In 1992, The Section on Business Law of the International Bar Association established a Task Force on Economic Consequences of Litigation Worldwide to study and report on the different civil and commercial court systems throughout the world. The purpose of the Task Force was to evaluate the problems of civil litigation and propose solutions on a global scale, based on a comparative analysis of different jurisdictions, with a particular focus on commercial litigation and the economic consequences of litigation to worldwide business. The Task Force included representatives from Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, United Kingdom and the United States. The project was divided into three stages: Fundamentals of Commercial Litigation, Problems and Consequences, and Solutions and Proposals for Change. Economic Consequences of Litigation Worldwide is the result of six years of intensive study and effort. It includes chapters on Asia Pacific (Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore), Canada, Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland), the United Kingdom and the United States. The book provides a practical study of the various court systems throughout the world and problems and consequences of commercial litigation, along with a thoughtful analysis of proposed solutions.
'Although corruption has affected human society since its very birth with different intensity over time, it is not confined to any particular geographic region, country, social or political system or culture. Recently there has been widespread international determination to effectively curb such crime. Corruption: Economic Analysis and International Law by Marco Arnone and Leonardo Borlini reviews the richness and complexity of the ongoing research on corruption and shows the value of integrating a comprehensive economic understanding of its consequences and a critical assessment of the several legal instruments promoted by major intergovernmental organizations on this issue. This approach is particularly timely because, on the bright side, this book shows that economic crises may lead to greater social responsiveness in the face of attempts to drain public resources through corruption and bribery. the use of a wide range of economic models and the acute analysis of the contemporary evolution of traditional institutions belonging to the realm of international and European law represent two additional values of this work. Finally, the personal commitment of both authors to scientific research and professional activity related to public governance and anti-corruption reforms make this book a valuable source for further thought and analysis for scholars, public servants and practitioners.' - Giorgio Sacerdoti, Professor of International and European Law, Bocconi University and former President of the WTO Appellate Body and Vice President of the OECD Working Group on Corruption
This acclaimed reference book for international business lawyers first appeared in 2006, with a second edition in 2010. Now in its third edition, and once again published in conjunction with the International Bar Association, this comparative study of a crucial issue in corporate law gives practitioners a powerful and decisive tool for ascertaining and comparing the law affecting directors’ liability in today’s globalizing economies. Covering nearly fifty jurisdictions worldwide (including eight not previously covered), the third edition affords senior lawyers in major firms the opportunity to provide concise, detailed, and easy-to-understand summaries on his or her home law on directors’ liability. Authors whose research appeared in earlier editions have updated their chapters, and the case law summarized and analysed now reflects published cases through the end of March 2016. The contributions describe the relevant law in force in each particular jurisdiction, along with an insightful discussion of trends and future prospects. For each of the different jurisdictions the authors detail and explain such factors as the following: - national legal theories of director liabilities; - recent cases dealing with directors’ liability; - corporate governance; and - indemnification and insurance. Where applicable, coverage also includes the legal implications of jurisdictional variations in such matters as judicial review, lawyer directorship, directors’ reliance on outside professionals, and the effect of the European Action Plan. References have been thoroughly updated throughout, and include many new online sources. This publication will be of enormous value to legal practitioners, whether in private practice or in the legal department of a globally active company, as a comprehensive and easy means of access to the law of foreign jurisdictions on directors’ liability.
The economic impact of the U. S. financial market meltdown of 2008 has been devastating both in the U. S. and worldwide. One consequence of this crisis is the widening gap between rich and poor. With little end in sight to global economic woes, it has never been more urgent to examine and re-examine the values and ideals that animate policy about the market, the workplace, and formal and informal economic institutions at the level of the nation state and internationally. Re-entering existing debates and provoking new ones about economic justice, this volume makes a timely contribution to a normative assessment of our economic values and the institutions that active those norms. Topics covered by this volumes essays range from specific or relatively small-scale problems such as payday lending and prisoners’ access to adequate healthcare; to large-scale such as global poverty, the free market and international aid. Economic Justice will stimulate and provoke philosophers, policy makers, the engaged readers who and better outcomes from financial institutions and more effect distribution of economic goods.
Since the Second World War, States have increasingly relied upon economic sanctions programs, in lieu of military action, to exert pressure and generally to fill the awkward gap between verbal denunciation and action. Whether or not sanctions are effective remains a point of contention among policymakers. Frequently asked questions include whether any legal order constrains the use of sanctions, and, if so, what the limits on the use of sanctions are. This volume gathers contributions from leading experts in various relevant fields providing a seminal study on the limits of economic sanctions under international law, including accountability mechanisms when sanctioning States go too far. Where there are gaps in the law, the authors provide novel and important contributions as to how existing legal structures can be used to ensure that economic sanctions remain within an accepted legal order. This book is a most valuable contribution to the literature in the fields of international economic law, public international law and international dispute resolution. Ali Z. Marossi is an advisory board member of The Hague Center for Law and Arbitration. Marisa R. Bassett is Associate Legal Officer in the Office of the Prosecutor for the ICTY and former Associate at White & Case LLP.
This book provides a robust guideline to both policymakers and researchers wishing to identify and categorize the factors that influence the process of technology flows across national boundaries, as well as the economic theories and legal arguments that may support a given position in international forums. In particular, the work discusses how certain negotiation strategies may optimally deal with such barriers and lead to more effective institutional arrangements in the current global geography of technological development.
How can property rights be protected and contracts be enforced in countries where the rule of law is ineffective or absent? How can firms from advanced market economies do business in such circumstances? In Lawlessness and Economics, Avinash Dixit examines the theory of private institutions that transcend or supplement weak economic governance from the state. In much of the world and through much of history, private mechanisms--such as long-term relationships, arbitration, social networks to disseminate information and norms to impose sanctions, and for-profit enforcement services--have grown up in place of formal, state-governed institutions. Even in countries with strong legal systems, many of these mechanisms continue under the shadow of the law. Numerous case studies and empirical investigations have demonstrated the variety, importance, and merits, and drawbacks of such institutions. This book builds on these studies and constructs a toolkit of theoretical models to analyze them. The models shed new conceptual light on the different modes of governance, and deepen our understanding of the interaction of the alternative institutions with each other and with the government's law. For example, one model explains the limit on the size of social networks and illuminates problems in the transition to more formal legal systems as economies grow beyond this limit. Other models explain why for-profit enforcement is inefficient. The models also help us understand why state law dovetails with some non-state institutions and collides with others. This can help less-developed countries and transition economies devise better processes for the introduction or reform of their formal legal systems.
In the last few years, social media has become the primary way of communicating, not only among friends and colleagues but also between employers and employees and between companies and consumers. For employers, the phenomenon offers great opportunities, but also concomitant dangers due primarily to use of social media by employees and employees' representatives. Written in the context of employment laws as well as privacy laws, this book surveys the state of the law in over thirty key jurisdictions, including most of the developed countries of Europe, Asia, and North America and major developing countries worldwide. The publication arose from a seminar prepared by the editors and others at which it was clearly identified that internationally operating employers need a comprehensive and user-friendly multinational summary on employment and labour law questions arising in connection with the use of social media. The book is divided into country chapters, each written by a known local specialist. In order to easily 'navigate' through the issues for each country, the chapters follow a uniform structure, covering the applicable statutory regimes, case law, useful checklists, and recommendations. Among the issues and topics dealt with are the following: - employees' entitlement to use social media at the workplace; - whether employers can require the use of social media by employees; - right of employers to monitor employees' use of social media outside the workplace; - employers' potential liability for employees' misuse of social media; - right of employee representatives to use employers' equipment for social media purposes; - employers' remedies against misuse of social media by employees and employee representatives; - development and drafting of a social media policy; and - role of social media in employer–employee disputes. No other publication exists providing interested parties with a practical and strategic guide to legal issues affecting the use of social media in the workplace. With its easy-to-use country-by-country format and its expert recommendations, this unique resource will prove itself as an incomparable handbook for lawyers, human resources professionals, and in-house counsel advising or working for internationally operating businesses. It will also be of inestimable value for academics and policymakers concerned with the legal ramifications of social media use in the workplace.
The volume describes and analyzes how the costs of litigation in civil procedure are distributed in key countries around the world. It compares the various approaches, draws general conclusions from that comparison, and presents global trends as well as common problems and solutions. In particular, the book deals with three principal questions: First, who pays for civil litigation costs, i.e., to what extent do losers have to make winners whole? Second, how much money is at stake, i.e., how expensive is civil litigation in the respective jurisdictions? And third, whose money is ultimately spent, i.e., how are civil litigation costs distributed through mechanisms like legal aid, litigation insurance, collective actions, and success oriented fees? Inter alia, the study reveals a general trend towards deregulation of lawyer fees as well as a substantial correlation between the burden of litigation costs and membership of a jurisdiction in the civil and common law families. This study is the result of the XVIIIth World Congress of Comparative Law held under the auspices of the International Academy of Comparative Law.