Science

Ecotoxicology of Nanoparticles in Aquatic Systems

Author: Julian Blasco

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 740

The use of nanoparticles in medicine, industrial, and other applications has triggered an interest in their potential. This book explores the use of nanoparticles related to their occurrence in the environment, their impact on biota in aquatic systems, application of new methodologies, and changes associated with new global scenarios. The book also covers the bioaccumulation and internalization of nanoparticles as key aspects to assess their uptake and discusses the methodologies for testing ENPs ecotoxicity at different trophic levels.
Science

Ecotoxicology of Nanoparticles in Aquatic Systems

Author: Julian Blasco

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 651

The use of nanoparticles in medicine, industrial, and other applications has triggered an interest in their potential. This book explores the use of nanoparticles related to their occurrence in the environment, their impact on biota in aquatic systems, application of new methodologies, and changes associated with new global scenarios. The book also covers the bioaccumulation and internalization of nanoparticles as key aspects to assess their uptake and discusses the methodologies for testing ENPs ecotoxicity at different trophic levels.
Science

Toxicology of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials in Human, Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems

Author: Marc A. Williams

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page:

View: 985

An indispensable compendium detailing the toxicology of nanoparticles with a focus on mechanisms, emerging issues, and new approaches Toxicology of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials in Human, Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems provides authoritative information on the toxicology of ultrafine and nanoparticulate matter that contaminate terrestrial or aquatic environments and present unique challenges in applied public health and toxicological research. Detailed chapters by a panel of world-renowned experts examine the complementary and dynamic interdependence of aquatic, terrestrial, and human systems and the toxicological impacts on exposure to engineered and manufactured nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Organized into four sections, the book opens with a thorough overview of the field, including known challenges and the necessity for current research activity. The second section describes terrestrial and aquatic systems and the ecotoxicological impact of nanomaterials, followed by critical analysis of the many human health effects of nanomaterials. The book concludes with an in-depth discussion of current gaps in knowledge, future directions, new approach methodologies, alternatives to animal models, and the emerging environmental threat from nanoplastics. Presenting case exemplars of the ecotoxicological impact of nanoparticles in aquatic and terrestrial systems, this important resource: Presents in-depth coverage of ecosafety, environmental behavior, fate and transport, interactive effects with other contaminants, and current challenges in soil nano-ecotoxicology Addresses rising concerns regarding air pollution and neurological disorders, and the roles played by the gastrointestinal system, the mucosal microbiome, and the immunotoxicology and vasculotoxicity of metal-based nanoparticles Provides detailed coverage of nanomaterial health effects from both animal and in vitro models, including the gut microbiome, innate immunity, neurological and cardiovascular impacts, mechanisms of action, and hazard characterization Analyzes key topics in ecological nanotoxicology such as environmental micro- and nano-plastic pollution and applied risk assessment Toxicology of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials in Human, Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems is essential reading for toxicologists, applied biologists, ecotoxicologists, research scientists, medical professionals, regulators, and advanced students in fields such as public health, environmental ecotoxicology and medicine, immunotoxicology, neurotoxicology, cardiovascular and systems biology, hazard identification, and risk assessment.

Uptake and Effects of Nanoparticles in Fish

Author: Tessa Scown

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 722

Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing industry of global economic importance, with new technologies exploiting the novel characteristics of materials manufactured at the nanoscale being developed for use within the biomedical, electronic, energy production and environmental sectors. The unusual properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that make them useful in such applications have led to concerns regarding their potential impact on the environment. The aquatic environment is particularly at risk of exposure to ENPs, yet, there is currently little known about their behaviour in aquatic systems, their capacity to be taken up by aquatic organisms or their potential toxic effects. The studies that were conducted during this work sought to investigate the ecotoxicology of a range of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles using fish as a vertebrate model. In order to gain a better understanding of the uptake and effects of ENMs in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to nanoparticulate (34 nm) and bulk (>100 nm) titanium dioxide particles via the water column (500 and 5000 [mu]g L-1), and to titanium dioxide nanoparticles via the diet (0.1 and 1 mg g-1 food) and via intravenous injection (1.3 mg kg-1 body weight). Uptake of titanium dioxide into the tissues of trout after waterborne and dietary exposure was found to be very low, suggesting limited bioavailability of the nanoparticles to the fish, although small amounts of uptake of titanium dioxide across the gill epithelial membrane were observed using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering. Intravenously injected titanium dioxide accumulated and was retained in the kidneys for up to 21 days, but no adverse effect on kidney function was detected. Silver nanoparticles are already in widespread use in a variety of consumer products such as wound dressings, food containers, sock fabrics and paints, principally for their antimicrobial activity. Despite its growing commercialisation, there is little known about the environmental effects of the use of nanoparticulate silver in these products. In order to investigate these potential effects, rainbow trout were also exposed to 10 nm, 35 nm and bulk (0.6-1.6 [mu]m) silver particles via the water column at concentration of 10 and 100 [mu]g L-1. Uptake of silver in the gills and liver of trout occurred, with smaller nanoparticles showing a greater propensity for association with gill tissue, but with no significant differences in uptake between particles of different sizes in the liver. No increases in lipid peroxidation were detected in gills, liver or blood plasma of trout, however, expression of cyp1a2 was significantly up-regulated in exposures to 10 nm silver particles in the gill, suggesting an increase in oxidative metabolism. In an attempt to develop an effective high through-put in vitro screening assay for ENMs, the suitability of isolated rainbow trout primary hepatocytes was examined as a potential model for in vitro screening of a range of toxicological endpoints in response to nanoparticles and for studying uptake of nanoparticles into cells. The hepatocytes retained a good level of functionality after culturing as evidenced by vitellogenin production in response to the synthetic oestrogen, 17[beta]-oestradiol. The cultured hepatocytes, however, showed limited responses on exposure to titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, cerium oxide and silver nanoparticles for lipid peroxidation and glutathione-s-transferase activity assays. Furthermore, the hepatocytes were unresponsive to the induction of these biological responses in the positive controls, suggesting they are not a good model for investigating the potential toxic effects of ENMs in terms of these endpoints. Uptake of the nanoparticles into the cells, however, was demonstrated by coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy, indicating that this in vitro assay may provide a useful model for studying uptake of ENPs into cells. The studies conducted in this thesis contribute the science base regarding the bioavailability of ENPs in aquatic media as well as highlighting the importance of characterisation of ENPs in understanding their behaviour, uptake and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.
Science

Nanotechnology for Environmental and Biomedical Research

Author: Giada Frenzilli

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 822

Do you care about your environment and your health? Contamination by hazardous substances in environmental matrices, including landfills, oil fields, and manufacturing and industrial sites, represents a global concern and needs to be remediated since it poses a serious risk to the environment and human health. Particular attention should also be paid to the use of medical devices and recent developments in the use of nanoparticles expressed as drug delivery systems designed to treat a wide variety of diseases. This Special Issue collects a compilation of articles that strongly demonstrate the continuous efforts made in developing advanced and safe nanomaterial-based technologies for nano-remediation and for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. It covers the most recent advances in the safe nanomaterials synthesis field as well as in environmental applications, in the use of restorative materials, drug delivery and other clinical applications, in order to lay the foundations for a cleaner and healthier future.
Science

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse - Lessons Learned in Technological Developments and Management Issues

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 409

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse - Lessons Learned in Technological Developments and Management Issues, Volume 6 explores emerging and state-of-the-art technologies. Chapters cover Treatment options for the direct reuse of reclaimed water in developing countries, Water reuse in India: Current perspectives and future potential, Water reuse practices, solutions and trends at international, Impact of the use of treated wastewater for agricultural need: behavior of organic micropollutants in soil, transfer to crops, and related risks, Environmental risks of sewage sludge reuse in agriculture, Modeling tools for risk management in reclaimed wastewater reuse systems: Focus on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), and much more. Covers a wide breadth of emerging and state-of-the-art technologies Includes contributions from an international board of authors Provides a comprehensive set of reviews on wastewater treatments and reuse
Science

Plant-Microbes-Engineered Nano-particles (PM-ENPs) Nexus in Agro-Ecosystems

Author: Pardeep Singh

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 215

View: 100

This book presents a collection of cross-disciplinary research, with contributions addressing all key features of the plant/microbe/ENP nexus in agro-ecosystems. The uptake, transport and transformation of nanoparticles in plants have attracted more and more attention in the past several years. Especially, the impact of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) on bioprocesses; low-, medium- and high-level dose responses in the microbial community of soil; and long-, medium- and short-term exposure responses, particularly microbial nitrogen transformations, are just a few of the aspects involved. Since ENPs are used in many industries, including cosmetics, agriculture, medicine, food technology and waste management, their transport through biogeochemical cycles is an important focus of many studies today. Specifically, ENP–microbe interaction has been analysed with regard to disease treatment for plants; it plays a vital role in disease inhibition by releasing metal ions that act through many pathways – e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA transformation and disruption of the cell cycle – to stop cell growth in the pathogen. Due to these properties, ENPs are also used as slow release or delayed release pesticides and fungicides, and as carrier systems for growth-promoting hormones. Despite their multiple uses in various industries, the negative effects of ENPs are still a major concern for the scientific community and consumers alike. For example, their transport to various food chains has been reported to have adverse effects. This raises a degree of doubt concerning a rapidly growing scientific field with major applications in many industries. From a sustainable development perspective and particularly to ensure food security in light of the uncertainty accompanying climate change, it is imperative to address this divergence by focusing on the plant/microbe/ENP nexus.
Science

Handbook of Soil Sciences

Author: Pan Ming Huang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 830

View: 966

An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for co
Nature

Ecotoxicology

Author: Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 282

View: 549

This book presents an integrated discussion on ecotoxicology, containing both general concepts and specific ecotoxicological issues of major biological groups, extending beyond conventional systems. It explores worldwide, regional, and biocompartmentalized topics, bringing forth new points of view on global issues and addressing the increasing diversity and complexity of the ecotoxicological field. It also contains novel information on emerging contaminants, presents bioaccumulation effects on different levels of ecological organization and risk analyses, and discusses novel fields of methodological applications, including key aspects in ecotoxicological and environmental monitoring studies.
Technology & Engineering

SFT 2/2019: Safety & Fire Technology

Author: st. bryg. dr inż. Paweł Janik

Publisher: Centrum Naukowo-Badawcze Ochrony Przeciwpożarowej im. Józefa Tuliszkowskiego Państwowy Instytut Badawczy

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 206

View: 394

Safety & Fire Technology (do numeru 4/2018 "BiTP. Bezpieczeństwo i Technika Pożarnicza/ Safety & Fire Technique" ISSN 1895-8443) jest czasopismem recenzowanym, w którym publikowane są oryginalne artykuły naukowe, doniesienia wstępne, artykuły przeglądowe, studia przypadków. Zakres tematyczny czasopisma: teoria i modelowanie rozwoju pożaru metody i środki zapobiegania pożarom oraz ograniczania ich skutków dochodzenia popożarowe i analiza ryzyka pożaru taktyka, technika i bezpieczeństwo w działaniach ratowniczo-gaśniczych aspekty prawne i edukacja w ochronie przeciwpożarowej bezpieczeństwo i ochrona ludności zagrożenia i ochrona środowiska materiały w ochronie środowiska i zagrożeniach pożarowych nowoczesne technologie w ochronie przeciwpożarowej i ochronie środowiska