Achieving sustainable agricultural development is at the forefront of the poverty reduction objective of the Central Asian republics - Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Since independence, the countries of the Central Asian region have undergone a series of transition from centrally planned economies to a more market oriented system. Wide-ranging policy reforms have been implemented, although in varying degrees, in the five Central Asian countries. Despite great efforts by the countries and the external advice and efforts of international agencies to help them to follow a dynamic growth path, the progress in policy reforms has been frustratingly slow. Generating momentum to reorient the approach and the sequencing of policy reform packages will require rethinking of the policy reform process. This is particularly so in the food, agriculture, and natural resource sectors. This further requires improved understanding among the policymakers, donors, and international agencies of the impact of policy alternatives so that policy reforms and the speed with which they have been implemented are consistent with the objectives and the social and political realities of individual countries in the region. Involving the local policy research community in identifying critical issues and challenges, setting priorities among them for food and agricultural and natural resource policy research and analysis, and implementing joint research studies is the best way to generate knowledge on the impact of policy reforms and to increase ownership of policy design and implementation.
Drawing on Khalid Ikram's extensive knowledge of economic policymaking at the highest levels, The Political Economy of Reforms in Egypt lays out the enduring features of the Egyptian economy and its performance since 1952 before presenting an account of policy-making, growth and structural change under the country's successive presidents to the present day.
Going for Growth 2011 highlights the structural reforms needed to restore long-term growth in the wake of the crisis. For each OECD country and, for the first time, six key emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa), five reform priorities are identified.
Based on a broad set of indicators of structural policies and performance, Going for Growth 2007 takes stock of the recent progress made in implementing policy reforms and identifies, for each OECD country, five policy priorities to lift growth.
This IEG evaluation, requested by the World Bank s Board of Executive Directors, represents the first independent evaluation of the PSIA experience. The evaluation finds that: The PSIA approach has appropriately emphasized the importance of assessing the distributional impact of policy actions, understanding institutional and political constraints to development, and building domestic ownership for reforms PSIAs have not always explicitly stated their operational objectives (i.e., informing country policies, informing Bank operations, and/or contributing to country capacity) PSIAs have had limited ownership by Bank staff and managers and have often not been effectively integrated into country assistance programs Quality assurance and Monitoring and Evaluation of the overall effectiveness of PSIAs have been weak The evaluation recommends that the World Bank: Ensure that Bank staff understand what the PSIA approach is and when to use it Clarify the operational objectives of each PSIA and tailor the approach and timeline to those objectives Improve integration of the PSIA into the Bank s country assistance program by requiring that all earmarked funding for PSIAs be matched by a substantial contribution from the country unit budgets Strengthen PSIA effectiveness through enhanced quality assurance
With six essays exploring different aspects of economic growth, poverty, inequality and social security, this book offers a critical perspective on India's development experience since independence. Incisive and empirically rich, the book opens up new vistas in development discourse and informs current policy debates.
Coming at an important moment in the development of Southern Africa's trade policy, this study looks at the country's shifting economic priorities and assesses the impact of their decisions on other countries in the region. Currently, South Africa has trade agreements with Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland--as well the European Union and the World Trade Organization--all dictated by often-erratic trade negotiations. This analysis predicts that South Africa's new commitment to openness and prosperity will strengthen their leadership in these unions, but there are still hurdles having to do with industrial production and the need for a unilateral trade policy.
This 2006 edition of OECD's periodic survey of Canada's economy finds strong economic performance but cautions that to maintain this performance, productivity must be increased and social policies must be put on a sustainable path. After reviewing ...
Economic assistance, American by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs
This 2006 edition of OECD's periodic review of the Russian economy finds an economy enjoying robust growth, but requiring strengthening of the macroeconomic framework to sustain that growth. Public administration urgently needs reform and raising ...
OECD's periodic survey of the Russian economy. This 2009 edition includes chapters on stabilisation and renewed growth, growth-friendly fiscal policy, more flexible exchange rate policy and more effective monetary policy, making the banking sector ...
The International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics presents articles which are surveys of current issues in this research area where literature is abundant. As every year, we recommend the present yearbook to keep up with the developments of this literature. Michel Griffon, Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture The Yearbook provides a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge issues in environmental and resource economics. The expert contributors address some of today s most pressing environmental topics including: issues in water pricing reforms spatial environmental policy environmental equity and the siting of hazardous waste facilities strategies to conserve biodiversity corporate sustainability the double-dividend hypothesis of environmental taxes valuing environmental changes in the presence of risk. The Yearbook will provide economists, scholars and practitioners working in environmental and resource economics with a comprehensive overview of the cutting-edge issues in the field.
The "results agenda" adopted by the World Bank and other donors aims to ensure that development assistance yields sustainable poverty reduction. Effective poverty reduction results from three main factors: sustained and inclusive growth, effective service delivery to the poor, and capable public sector institutions that are accountable to stakeholders for the results they achieve. The Annual Review of Development Effectiveness 2006 assembles evaluative evidence around three questions central to poverty reduction: - How effectively has economic growth translated into poverty reduction in Bank-assisted countries and what factors have affected these results? - What factors have led to high-quality results in areas that deliver services to the poor? - What measures help raise the accountability of public institutions responsible for delivering and sustaining these results? The report identifies three key areas where the World Bank can further strengthen its effectiveness in helping countries reduce poverty. - Economic growth has improved in many Bank client countries but a stronger focus on the nature of growth is needed to ensure that such growth leads to jobs for the poor and productivity increases in poorer regions and sectors where the poor earn their incomes. - Consistent use of a clearly articulated results chain helps ensure that Bank country assistance programs and individual projects set realistic objectives, that key cross-sectoral constraints to achieving them are adequately considered and that due attention is given to building capacity. - A realistic assessment of the political economy of governance-related reforms is needed to tailor efforts to increase the accountability ofpublic sector institutions to local conditions.