**Author**: Valerio Faraoni

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**

**Category:** Science

**Page:** 274

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## Cosmology in Scalar-Tensor Gravity

Cosmology in Scalar-Tensor Gravity covers all aspects of cosmology in scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Considerable progress has been made in this exciting area of physics and this book is the first to provide a critical overview of the research. Among the topics treated are: -Scalar-tensor gravity and its limit to general relativity, -Effective energy-momentum tensors and conformal frames, -Gravitational waves in scalar-tensor cosmology, -Specific scalar-tensor theories, -Exact cosmological solutions and cosmological perturbations, -Scalar-tensor scenarios of the early universe and inflation, -Scalar-tensor models of quintessence in the present universe and their far-reaching consequences for the ultimate fate of the cosmos.
## Introduction to General Relativistic and Scalar-tensor Cosmologies

This book offers an introduction to General Relativity and its mathematical tools, together with an introduction to relativistic and scalar-tensor cosmologies. Part I deals with Tensor Calculus. Part II introduces General Relativity Theory, while Part III deals with Relativistic Cosmology. In Part IV we work Scalar-Tensor theories, concentrating in Cosmological Models. In the last chapters, the cosmological models presented, become more and more sophisticated, including some new cases, never published elsewhere, in which all fundamental "constants" are made to vary, with the age of the Universe, namely, the gravitational, the cosmological, the coupling Brans-Dicke "constants", the speed of light, Planck's "fine -structure "constant" alpha" etc. This is a mathematical cosmology textbook that may lead undergraduates, and graduate students, to one of the frontiers of research, while keeping the prerequisites to a minimum, because most of the theory in the book requires only prior knowledge of Calculus and a University Physics course.
## Cosmology in Scalar-Tensor Gravity

Cosmology in Scalar-Tensor Gravity covers all aspects of cosmology in scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Considerable progress has been made in this exciting area of physics and this book is the first to provide a critical overview of the research. Among the topics treated are: -Scalar-tensor gravity and its limit to general relativity, -Effective energy-momentum tensors and conformal frames, -Gravitational waves in scalar-tensor cosmology, -Specific scalar-tensor theories, -Exact cosmological solutions and cosmological perturbations, -Scalar-tensor scenarios of the early universe and inflation, -Scalar-tensor models of quintessence in the present universe and their far-reaching consequences for the ultimate fate of the cosmos.
## Beyond Einstein Gravity

Beyond Einstein’s Gravity is a graduate level introduction to extended theories of gravity and cosmology, including variational principles, the weak-field limit, gravitational waves, mathematical tools, exact solutions, as well as cosmological and astrophysical applications. The book provides a critical overview of the research in this area and unifies the existing literature using a consistent notation. Although the results apply in principle to all alternative gravities, a special emphasis is on scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. They were studied by theoretical physicists from early on, and in the 1980s they appeared in attempts to renormalize General Relativity and in models of the early universe. Recently, these theories have seen a new lease of life, in both their metric and metric-affine versions, as models of the present acceleration of the universe without introducing the mysterious and exotic dark energy. The dark matter problem can also be addressed in extended gravity. These applications are contributing to a deeper understanding of the gravitational interaction from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. An extensive bibliography guides the reader into more detailed literature on particular topics.
## Modifications of Einstein's Theory of Gravity at Large Distances

In the last few years modified gravity theories have been proposed as extensions of Einstein's theory of gravity. Their main motivation is to explain the latest cosmological and astrophysical data on dark energy and dark matter. The study of general relativity at small scales has already produced important results (cf e.g. LNP 863 Quantum Gravity and Quantum Cosmology) while its study at large scales is challenging because recent and upcoming observational results will provide important information on the validity of these modified theories. In this volume, various aspects of modified gravity at large scales will be discussed: high-curvature gravity theories; general scalar-tensor theories; Galileon theories and their cosmological applications; F(R) gravity theories; massive, new massive and topologically massive gravity; Chern-Simons modifications of general relativity (including holographic variants) and higher-spin gravity theories, to name but a few of the most important recent developments. Edited and authored by leading researchers in the field and cast into the form of a multi-author textbook at postgraduate level, this volume will be of benefit to all postgraduate students and newcomers from neighboring disciplines wishing to find a comprehensive guide for their future research.
## Developments in Mathematical and Experimental Physics

The first part is devoted to the topic of quantum gravity and string theories, mainly concerned with recent authoritative results in the study of discretizations in classical and quantum general relativity, non-commutative theories of gravity, (2+1)-dimensional supergravity, and Berezin description of Kaehler quotients. The field to particle transition problem is also considered. The second part deals with cosmology and black holes. Here, cosmological, inflationary, and braneworld scenarios are investigated. Moreover, some scalar field models for the dark matter content of the universe as well as new models of protostellar collapse and fragmentation are presented. This part includes also a study of de Sitter/Anti-de Sitter phase transition for black holes, an understanding of hairy black holes and an improvement of the no-hair theorem proof for the Proca field. The third part is devoted to exact solutions, in particular classical and quantum cosmological solutions in scalar-tensor theories. Additionally, a discussion about conformally flat axisymmetric spacetimes and some considerations on accelerated expansion in scalar-tensor theories are presented. Experimental and some mixed topics are included in the final part. Among them is an experimental foundation of nonlocality and superluminal signal velocity in photonic tunneling, a proposal for testing the weak equivalence principle for charged particles in space. Moreover, a possible new type of skewon field linked to Maxwell theory is also presented, and an authoritative discussion at the interface of quantum and gravitational realms.
## Modifications of Einstein's Theory of Gravity at Large Distances

In the last few years modified gravity theories have been proposed as extensions of Einstein's theory of gravity. Their main motivation is to explain the latest cosmological and astrophysical data on dark energy and dark matter. The study of general relativity at small scales has already produced important results (cf e.g. LNP 863 Quantum Gravity and Quantum Cosmology) while its study at large scales is challenging because recent and upcoming observational results will provide important information on the validity of these modified theories. In this volume, various aspects of modified gravity at large scales will be discussed: high-curvature gravity theories; general scalar-tensor theories; Galileon theories and their cosmological applications; F(R) gravity theories; massive, new massive and topologically massive gravity; Chern-Simons modifications of general relativity (including holographic variants) and higher-spin gravity theories, to name but a few of the most important recent developments. Edited and authored by leading researchers in the field and cast into the form of a multi-author textbook at postgraduate level, this volume will be of benefit to all postgraduate students and newcomers from neighboring disciplines wishing to find a comprehensive guide for their future research.
## The Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation

The scalar-tensor theory of gravitation is one of the most popular alternatives to Einstein's theory of gravitation. This book provides a clear and concise introduction to the theoretical ideas and developments, exploring scalar fields and placing them in context with a discussion of Brans-Dicke theory. Topics covered include the cosmological constant problem, time variability of coupling constants, higher dimensional space-time, branes and conformal transformations. The authors emphasize the physical applications of the scalar-tensor theory and thus provide a pedagogical overview of the subject, keeping more mathematically detailed sections for the appendices. This book is suitable for graduate courses in cosmology, gravitation and relativity. It will also provide a valuable reference for researchers.
## Beyond Einstein Gravity

Beyond Einstein’s Gravity is a graduate level introduction to extended theories of gravity and cosmology, including variational principles, the weak-field limit, gravitational waves, mathematical tools, exact solutions, as well as cosmological and astrophysical applications. The book provides a critical overview of the research in this area and unifies the existing literature using a consistent notation. Although the results apply in principle to all alternative gravities, a special emphasis is on scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. They were studied by theoretical physicists from early on, and in the 1980s they appeared in attempts to renormalize General Relativity and in models of the early universe. Recently, these theories have seen a new lease of life, in both their metric and metric-affine versions, as models of the present acceleration of the universe without introducing the mysterious and exotic dark energy. The dark matter problem can also be addressed in extended gravity. These applications are contributing to a deeper understanding of the gravitational interaction from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. An extensive bibliography guides the reader into more detailed literature on particular topics.
## Black Holes, Cosmology And Extra Dimensions (Second Edition)

Assuming basic knowledge of special and general relativity, this book guides the reader to problems under consideration in modern research, concerning black holes, wormholes, cosmology, and extra dimensions. Its first part is devoted to local strong field configurations (black holes and wormholes) in general relativity and its most relevant extensions: scalar-tensor, f(R), and multidimensional theories. The second part discusses cosmology, including inflation and problems of a unified description of the whole evolution of the universe. The third part concerns multidimensional theories of gravity and contains a number of original results obtained by the authors. Expository work is conducted for a mechanism of symmetries and fundamental constants formation. The original approach to nonlinear multidimensional gravity that is able to construct a unique perspective describing different phenomena is highlighted.Much of the content was previously presented only in journal publications and is new for book contents, e.g., on regular black holes, various scalar field solutions, wormholes and their stability, inflation, clusters of primordial black holes, and multidimensional gravity. The last two topics are added in this new edition of the book. The other chapters are also updated to include new discoveries like the detection of gravitational waves.
## Recent Advances in Mathematical and Statistical Methods

This book focuses on the recent development of methodologies and computation methods in mathematical and statistical modelling, computational science and applied mathematics. It emphasizes the development of theories and applications, and promotes interdisciplinary endeavour among mathematicians, statisticians, scientists, engineers and researchers from other disciplines. The book provides ideas, methods and tools in mathematical and statistical modelling that have been developed for a wide range of research fields, including medical, health sciences, biology, environmental science, engineering, physics and chemistry, finance, economics and social sciences. It presents original results addressing real-world problems. The contributions are products of a highly successful meeting held in August 2017 on the main campus of Wilfrid Laurier University, in Waterloo, Canada, the International Conference on Applied Mathematics, Modeling and Computational Science (AMMCS-2017). They make this book a valuable resource for readers interested not only in a broader overview of the methods, ideas and tools in mathematical and statistical approaches, but also in how they can attain valuable insights into problems arising in other disciplines.
## Inflation and Quantum Geometrodynamics in Scalar-tensor Theories

Abstract: The work described in this thesis is an investigation of scalar-tensor theories. Scalar-tensor theories generalise Einstein's theory of relativity by replacing the univeral coupling constant of gravity, the Planck mass, with a dynamical scalar field. One motivation to consider scalar-tensor theories can be found within cosmology itself. Observations indicate that, during the very early universe, space underwent a period of accelerated expansion. This phase of expansion is called inflation. The most common method to implement inflation introduces a new scalar field to generate the required vacuum energy. It is not yet clear what the fundamental nature of this scalar field should be, and general relativity does not provide an answer to this question. Scalar-tensor theories, on the other hand, naturally explain the existence of such a field. During inflation it can be expected that tiny quantum gravitational corrections can be found in the imprint of the cosmic microwave background radiation. These corrections can be studied within the formalism of quantum geometrodynamics, which is a canonical, non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity. An important object in this formalism is the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which governs the dynamics of the quantised degrees of freedom. Although the Wheeler-DeWitt equation describes a full theory of quantum gravity, it has a well-defined classical limit, and quantum gravitational corrections can be systematically derived from a semiclassical expansion. The thesis starts with a review of the formalism of general relativity. It introduces a general class of scalar-tensor theories, and presents its properties. It reviews the formalism of inflation, and ends with the presentation of the formalism of inflation within the context of a general scalar-tensor theory. Furthermore, it presents the consequences of a general scalar-tensor theory in the context of semiclassical quantum gravity. The basis for this investigation is the canonical approach to quantum gravity, called quantum geometrodynamics. This is a canonical and non-perturbative formulation of quantum gravity, in which the Hamiltonian of the theory of general relativity is quantised in an analogous way as in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formalism is generalised to a general class of scalar-tensor theories. It is demonstrated how quantum geometrodynamics can be used to estimate the form and magnitude of the first quantum gravit ...
## Accelerated Cosmic Expansion

Proceedings from the 2012 Fourth International Meeting on Gravitation and Cosmology, focusing on accelerated cosmic expansion This volume provides both an update and a review of the state of alternative theories of gravity in connection with the accelerated expansion of the universe issue. Different theoretical proposals exist to explain the acceleration in the cosmic expansion, generating the dark energy issue and opening the possibility to theories of gravity alternative to general relativity. Related issues such as the dark matter problem are also surveyed in order to give the readers profound insight on the subject from different points of view. Comprised of short talks and plenary lectures given by leading experts in the field, some of them with brilliant and historic contributions, the book allows the reader to find readable and referenced surveys in topics like f(R) theories, the dark matter and dark energy issues, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) scenarios, f(T) theories, scalar-tensor theories derived from non-Riemannian geometries, emergent universes, the cosmological constant and other topics of current interest for younger and senior physicists and graduate students. These proceedings are from the Fourth International Meeting on Gravitation and Cosmology, held in Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, from 20 - 25 May, 2012, was sponsored by ICTP- Trieste, Italy and COECyTJAL-Universidad de Guadalajara, México. This event is a series of scientific meetings started in 2004 in Cuba, focusing on current and selected topics in the fields of gravitation and cosmology.
## Primordial Cosmology

The book provides an extensive survey of all the physics necessary to understand the current developments in the field of fundamental cosmology, as well as an overview of the observational data and methods. It will help students to get into research by providing definitions and main techniques and ideas discussed today.

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