To understand climate change today, we first need to know how Earth’s climate changed over the past 450 million years. Finding answers depends upon contributions from a wide range of sciences, not just the rock record uncovered by geologists. In Earth’s Climate Evolution, Colin Summerhayes analyzes reports and records of past climate change dating back to the late 18th century to uncover key patterns in the climate system. The book will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about future climate change. The book takes a unique approach to the subject providing a description of the greenhouse and icehouse worlds of the past 450 million years since land plants emerged, ignoring major earlier glaciations like that of Snowball Earth, which occurred around 600 million years ago in a world free of land plants. It describes the evolution of thinking in palaeoclimatology and introduces the main players in the field and how their ideas were received and, in many cases, subsequently modified. It records the arguments and discussions about the merits of different ideas along the way. It also includes several notes made from the author’s own personal involvement in palaeoclimatological and palaeoceanographic studies, and from his experience of working alongside several of the major players in these fields in recent years. This book will be an invaluable reference for both undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in related fields and will also be of interest to historians of science and/or geology, climatology and oceanography. It should also be of interest to the wider scientific and engineering community, high school science students, policy makers, and environmental NGOs. Reviews: "Outstanding in its presentation of the facts and a good read in the way that it intersperses the climate story with the author's own experiences. [This book] puts the climate story into a compelling geological history." -Dr. James Baker "The book is written in very clear and concise prose, [and takes] original, enlightening, and engaging approach to talking about 'ideas' from the perspective of the scientists who promoted them." -Professor Christopher R. Scotese
The book reviews the current physical theory of Earth's global evolution, its origin, structure and composition, the process of Earth's core formation, Earth's energy, and the nature of its tectonomagnetic activity. The book also deals with the origin of the Moon and its influence on our planet's evolution. Based on the integral positions of this theory, the book analyzes the issues of the origin of the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and the conception and evolution of life on Earth. The monograph also reviews the adiabatic theory of the greenhouse effect developed by the authors, and the effects of nitrogen-consuminging bacteria and of periodic changes in the precession angle on its climate. In particular, these effects cause the onset and periodicity of ice ages and a significant climate warming during the periods of supercontinent appearance (like Pangaea in the Mid-Mesozoic). * challenges current thinking about climate change on the basis of sound geological data. * helps the reader make informed decisions about Earth-process related problems. * challenges the reader to critically analyze both theory and data
The theory of the Earth's climate evolution based on universal chemical-physical laws of matter-energy transformation is presented in the book. It shows how the process of Earth's core separation has led to formation and evolution of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Having analyzed the processes of heat transfer in the atmosphere, the writers developed the adiabatic theory of the greenhouse effect, which was applied for analysis of climatic changes on the Earth. The influence of changes in climate on formation of mineral deposits and development of life on Earth was considered and presented based on modeling of typical climatic regimes. It shows that the anthropogenic effect on the Earth's global temperature is negligible in comparison with the effect of global forces of nature. * Presents the theory of Earth's evolution based on the laws of chemical-density differentiation of the origin of the Earth * Discusses the adiabatic theory of the greenhouse effect with quantitative estimates of the natural and anthropogenic influences on Earth's climates * Describes the quantitative description of the evolution of the Earth's climate throughout geologic history and prediction of the future of the Earth's climate * Investigates the global forces of nature driving the Earth's climate
Climate alarmists' continue to issue dire forecasts of global disasters in coming decades based on long-term computer projections of alleged "anthropogenic global warming" (AGW)-supposedly caused by accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced in the burning of fossil fuels. Evidently, some climatologists are embarrassed by the fact they haven't yet been able to model and accurately simulate some of the phenomena known to be forcing Earth's climate changes, and consequently, they appear t
Climatic changes by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment
Climate change is one of the most controversial and argued issues in the world today, and it has been for years. It has been politicized by politicians on all sides, some scientists have used the study of it for their own material gain above true scientific discovery, and some scientific theories surrounding it have been believed even though proven false. But there is not, by any means, complete agreement among all scientists throughout the world on this issue. Written by two of the world’s most well-respected environmental and petroleum engineers, this book is meant to be one voice in the scientific literature on this important subject. Other books, also available from Wiley-Scrivener, take the opposite stance, but it is important, in our scientific journey, to listen to all voices and rely on facts, rather than opinions. We trust the reader to make his or her decisions based on all of the facts, and not just some of them.
Climatic changes by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment
Earth's Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth is intended as an introductory text that examines the evolution of the Earth and its life from a systems point of view. The text covers major topics like the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere, and discusses how these systems interacted with each other and evolved through geologic time. The author takes care to integrate the current state of our Earth systems with those of the past in an effort to develop students' interests in Earth system in general. It begins by examining the basics of Earth systems, including discussions of sedimentation, evolution, stratigraphy, and plate tectonics. Part Two looks at the beginning of time with the origin of the Earth and discusses its early evolution, through the origin of life and its evolution to multiculluraity. The third section goes on to cover the Paleozoic through the Neogene eras, discussing topics such as tectonics, mountain building, sea level, climate, life, and mass extinctions in each era. The final part moves on to the modern world, discussing the interactions between humans and Earth systems, with an emphasis on the climatic system. Key Features of Earth's Evolving System: - Presents the Earth as a continuously evolving and dynamic planet whose history consists of a succession of vastly different worlds very much unlike our modern Earth. - Discusses the scientific method in Chapter 1, emphasizing how historical geology differs from the standard "scientific method" presented as the paradigm of experimental sciences and of all science. - Bridges traditional historical geology texts by discussing historical information in the context of the interaction and integration of Earth systems through geologic time by using the tectonic (Wilson) cycle as a unifying theme. - Concentrates on North America but offers a global perspective on Earth systems on processes such as orogenesis, seaways, and ocean circulation, the evolution of life, and mass extinction. - Discusses rapid climate change and anthropogenic impacts in the context of a continuously evolving Earth whose environments are now being altered by anthropogenic climate change. - End-of-chapter materials include: general review questions, more challenging "Food for Thought" questions, key terms listing, and a "Sources and Further Readings" section. - Boxes throughout the text highlight interesting bits of related information, unusual occurrences, or elaborates on material presented in the text
Examples are the nature of Earth's oldest rocks, the origin of continents, extraterrestrial impact and mass extinctions of organisms, rates of organic evolution, and recent developments on the origin of humans.
Chosen for the 2011 ASLI Choice - Honorable Mention (History Category) for a compendium of the key scientific papers that undergird the global warming forecast. Global warming is arguably the defining scientific issue of modern times, but it is not widely appreciated that the foundations of our understanding were laid almost two centuries ago with the postulation of a greenhouse effect by Fourier in 1827. The sensitivity of climate to changes in atmospheric CO2 was first estimated about one century ago, and the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration was discovered half a century ago. The fundamentals of the science underlying the forecast for human-induced climate change were being published and debated long before the issue rose to public prominence in the last few decades. The Warming Papers is a compendium of the classic scientific papers that constitute the foundation of the global warming forecast. The paper trail ranges from Fourier and Arrhenius in the 19th Century to Manabe and Hansen in modern times. Archer and Pierrehumbert provide introductions and commentary which places the papers in their context and provide students with tools to develop and extend their understanding of the subject. The book captures the excitement and the uncertainty that always exist at the cutting edge of research, and is invaluable reading for students of climate science, scientists, historians of science, and others interested in climate change.
The book use an approach that explains the mechanisms but is equation-free. It is written from the point of view of a physicist and treats the physical processes in detail providing a deep understanding in particular of the energy balance and the greenhouse effect. It avoids technical jargon and presents the issues in a simple and clear manner. In addition to the fuller explanations, the approach is innovative. The record of past climates is used as a benchmark to assess current climate changes and to apprehend the true magnitude of coming changes that stem from human activity. It is for this reason that such emphasis is given to understanding the mechanisms (Parts 1 and 2) and the lessons from past climates (Part 3). The central subject of the book is thus that of Work Package 1 of IPCC, namely “Climate changes in the past and to come”. Although many topics are covered, the book focuses on the fundamental mechanisms that underlie climate equilibrium. These are discussed in depth and placed in a hierarchy, which provides a better perspective of the different factors, parameters and mechanisms that drive the variations in the average climate. One of its novelties is to present the notion of average climate in terms of energy required to maintain the climate. This allows the reader to understand the basic role of the available energy on the Earth and to generalise the concept of climate on the scale of the whole planet. In this way the fundamental importance of the greenhouse effect is introduced, as well as the average temperature as an indicator of climate change, i.e., the pertinence of the temperature – energy parameter. This is why it describes the average climate in terms of the three key components : temperature, rainfall and wind. Special attention is given to the energy balance of the planet in all its aspects and to understanding clearly the mechanism of the greenhouse effect and the physical notion of temperature. These last two form the basis of the perturbation generated by human activity and the means of quantifying its impact. By presenting the detailed climate archives over the last few million years (Part 3, Lessons of the Past), in particular the glacial - interglacial cycles of the Quaternary era, the mechanism that drives the natural climate changes is revealed, and the lessons to be learnt from the past follow naturally. Emphasis is laid on the means of characterizing and quantifying global climate change: -Global warming is accompanied by an average rise in temperature that increases with latitude. Mean latitudes experience a rise in temperature twice as great as that of the overall average (a finding that is confirmed by the recent warming and which is forecast in the models for the 21st century). -Throughout the whole of the Quaternary era (last few million years) the warm interglacial periods never encountered a rise in the average temperature greater than 2°C beyond the current warm period. This provides a reference for the global warming that is approaching. -Finally, with respect to biodiversity, the glacial - interglacial cycles of the past illustrate how the impact of large temperature changes can affect the biosphere, and promote greater biodiversity at lower latitudes. These points serve to circumscribe the magnitude of the changes, both in the climate and in the biosphere, that are in store in the 21st century. The whole of Part 4 (Recent evolution in the climate) summarizes the consequences of the recent global warming. The interest here is to illustrate the observed impact on the planet of a global climate change. This highlights the predictions of the models, which are entirely consistent with these observations (Part 5).
This module introduces basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, explains how clouds form and what they are made of, describes the role they play in determining climate, and considers how they both cause - and are affected by - climate
This text uses a narrative approach to introduce human evolution and the dynamic subfields of biological anthropology. Evolution by natural selection provides the thread as students may learn the essentials of biological anthropology and genetics. In each section, behaviour, morphology, adaptation and ecology are discussed to provide the context and comparative bases for human origins. The human adaptation to culture and the interworkings of culture, biology, behaviour, and evolution are emphasized.
Proceedings of a conference that provided a foundation to begin addressing matters related to communicating the climate change issue in order to raise awareness, confer understanding, and motivate action. Presentations are organized under the following themes: climate change perceptions among scientists & decision makers; influences on public understanding of climate change; organizational roles in communicating about climate change; national & regional communication strategies; climate change perceptions among the public; assessment of media representations of climate change; promotion of community action; stakeholder framing of climate change; communication and the science/policy interface; lessons for civic engagement from other participatory processes; social marketing strategies; community-based communication strategies; climate change education through science fiction; climate change curriculum development; values and responsibility; scenarios as communication tools; engaging youth & educators; linking climate change knowledge & action; stakeholder engagement in the agricultural sector; motivating change; developing an international climate change communication network; communication of natural variability & extremes; the role of libraries & the Internet; and climate change from an Inuit perspective. The final section includes summaries of conference workshops, public forums, and poster papers.