Nonliving organic matter (NLOM) comprises the bulk of the organic carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere and a major part of the organic carbon in the sea. Organic substances, which include litter, marine detritus, dissolved organic matter, and soil organic matter, have diverse effects on the Earth’s biogeochemical processes and serve as a major reservoir of biospheric carbon, which can be transformed to carbon dioxide, methane, and other "greenhouse" gases. Given this broad spectrum of effects, efforts to adapt to or perhaps benefit from global change require a better understanding and an ability to predict the role of NLOM in the global environment. The overall objective of this volume is to provide experimental and modeling strategies for the assessment of the sensitivity of the global carbon cycle to changes in nonliving organic pools in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The discussions in this volume consider how best to characterize and quantify pools and fluxes of NLOM, the role of NLOM cycling on a global scale, human and climatic perturbations of interactions between NLOM and nutrients, and biological, chemical, and physical processes that control the production and degradation of NLOM, with an emphasis on processes that affect the persistence of NLOM in the environment. One of the most unique aspects of this volume is that it represents extensive exchanges between leading international scientists from both aquatic and terrestrial backgrounds. It will be of particular interest to organic geochemists, microbiologists, ecologists, soil scientists, agricultural scientists, marine chemists, limnologists, and modelers. Goal of this Dahlem Workshop: to devise experimental and modeling strategies for assessment of the sensitivity of the global carbon cycle to changes in nonliving organic pools.
A new section of short reviews called 'Frontiers' was introduced within the Elsevier journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters (EPSL) in 2002 under the Editorship of Alex Halliday from ETH Zurich, Switzerland. These high profile Frontiers articles are written by leading experts and published as the opening pages to regular issues of EPSL. The reason for this development is that the Editors of EPSL believe there is an important niche to be filled with fast communications that bring the scientific community up-to-speed on interesting new areas of science. Frontiers articles are therefore specifically intended for the non-specialist earth and planetary science readership. In order to reach a broader readership, those without subscriptions to the journal, Frontiers articles will now also be published in a new book series, the EPSL Frontiers series. Volume 1 will contain all 2002 and 2003 Frontiers articles. Future volumes will contain one year of articles each.
Introduction to Geomicrobiology is a timely and comprehensive overview of how microbial life has affected Earth’s environment through time. It shows how the ubiquity of microorganisms, their high chemical reactivity, and their metabolic diversity make them a significant factor controlling the chemical composition of our planet. The following topics are covered: how microorganisms are classified, the physical constraints governing their growth, molecular approaches to studying microbial diversity, and life in extreme environments bioenergetics, microbial metabolic capabilities, and major biogeochemical pathways chemical reactivity of the cell surface, metal sorption, and the microbial role in contaminant mobility and bioremediation/biorecovery microbiological mineral formation and fossilization the function of microorganisms in mineral dissolution and oxidation, and the industrial and environmental ramifications of these processes elemental cycling in biofilms, formation of microbialites, and sediment diagenesis the events that led to the emergence of life, evolution of metabolic processes, and the diversification of the biosphere. Artwork from the book is available to instructors at www.blackwellpublishing.com/konhauser.
The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.
Minerals existed long before any forms of life, playing a key role in the origin and evolution of life; an interaction with biological systems that we are only now beginning to understand. Exploring the traditional strand of mineralogy, which emphasises the important mineral families, the well-established analytical methods (optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction) and the dramatic developments made in techniques over recent decades, David Vaughan also introduces the modern strand of mineralogy, which explores the role minerals play in the plate tectonic cycle and how they interact with the living world. Demonstrating how minerals can be critical for human health and illness by providing essential nutrients and releasing poisons, Vaughan explores the multitude of ways in which minerals have aided our understanding of the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
For the past three decades, it has been possible to measure the earth's static gravity from satellites. Such measurements have been used to address many important scientific problems, including the earth's internal structure, and geologically slow processes like mantle convection. In principle, it is possible to resolve the time-varying component of the gravity field by improving the accuracy of satellite gravity measurements. These temporal variations are caused by dynamic processes that change the mass distribution in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Acquisition of improved time-varying gravity data would open a new class of important scientific problems to analysis, including crustal motions associated with earthquakes and changes in groundwater levels, ice dynamics, sea-level changes, and atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. This book evaluates the potential for using satellite technologies to measure the time-varying component of the gravity field and assess the utility of these data for addressing problems of interest to the earth sciences, natural hazards, and resource communities.
An examination of nature's extraordinary biological diversity and the human activities that threaten it. * 200+ A–Z detailed entries on Earth's ecosystems, major groups of organisms, threats to biodiversity, and academic disciplines related to the study of biodiversity * Contributions from 50 recognized authorities from the fields of anthropology, biology, botany, earth science, ecology, evolution, and more * 150 photographs of key people, animals, and organisms; line drawings; tables, charts, and graphs including the major families of birds, the effects of agricultural intensity on biodiversity, and the number of years needed to add each billion to the world's population * Four major overview essays explaining what biodiversity is, why it is important, how it is threatened, and the Sixth Global Extinction
Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle isan outcome of the AGU Chapman Conference held in February2012. This is a comprehensive volume that examines the use ofavailable remote sensing satellite data as well as data fromfuture missions that can be used to expand our knowledge inquantifying the spatial and temporal variations in the terrestrialwater cycle. Volume highlights include: - An in-depth discussion of the global watercycle - Approaches to various problems in climate, weather,hydrology, and agriculture - Applications of satellite remote sensing in measuringprecipitation, surface water, snow, soilmoisture, groundwater, modeling, and dataassimilation - A description of the use of satellite data for accuratelyestimating and monitoring the components of the hydrologicalcycle - Discussion of the measurement of multiple geophysical variablesand properties over different landscapes on a temporal and aregional scale Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle is a valuableresource for students and research professionals in thehydrology, ecology, atmospheric sciences, geography, andgeological sciences communities.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 168. The distribution of H2O in the Earth is under debate. Although liquid water covers 70% of the surface, the oceans represent only about 0.025% of the planet's mass-far less water than thought to have been present during Earth's formation. If our planet is "missing" most of its original water, could it reside in the mantle? Can we detect it seismically? Recognition of the capacity of some deep-mantle minerals to absorb water has propelled an interdisciplinary field of research addressing these two questions, and more. Earth's Deep Water Cycle advances the field with experimental, modeling, and seismic studies that focus on the physical characteristics of "hydrated" minerals, the potentially H2O-rich transition zone (410-660 km depth), and our detection abilities. Integrated perspectives from four fields of research are featured: Mineral physics and geochemistry Seismology and electrical conductivity Properties of deep hydrous mantle Global models and consequences of a deep-Earth water cycle From experimental synthesis and physical properties measurements to geophysical observations and geodynamic modeling, we are beginning to understand what parameters and data are needed to detect or refute the possibility of water in the deep Earth.