This book gathers the proceedings of a symposium on Dynamics of satellites which took place in Prague in May 1969 during the twelfth COSPAR meeting. This symposium was sponsored by the International Astronomical Union, the International Association of Geodesy, the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics and COSPAR (Committee on Space Research). The organizing committee was composed of Dr. KOVALEVSKY chair man, Dr. Yu. V. BATRAKOV representing IAU, Dr. A. H. COOK for lAG, Dr. D. KING-HELE for COSPAR, Prof. M. Roy for IUTAM and Dr. ROSENBERG. I wish to take advantage of the opportunity to thank, on behalf of all the participants, the organizing committee members, Prof. BUCHAR, Dr. RAJSK:I and Dr. SEHNAL, for the kindness and efficiency of their welcome. The interpreters who translated with virtuosity during the whole symposium also deserve our gratitude. I am grateful also for the care and skill with which Springer-Verlag has printed this volume.
P. J. MESSAGE University of Liverpool The papers which comprise this volume were presented at Colloquium No. 41 of the International Astronimical Union, which was held in Cambridge, England, from the 17th to the 19th of August, 1976, and had as its subject 'Dynamics of Planets and Satellites and Theories of their Motion'. The Colloquium was held just prior to the XVIth General Assembly of the Union (which was held from 24th August to 2nd September, in Grenoble, France) to provide an opportunity for the presentation of research papers on a number of active and lively branches of Celestial Mechanics to a gathering of experts in the field, and for the stimulus of discussion of research problems of interest to participants. A number of papers testify to the progress being made in General Planetary Theory, the theories of motion of the minor planets, the Moon, and the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, and to significant advances in both the general and restricted gravitational problems of three bodies. The Organizing Committee of the Colloquium was comprised of J. Chapront, R. L. Duncombe, J. Hadjidemetriou, Y. Kozai, B. Morando, J. Schubart, V. Szebehely, and P. J. Message (Chairman). The local Organizer was D. C. Heggie, to whose tireless efforts the success of the arrangements is due. IX LIST OF PARTICIPANTS N. Abu-el-Ata, Bureau des Longitudes, 77 Avenue Denfert Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France K. Aksnes, Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, U. S. A.
This volume includes original papers presented at the 4th Symposium on Satellite Dynamics held at the XII Annual Plenary Meeting of COSPAR. At a time where it might be thought that very few problems were left un solved in celestial mechanics, we discover that new and more challenging questions must be answered. The pre cision of observations reaches the centimeter level and physical phenomena which had been disregarded come into play. We need a better treatment of atmospheric drag, radiation forces, and a better knowledge of the earth's gravitational field. Time has to be precisely defined as well as reference systems, including improved values for precision and nutation. The question of resonances introduced by nonzonal harmonics was to be carefully in vestigated. Numerical integration techniques must be optimized and means of controlling their errors improved. Analytical techniques must be made appropriate for com puter processing. Presently existing methods of solu tions of differential equations of interest to celestial mechanics are getting cumbersome as all these new facts come to light. It is clear that entirely new and more effective methods are necessary. These methods must, among other requirements, take into account the essential nonlinear character of the equations. Finally, the mo tion about the center of mass of a satellite is becoming an essential need for the thorough understanding and de scription of the orbital motion.
The Earth's atmosphere is often portrayed as a thin and finite blanket covering our planet, separate from the emptiness of outer space. In reality, the transition is gradual and a tiny fraction of the atmophere gases is still present at the altitude of low orbiting satellites. The very high velocities of these satellites ensure that their orbital motion can still be considerably affected by air density and wind. This influence can be measured using accelerometers and satellite tracking techniques. The opening chapters of this thesis provide an excellent introduction to the various disciplines that are involved in the interpretation of these observations: orbital mechanics, satellite aerodynamics and upper atmospheric physics. A subsequent chapter, at the heart of this work, covers advances in the algorithms used for processing satellite accelerometry and Two-Line Element (TLE) orbit data. The closing chapters provide an elaborate analysis of the resulting density and wind products, which are generating many opportunities for further research, to improve the modelling and understanding of the thermosphere system and its interactions with the lower atmosphere, the ionosphere-magnetosphere system and the Sun.
Comprehensive coverage includes environmental torques, energy dissipation, motion equations for four archetypical systems, orientation parameters, illustrations of key concepts with on-orbit flight data, and typical engineering hardware. 1986 edition.