All the matter and light we can see in the universe makes up a trivial 5 per cent of everything. The rest is hidden. This could be the biggest puzzle that science has ever faced. Since the 1970s, astronomers have been aware that galaxies have far too little matter in them to account for the way they spin around: they should fly apart, but something concealed holds them together. That ’something' is dark matter – invisible material in five times the quantity of the familiar stuff of stars and planets. By the 1990s we also knew that the expansion of the universe was accelerating. Something, named dark energy, is pushing it to expand faster and faster. Across the universe, this requires enough energy that the equivalent mass would be nearly fourteen times greater than all the visible material in existence. Brian Clegg explains this major conundrum in modern science and looks at how scientists are beginning to find solutions to it.
This book brings together reviews from leading international authorities on the developments in the study of dark matter and dark energy, as seen from both their cosmological and particle physics side. Studying the physical and astrophysical properties of the dark components of our Universe is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of unveiling their nature. The work developed from a doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation. The book starts with a concise introduction to the standard cosmological model, as well as with a presentation of the theory of linear perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background. It covers the particle physics and cosmological aspects of dark matter and (dynamical) dark energy, including a discussion of how modified theories of gravity could provide a possible candidate for dark energy. A detailed presentation is also given of the possible ways of testing the theory in terms of cosmic microwave background, galaxy redshift surveys and weak gravitational lensing observations. Included is a chapter reviewing extensively the direct and indirect methods of detection of the hypothetical dark matter particles. Also included is a self-contained introduction to the techniques and most important results of numerical (e.g. N-body) simulations in cosmology. " This volume will be useful to researchers, PhD and graduate students in Astrophysics, Cosmology Physics and Mathematics, who are interested in cosmology, dark matter and dark energy.
Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity
Did the Universe have a beginning? Will it have an end? Or has it always been the same, never changing? This is the subject of cosmology; the study of the Universe, and this book provides a perfect introduction to the subject for anyone that is interested in the wonders of our Universe This book provides an accessible overview of the Standard Model of Cosmology, which is explained in six Cosmological Clues, including evidence for the Big Bang and dark matter and dark energy - the keystones of modern cosmology. It takes readers through some of the most exciting questions in cosmology, such as what evidence do we have that the Universe started from the Big Bang? Has dark matter been observed? Will we ever know what dark energy is? Are the multiverses real? And could the Universe be a hologram? This book is an ideal guide for anyone interested in finding out more about our Universe. It will be of interest to those studying cosmology for the first time, including readers without a scientific background, who have an interest in looking up at the stars and wondering where they all came from! Key features: Contains the latest evidence for the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy and explores exciting scientific ideas, such as inflation and multiverses Provides a clear explanation of the main theories of how the Universe evolved based on key observations - the Cosmological Clues Gives the reader a concise introduction to the scientific process, using cosmology as the example, and explores why it has been so successful in creating the technologies we have today
The book describes a history of the vortex theory. Introduced at the dawn of science almost 2600 years ago, it had passed through five phases of accumulation of its strength by absorbing the discoveries made during the Greek civilization, the Copernicus Revolution, the age of electromagnetism, the atomic age, and the information age. During the first four phases (see Chapters 1 through 12 of this book), the development of the vortex theory followed the same misfortunate pattern. Each time, this theory managed to bring attention of a new generation of brilliant scientists, who were enchanted by a deep physical meaning of its basic concept. But, although they employed the latest advances in science, none of them was able to produce a mathematical tool making the vortex theory practically usable. The fifth phase began in 1993 with the discovery of a unique spacetime spiral element, called the toryx. The toryx is a particular case of a multiple-level dynamic spiral with a poetic name helicola that describes the paths of all moving celestial bodies in our universe. The ability of the toryx to be turned inside out made it perfect for modeling the polarized prime elements of matter. A close offspring of the toryx called the helyx turned out to be ideal for modeling the polarized prime elements of the radiation particles. This discovery led to the development of a new version of the vortex theory called Three-Dimensional Spiral String Theory (3D-SST) outlined in Chapters 13 through 16.
“Splendidly satisfying reading, designed for a nonspecialist audience.”—Kirkus Reviews, starred review Evalyn Gates, a talented astrophysicist, transports readers to the edge of contemporary science to explore the revolutionary tool—”Einstein’s telescope”—that is unlocking the secrets of the Universe. Einstein’s telescope, or gravitational lensing, is so-called for the way gravity causes space to distort and allow massive objects to act like “lenses,” amplifying and distorting the images of objects behind them. By allowing for the detection of mass where no light is found, scientists can map out the distribution of dark matter and come a step closer to teasing out the effects of dark energy on the Universe—which may forever upend long-held notions about where the Universe came from and where it is going.
Dark matter research is one of the most fascinating and active fields among current high-profile scientific endeavours. It holds the key to all major breakthroughs to come in the fields of cosmology and astroparticle physics. The present volume is particularly concerned with the sources and the detection of dark matter and dark energy in the universe and will prove to be an invaluable research tool for all scientists who work in this field.
In this book the applicability and the utility of two statistical approaches for understanding dark energy and dark matter with gravitational lensing measurement are introduced. For cosmological constraints on the nature of dark energy, morphological statistics called Minkowski functionals (MFs) to extract the non-Gaussian information of gravitational lensing are studied. Measuring lensing MFs from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Lensing survey (CFHTLenS), the author clearly shows that MFs can be powerful statistics beyond the conventional approach with the two-point correlation function. Combined with the two-point correlation function, MFs can constrain the equation of state of dark energy with a precision level of approximately 3–4 % in upcoming surveys with sky coverage of 20,000 square degrees. On the topic of dark matter, the author studied the cross-correlation of gravitational lensing and the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). Dark matter annihilation is among the potential contributors to the EGB. The cross-correlation is a powerful probe of signatures of dark matter annihilation, because both cosmic shear and gamma-ray emission originate directly from the same dark matter distribution in the universe. The first measurement of the cross-correlation using a real data set obtained from CFHTLenS and the Fermi Large Area Telescope was performed. Comparing the result with theoretical predictions, an independent constraint was placed on dark matter annihilation. Future lensing surveys will be useful to constrain on the canonical value of annihilation cross section for a wide range of mass of dark matter annihilation. Future lensing surveys will be useful to constrain on the canonical value of annihilation cross section for a wide range of mass of dark matter.
In my 3rd book, "QUANTUM MECHANICS AND GENERAL RELATIVITY", I have explained how the time seems to be the link to bring together the two theories of theoretical physics which are the theory of General Relativity and the theory of Quantum Mechanics.Physicists today believe that in order to achieve a complete unification of the two theories we must understand and explain in a scientific way what the concepts of dark Matter and dark Energy are.In this book (my 4th), I must therefore analyze these two concepts since I began to want to bring together the two previous theories.The concepts of dark Matter and dark Energy are related to my equation on the time t inside a moving mass m, located in the gravity field (therefore close) of an external mass MG. I have changed the time t at the level of the mass m by the following time t, and I will explain why these changes: t becomes: t . ( 1/&^2 ) . ( 1 - MG^2 / (m . &)^2 ) . (1 - Rs^2 / d^2) And I will also explain in this book the consequences of this modification.
The nature and essence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy have become the central issue in modern cosmology over the past years. This extensive volume, an outgrowth of a topical and tutorial summer school, has been set up with the aim of constituting an advanced-level, multi-authored textbook which meets the needs of both postgraduate students and young researchers in the fields of modern cosmology and astrophysics.
The Theory that I have developed in this book is linked to the time at the level of a high speed moving object. In my equation on the time t at the level of the moving object of mass m, there is also the external gravity MG to m which is defined as an important parameter.And so, all the physics areas where time or gravity is a parameter and when there is a moving object could be interested by my Theory.My equation on the time t at the level of the moving object of mass m allowed me to successfully quantify the effect of gravity in the sense that I can calculate the effect of an external gravity on the internal time t of a moving object (like a spacecraft for example). I found a relationship between t, v, m and MG.I have developed all these points in detail in this book.I have analyzed the two concepts of dark Matter and dark Energy and I have explained the links with my Theory.I have also explained how my Theory could help to bring together the two Theories of theoretical physics which are the Theory of General Relativity and the Theory of Quantum Mechanics.I will show also that long travels into the Space are possible according to my Theory, in the sense that the people who traveled inside the spacecraft could return to our Earth after the very long travel, without having aged, like the people who remained on our Earth. And so, travelers could return to our Earth and find people as they were when they left them!And I will describe the concepts of theoretical speeds, according to my Theory.I have found also 2 other areas where time and gravity are involved and so where there is a link with my Theory: The first one is gravitational waves and the second one is the power of spacecraft engines. And I will explain what could be the links with my Theory.I will also explain how the current physics is respected
Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that scientists believe permeates all of space and keeps expanding our universe at an accelerating rate. But what if it also spans across universes in a wider multiverse, and what if in other universes with different laws of physics it can behave very differently and even give rise to unique forms of life? Eleven years have passed since the story in the science fiction adventure book Dark Matter. Earth and much of the Milky Way galaxy are now under attack by an unknown, destructive power, and the only way Marc Zemin and his highly advanced alien friends may be able to stop it is by sacrificing themselves for everyone else. Swept away into another universe of alternate dimensions, they soon find themselves at the mercy of a mighty enemy that continuously defeats and subjects them to one harsh punishment after another. As their willpower to survive slowly diminishes, so does any hope of their ever being able to return home. That is, unless they somehow find a way to fight back and make the startling discovery of who, or what, is behind it all and why.
Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution. This succinct yet comprehensive volume: Addresses all aspects essential to the study of dark matter Explores particle candidates for cold dark matter beyond the theory of the standard model, providing examples of basic extensions and introducing theories such as supersymmetry and extra dimensions Explains—in simple text and mathematical formulations—calculation of the freeze-out temperature of a dark matter species and its relic density Provides theoretical background for dark matter scattering off a target, event rate calculation, and dark matter annihilation essential to study direct and indirect detection of dark matter Complete with a detailed review of the latest dark matter experiments and techniques, Dark Matter: An Introduction is an ideal text for beginning researchers in the field as well as for general readers with an inquisitive mind, as the important topic of astroparticle physics is treated both pedagogically and with deeper insight.
Documents the recent efforts of scientists to explain the ninety-six percent of the universe not comprised of known matter, drawing on interviews with leading figures to describe the rivalries, collaborations, and discoveries that are redefining current understandings.
Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity make life possible!This book for the lay reader provides a summary of the latest astrophysical observational results and theoretical insights into what we know and what we hope to learn about dark matter, dark energy, and dark gravity.How did the profound beauty of our Earth, our Solar System, our Milky Way galaxy and indeed our universe unfold? Dark matter, dark energy, and dark gravity have made all the difference in how the universe has developed, and have been key to creating the overall environment that makes life possible. We have only recently developed the ability to begin unlocking their secrets, thus providing a deeper insight into how a universe of our type is possible. It seems that because of dark matter, dark energy and dark (weak) gravity, our universe has the right attributes for the development of complex structure and the evolution of intelligent life that can engage in the quest to understand our world. These “dark” or more hidden attributes of the cosmos have very good outcomes.In particular, the existence of dark matter makes it easier to form complex structures, including galaxies, stars and planets through gravitational collapse of denser regions of the universe. Planets are the most suitable abodes for the development of life. Dark energy acts to extend the lifetime of the universe by counteracting gravity and driving continued expansion of the universe.Even as far back as the 1930s there has been evidence that most of the matter in the universe was not visible via electromagnetic radiation (optical light, radio waves, etc.). By the last few decades of the 20th century, the case for a considerable amount of this dark matter was very strong. It is the second largest contributor to the total mass-energy of the universe. We don't know what it is and there are various candidates to explain it; nevertheless we see the gravitational effects of dark matter everywhere on the largest scales. Recent observational results indicate that dark matter dominates by a factor of 6 relative to the ordinary matter that makes up stars, planets, and living things.We now know that the major contributor to the mass-energy of the universe is not the substantial dark matter, but the 'newer' so-called dark energy. Dark energy acts to some extent as a negative gravity, and for the last several billion years has driven the expansion of the universe to a faster and faster pace, overcoming even the gravitational effect of dark matter. We have a general idea that it is the irreducible energy found in every volume of space, even in the absence of matter – in the vacuum. We don't understand why it takes the value that it does, one that is small in quantum particle physics terms, but nevertheless is of great significance on the large cosmological scale of the universe. The third important aspect to consider is not a mass-energy component, but the nature of gravity and space-time. The big question here is – why is gravity so relatively weak, as compared to the other 3 forces of nature? These 3 forces are the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. Gravity is different – it has a dark or hidden side. It may very well operate in extra dimensions beyond the normal 4 dimensions of space-time that we can observe. This is what we mean in this book by “dark gravity”.
Particles are the building blocks of the universe, shaping our very existence, as long as we view them as particles and not nebulous quantum objects For centuries, scientists have sought to discover and understand more about these particles, trying to unlock the secrets of how our universe was created and what will happen to it in the future, and thankfully we have now discovered a lot of answers in recent years. As an introduction to particle physics, which is aimed at physics undergraduates, this book discusses the range of quarks, leptons and bosons that we know or believe exist and the search for as yet undiscovered particles, including CERN's work on the Large Hadron Collider. The book also examines ways of testing whether or not an interaction would be possible or forbidden and also ways in which to identify unknown particles seen in a collision event. We also consider dark matter, what indicates that it exists and some possible candidates for it, and dark energy, the mysterious force that is actually causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate. David Chapple is a physicist who lectures in the OUDCE Department of the University of Oxford in particle physics, quantum physics and cosmology.
Through use of a lecture-slide format, this book presents an astrophysics detective story that chronicles Jerome Drexler's literature search for astronomical clues and evidence to unveil the nature of dark matter. There are a number of mysteries in astrophysics and cosmology that have remained unsolved for decades. What is dark matter? How exactly are stars created? In 1998, it was determined from supernova studies that the expansion of the Universe was accelerating, thereby creating the mystery of dark energy. Astrophysicists have developed mutually exclusive, single-phenomenon theories for each of these three phenomena, but not a unified theory for all three of them. The author's original goal was to identify dark matter, a decades-old mystery. In the process, he developed a new theory for dark matter and illuminated the nature of dark energy and the process of Sun formation. Since dark matter may have been instrumental in the creation of galaxies and stars, the author decided to test his new dark matter theory on the formation of the Sun. The results were very encouraging. He next sought a possible link between dark matter and the accelerating expansion of the Universe, which is attributed to the mysterious dark energy. Using his dark matter theory and the laws of physics, the author explained the accelerating expansion of the Universe in a plausible manner. This book chronicles the author's search for a unified astrophysical theory and how it finally evolved.
Various cosmological observations support not only cosmological inflation in the early universe, which is also known as exponential cosmic expansion, but also that the expansion of the late-time universe is accelerating. To explain this phenomenon, the existence of dark energy is proposed. In addition, according to the rotation curve of galaxies, the existence of dark matter, which does not shine, is also suggested. If primordial gravitational waves are detected in the future, the mechanism for realizing inflation can be revealed. Moreover, there exist two main candidates for dark matter. The first is a new particle, the existence of which is predicted in particle physics. The second is an astrophysical object which is not found by electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, there are two representative approaches to account for the accelerated expansion of the current universe. One is to assume the unknown dark energy in general relativity. The other is to extend the gravity theory to large scales. Investigation of the origins of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy is one of the most fundamental problems in modern physics and cosmology. The purpose of this book is to explore the physics and cosmology of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy.
This work provides the current theory and observations behind the cosmological phenomenon of dark energy. The approach is comprehensive with rigorous mathematical theory and relevant astronomical observations discussed in context. The book treats the background and history starting with the new-found importance of Einstein’s cosmological constant (proposed long ago for the opposite purpose) in dark energy formulation, as well as the frontiers of dark energy.