts of combinatorics are widely applicable in probability and computations. Learning combinatorics requires little different approach. It requires building fundamental rules of execution. Every new problem demands a new rule. So by remembering few fix rules we can't be expert of this fascinating field. This book focuses on experiential learning of the subject. It takes reader into the all new world of the combinatorics while developing intuitive map of algorithms. This book is suitable as a class text or for individual study. This trusted book covers the Concepts of Combinatorics including the counting techniques, Permutations and Combinations, Arrangements of objects in circular manner, Derangement, generating functions and recurrence relations. This wonder book is also suitable for any one interested in learning combinatorics from SCRATCH and having no basic knowledge. Concepts are presented in very lucid manner so that students will find it very easy to read. A wide range of solved examples, about 300 combinatoric problems taken from various mathematical competitions and exercises are also included. Contents: -Permutations and Combinations -Generating Functions -Recurrence Relations -partitions of Integers -counting sequences and generating functions -Derangement -Application of Prime Factorization Theorem in combinatorics -Binomial Coefficients and Multinational Coefficients Reviews: Rishabh sharma 5.0 out of 5 stars Combinatorics is explained in the best way Reviewed in India on 10 September 2020 Verified Purchase Rishabh Sharma (*****) This book is great to learn combinatorics from basics as it covers JEE syllabus completely and is more inclined towards the intuition of a human brain. But it should include more questions.
This book evolved from several courses in combinatorics and graph theory given at Appalachian State University and UCLA. Chapter 1 focuses on finite graph theory, including trees, planarity, coloring, matchings, and Ramsey theory. Chapter 2 studies combinatorics, including the principle of inclusion and exclusion, generating functions, recurrence relations, Pólya theory, the stable marriage problem, and several important classes of numbers. Chapter 3 presents infinite pigeonhole principles, König's lemma, and Ramsey's theorem, and discusses their connections to axiomatic set theory. The text is written in an enthusiastic and lively style. It includes results and problems that cross subdisciplines, emphasizing relationships between different areas of mathematics. In addition, recent results appear in the text, illustrating the fact that mathematics is a living discipline. The text is primarily directed toward upper-division undergraduate students, but lower-division undergraduates with a penchant for proof and graduate students seeking an introduction to these subjects will also find much of interest.
The Nagoya 2000 International Workshop gathered together a group of scientists actively working in combinatorics, representation theory, special functions, number theory and mathematical physics, to acquaint the participants with some basic results in their fields and to discuss existing and possible interactions between the mentioned subjects. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the workshop. Contents: Vanishing Theorems and Character Formulas for the Hilbert Scheme of Points in the Plane (M Haiman); Exclusion Statistics and Chiral Partition Function (K Hikami); On the Spectrum of Dehn Twists in Quantum Teichmller Theory (R Kashaev); Introduction to Tropical Combinatorics (A Kirillov); Transition on Grothendieck Polynomials (A Lascoux); Generalized HAlder''s Theorem for Multiple Gamma Function (M Nishizawa); Quantum Calogero-Moser Models: Complete Integrability for All the Root Systems (R Sasaki); Simplification of Thermodynamic BetheOCoAnsatz Equations (M Takahashi); and other papers. Readership: Researchers and graduates in mathematical physics and combinatorics & graph theory."