This volume contains ground-breaking studies on such matters as the early development of legal theory in Islam, the emergence of "us l al-fiqh," theory vis-a-vis practice, various controversies among Muslim theorists, the construction of juristic authority, reformist concepts, and the role of "qaw cid."
Imaginationen vom "Anderen": deutsche Orientbilder. Vorstellungen von Deutschland, Europa und dem Orient entstehen immer in Relation zueinander. Die Beiträger des vorliegenden Bandes untersuchen die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Christen, Juden und Muslimen in der deutschen Kultur, wie sie sich und den anderen vorstellten – mitunter, ohne sich je begegnet zu sein. Auf eine zeitliche Eingrenzung wurde bewusst verzichtet, denn vormoderne Orientbilder überlagern sich mit den modernen. Als besonders fruchtbar für die Untersuchung der gesellschaftlichen Imaginationen des Orient erweisen sich die Themenbereiche Nationalismus, Wissenschaften und Identität.
This study focuses on judicial practice in the Andalusian metropolis of Cordoba during the years 456/1064 to 464/1072. The author analyses the writings of councils of the judiciary, who commented, often controversially, on cases heard by courts pertaining to different judiciary systems. These texts offer new insights into the organization of the city's judiciary and its social and economic life. They allow for a precise definition of the relation between the qadi and governmental jurisdiction. By examining both realms, the author demonstrates -for the first time in a pre-Ottoman context- that "fiqh," the Islamic system of ethical and juridical norms, was held, by all forms of the judiciary of this Muslim capital, to constitute a fundamental component of the legal system. The author develops a new interpretation of the reciprocity between society and law.
The work of Nizami Ganjavi, a classical poet of the twelfth century, is fueling new cultural debate in Iran in recent years. The dominant discourse encourages the reading of the texts in light of biographical or theological conventions and religious motives. These essays explore Nizami s influential role and his portrayal of issues related to love, women, and science, stressing his preoccupation with the art of speech as a major impetus behind his literary activity.
I.B.Tauris in association with the Iran Heritage Foundation From the Sasanian to the Safavid Empire, and from Qajar Iran to the current Islamic Republic, the history of Iran is one which has been coloured by a rich tradition of myths and narratives and shaped by its wealth of philosophers, cultural theorists and political thinkers. Perceptions of Iran dissects the construction of Iranian identity, to reveal how nationalism has been continually re-formulated and how Iran's self-perception has been moulded by its literary past. Here, Ali M. Ansari gathers together a varied and wide-ranging account of the long history of Iranian encounters with the Western world, whether via the observations of Herodotus, or the knowledge – via the Old Testament – of Cyrus liberating the Jews from Babylon, or into the modern era when nineteenth and twentieth century interactions reflect the unequal power relationship between Iran and the West. Perceptions of Iran also explores the salient elements in the country's narrative which helped to form Iran's identity, such as Ferdowsi's creation of the Shahnameh – the national epic – the exquisite architecture of Safavid Isfahan or the unfulfilled promise of the Constitutional Movement in the early twentieth century. It offers analysis of the Qajar Shahs' use of a mythical and dynastic past, as they drew on the narratives of Jamshid's glory and Khusraw's splendour in order to legitimise their rule. At the same time, it examines the ways in which foreign travellers and diplomats understood and conceived of the royal courts of Safavid Persia. As it covers 2,500 years of political and intellectual history, Perceptions of Iran ties together the diverse threads of Iranian experience that have underpinned the country's social and cultural movements, spanning Mirza Agha Khan Kermani's writing on Persian history and liberal nationalism, through to the strident anti- Western discourses of Seyyed Jamal al-Afghani, Jalal Al-e Ahmad and Ayatollah Khomeini. The book is therefore vital for researchers of Iranian history and those interested in the use of myth in the construction of national identity more widely.
First published in 1967, Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages is one of the most influential works in the field of Islamic history. Primarily a study of the main cities of the Mamluk state of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries AD, Professor Lapidus' book serves to provide a framework for understanding the long evolution of Muslim political and social institutions and urban societies. The relationships between military rulers, the bourgeoisie and the common people are presented in a study of wide relevance to social history.
The Church of the East is currently the only complete history in English of the East Syriac Church of the East. It covers the periods of the Sassanians, Arabs, Mongols, Ottomans, the 20th century, and informs about the Syriac, Iranian and Chinese literature of this unique and almost forgotten part of Christendom.
Whether defined by family, lineage, caste, professional or religious association, village, or region, India's diverse groups did settle on a concept of law in classical times. How did they reach this consensus? Was it based on religious grounds or a transcendent source of knowledge? Did it depend on time and place? And what apparatus did communities develop to ensure justice was done, verdicts were fair, and the guilty were punished? Addressing these questions and more, A Dharma Reader traces the definition, epistemology, procedure, and process of Indian law from the third century B.C.E. to the middle ages. Its breadth captures the centuries-long struggle by Indian thinkers to theorize law in a multiethnic and pluralist society. The volume includes new and accessible translations of key texts, notes that explain the significance and chronology of selections, and a comprehensive introduction that summarizes the development of various disciplines in intellectual-historical terms. It reconstructs the principal disputes of a given discipline, which not only clarifies the arguments but also relays the dynamism of the fight. For those seeking a richer understanding of the political and intellectual origins of a major twenty-first-century power, along with unique insight into the legal interactions among its many groups, this book offers exceptional detail, historical precision, and expository illumination.
Das Verhältnis zwischen Judentum, Christentum und Islam unterlag im Laufe der Geschichte vielfältigen Veränderungen. Welche Konflikte gab es, welche Phasen und Formen von Austausch und Kooperation standen dem gegenüber? Der Band ist das Ergebnis einer Tagung aus dem Jahr 2009. Wissenschaftler aus sechs Ländern präsentieren nun die Ergebnisse. Die Sektionen behandeln die "Gegenseitige Wahrnehmung vor dem 1. Weltkrieg", "Kultur, Bildung, Fremdwahrnehmung" seit 1945, "Austausch und Konflikte" von der Frühen Neuzeit bis ins 20. Jahrhundert, das "Rechtsverständnis", "Recht und Wirtschaft", die "Religionsgelehrsamkeit" sowie "gesellschaftliche Integration und Bewahrung der Identität". Mit Beiträgen von: Kilian Bälz, Hans-Jürgen Becker, Hartmut Bobzin, Michael Brenner, Micha Brumlik, Thomas E. Burman, John Efron, Leila Tarazi Fawaz, Claude Gilliot, Friedrich Wilhelm Graf, Peter Heine, Karl Homann, Yosef Kaplan, Thomas Kaufmann, Yavuz Köse, Gudrun Krämer, Michael Kreutz, Roland Löffler, Wolfgang Loschelder, Hans Maier, Asher Meir, Tilman Nagel, Matthias Pohlig, Maurus Reinkowski, Mathias Rohe, Heinz Schilling, Reinhard Schulze, Martin Tamcke, Georges Tamer, Lucette Valensi, Dietmar Willoweit, Israel Yuval und einer Podiumsdiskussion der Sektionsleiter.