Science

Principles of Ecotoxicology, Fourth Edition

Author: C.H. Walker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 940

Cutting across traditional subject boundaries, Principles of Ecotoxicology, Fourth Edition gives readers an integrated view of ecotoxicology, from molecules to ecosystems. This new edition of a bestselling textbook continues to emphasize principles rather than practice, providing the interdisciplinary perspective and grounding required for research. Organized into three sections, the book first describes the molecular structures, properties, and environmental fate of pollutants. It then deals with the effects of pollutants on living organisms at the molecular, cellular, and individual levels. Moving into population biology and population genetics, the third part of the book addresses a question of great interest to ecologists: What effects do pollutants have at the levels of population, community, and the whole ecosystem? The book also looks at how ecotoxicology is used in the biomonitoring of environmental pollution, the investigation of pollution problems, the conducting of field trials, the study of the development of resistance, and the growing area of environmental risk assessments. Throughout, examples and case studies illustrate the principles. This updated fourth edition includes new material on nanoparticle pollution, bioaccumulation, biomarkers, and chemical warfare in nature, as well as a new chapter on the future directions of ecotoxicology. A concise textbook that will also appeal to practicing ecotoxicologists, it provides a solid basis for understanding what happens to chemicals in the real world, where they go, how they ultimately degrade, and how they affect the individuals and populations that encounter them. What’s New in This Edition Revised and updated material throughout A chapter on future directions of ecotoxicology New material on nanoparticle pollution and chemical warfare in nature Expanded coverage of bioaccumulation, biomarkers, and risk assessment for affected populations More case studies, many from the United States Discussion of neurotoxic and behavioral effects of pollutants Recent research on the decline of vultures and effects of neonicotinoids on bees Organic Pollutants: An Ecotoxicological Perspective, Second Edition (CRC Press, 2008), a companion volume to this book, covers the mechanistic aspects of ecotoxicology in more depth.
Medical

Ecotoxicology

Author: F. Moriarty

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 347

View: 871

Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the ecological effects of pollutants: the ways in which ecosystems can be affected, and current attempts to predict and monitor such effects. The emphasis is on ecosystems; therefore toxicological approaches are critically assessed. Following a brief introduction to the principal characteristics of both pollutants and ecosystems, the various ecosystem components are considered in more detail. Populations, communities and gene pools are examined with an emphasis on the ways in which pollutants affect them specifically. The indirect effects of pollution are considered separately in a new chapter with particular attention paid to the mechanisms and biological effects of global warming. A discussion of the methods used to predict and to monitor the effects of pollutants, some illustrative examples of pollution problems and a final summary discussion, complete the book. Key Features * A classic proven by its 2nd edition. * Still the only book to properly integrate ecological principles with chemistry/biochemistry * Focuses on the interaction between ecology and toxicology * Designed for use by toxicologists with no ecology training, and for ecologists with no toxicology training * There is a new chapter on pollutants in habitats and global warming
Science

Ecotoxicology

Author: Frank Moriarty

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 347

View: 706

Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the ecological effects of pollutants: the ways in which ecosystems can be affected, and current attempts to predict and monitor such effects. The emphasis is on ecosystems; therefore toxicological approaches are critically assessed. Following a brief introduction to the principal characteristics of both pollutants and ecosystems, the various ecosystem components are considered in more detail. Populations, communities and gene pools are examined with an emphasis on the ways in which pollutants affect them specifically. The indirect effects of pollution are considered separately in a new chapter with particular attention paid to the mechanisms and biological effects of global warming. A discussion of the methods used to predict and to monitor the effects of pollutants, some illustrative examples of pollution problems and a final summary discussion, complete the book. A classic proven by its second edition Still the only book to properly integrate ecological principles with chemistry/biochemistry Focuses on the interaction between ecology and toxicology Designed for use by toxicologists with no ecology training, and for ecologists with no toxicology training There is a new chapter on pollutants in habitats and global warming
Science

Ecotoxicology

Author: Erik Jorgensen

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 305

Ecotoxicology offers an overview of current ecotoxicological problems. It includes basic ecotoxicological concepts, as well as information about chemicals and toxic substances that may cause harmful effects on the ecosystem and its living components. The book, with a total of 48 chapters, is divided into three parts. The first part includes the basic concepts of ecotoxicology, starting with an introductory chapter on ecotoxicology as a subdiscipline of ecology; assessment on ecotoxicological effects and risk; and properties and effects of toxic chemicals. These topics are further discussed throughout the book, along with nomenclature, focal topics, and the history of ecotoxicology. The two remaining parts tackle harmful properties and harmful chemicals. The second part also covers bioaccumulation, bioavailability, biodegradability, biodegradation, and biomagnification. It also provides models for ecotoxicological populations, ecosystems and landscapes, and on food-web bioaccumulation. Chemicals including benzene, copper, lead, nitrogen, phenols, pheromones, phthalates, plutonium, and uranium are covered in separate chapters in the final part. This book will be of great value to ecologists, ecotoxicologists, and environmental managers. Provides an overview of the theory and application of global ecology International focus and range of ecosystems makes Ecotoxicology an indispensable resource to scientists Based on the bestselling Encyclopedia of Ecology Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding
Science

ECOtoxicology: Ecological Dimensions

Author: D.J. Baird

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 90

View: 244

Ecotoxicology is a relatively new scientific discipline. Indeed, it might be argued that it is only during the last 5-10 years that it has come to merit being regarded as a true science, rather than a collection of procedures for protecting the environment through management and monitoring of pollutant discharges into the environment. The term 'ecotoxicology' was first coined in the late sixties by Prof. Truhaut, a toxicologist who had the vision to recognize the importance of investigating the fate and effects of chemicals in ecosystems. At that time, ecotoxicology was considered a sub-discipline of medical toxicology. Subsequently, several attempts have been made to portray ecotoxicology in a more realistic light. Notably, both Moriarty (1988) and F. Ramade (1987) emphasized in their books the broad basis of ecotoxicology, encompassing chemical and radiation effects on all components of ecosystems. In doing so, they and others have shifted concern from direct chemical toxicity to humans, to the far more subtle effects that pollutant chemicals exert on natural biota. Such effects potentially threaten the existence of all life on earth. Although I have identified the sixties as the era when ecotoxicology was first conceived as a coherent subject area, it is important to acknowledge that studies that would now be regarded as ecotoxicological are much older.
Science

Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition

Author: Michael C. Newman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 464

Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author’s previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment. Encouraging a more rigorous inferential approach to research, the book examines the quantitative features of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters lay the foundation by introducing fundamental concepts and definitions. The author traces the historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics of scientific ecotoxicology as well as the general measurement process. He also considers methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions from ecotoxicological endeavors. The book then discusses ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization and outlines quantitative methods used to measure toxicant accumulation and effects. Reflecting the importance of establishing type I and type II error rates, it highlights design issues, particularly sample size and power estimation. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicology from a nonregulatory perspective. Extensively updated, this second edition has been expanded to include terrestrial as well as aquatic ecotoxicology. Requiring only a basic knowledge of statistics, this highly readable book is suitable for graduate students and researchers as well as practicing environmental scientists and engineers. It guides readers to better understand the fate and effects of toxicants in the biosphere—and helps them frame this understanding in quantitative terms. What’s New in This Edition More than 40 new figures and 20 new worked examples Updated measurement quality methods and software Expanded coverage of synecological models and methods More integration of Bayesian concepts Appendices for power analysis and basic matrix methods Additional mixture toxicity and up-and-down methods Greatly expanded discussion of significance testing Expanded discussion of metapopulations Matrix tools for population demography Light isotope-based models for trophic transfer of toxicants Inclusion of metacommunity and SHE analysis techniques R script examples by Eduard Szöcs (University Koblenz-Landau) available at http://edild.github.io/blog/categories/quantitative-ecotoxicology-with-r/
Science

Introduction to Ecotoxicology

Author: Des W. Connell

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 117

Environmental pollution is one of the most serious threats to the future health of our planet. A wide and ever increasing range of chemicals from industry, agriculture, medicine and a host of other sources continue to contribute to the earth's chemical load. Governments have encountered great difficulties responding to the crucial and immediate need for effective management. As a result, the new science of ecotoxicology has developed, which provides a broad conceptual framework for evaluating the effects of chemicals in natural ecosystems. This book is aimed principally at undergraduate students who have completed basic courses in both chemistry and biology. It takes a broad view of ecotoxicology starting with the nature, properties and behaviour of environmental toxicants, and extends to dose/response relationships and effects on organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems. Importantly, it also addresses environmental management areas such as biomarkers, biomonitoring, ecological risk assessment and the ecotoxicology and management of chemicals. The book provides an invaluable overview of the subject for students taking courses in ecotoxicology and environmental pollution, as well as wider degree programmes in biology, ecology, wildlife management, environmental science, environmental impact assessment, toxicology, pollution, chemical engineering, civil engineering, sanitation engineering and related subjects.
Science

Fish Ecotoxicology

Author: Braunbeck

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 390

In modern ecotoxicology, fish have become the major vertebrate model, and a tremendous body of information has been accumulated. This volume attempts to summarize our present knowledge in several fields of primary ecotoxicological interest ranging from the use of (ultra)structural modifications of selected cell systems as sources of biomarkers for environmental impact over novel approaches to monitoring the impact of xenobiotics with fish in vitro systems such as primary and permanent fish cell cultures, the importance of early life-stage tests with fish, the bioaccumulation of xenobiotics in fish, the origin of liver neoplastic lesions in small fish species, immunocytochemical approaches to monitoring effects in cytochrome P450-related biotransformation, the impact of heavy metals in soft water systems, the environmental toxicology of organotin compounds, oxidative stress in fish by environmental pollutants to effects by estrogenic substances in aquatic systems.
Science

Chemistry and Ecotoxicology of Pollution

Author: Des W. Connell

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 275

Systems Ecology An Introduction Howard T. Odum An integratedtheoretical and applied approach to systems ecology, usingdiagrammatic language to explain basic concepts of systems,modeling, and simulation. It presents simple and moderatecomplexity models as the ones of primary utility in theory andpractice; combines energetics and kinetics, rather than viewingthem separately; and generalizes concepts of ecosystems andeconomic systems, among its many vital features. (0 471 65277-6)1983 Ecogenetics Genetic Variation in Susceptibility toEnvironmental Agents Edward J. Calabrese The most comprehensive andup-to-date assessment of how genetic factors affect susceptibilityto environmental agents. The book provides an objective criticalevaluation of current scientific literature on the subject, withparticular emphasis on those a gents typically consideredpollutants. (0 471 89112-6) 1984 Chemodynamics EnvironmentalMovement of Chemicals in Air, Water and Soil Louis J. ThibodeauxThis book describes the nature and processes of the transport ofpollutants throughout the environment. It examines equilibrium atenvironmental interfaces, transport fundamentals, and the chemicalexchange rates between air and water, water and the adjoiningearthen material, air and soil, as well as intraphase chemicalexchange rates. (0 471 04720-1) 1979 Environmental Engineering andSanitation, 3rd Edition Joseph A. Salvato A totally updated editionof the standard guide to sanitary and environmental engineeringprinciples and their practical applications. It covers virtuallyevery problem encountered in the design, construction, maintenance,and operation of sanitation plants and structures. New featuresinclude updated material on water reclamation and reuse, on-sitesewage disposal, protection of groundwater quality, and more. (0471 04942-5) 1982 Aquatic Chemistry An Introduction EmphasizingChemical Equilibria in Natural Waters, 2nd Edition Werner J. Stumm& James J. Morgan This new edition of the recognized classiccrystallizes the enormous and growing flood of data and theory thathas accompanied the maturation of this field. New features includeincreased attention to steady-state and dynamic models employingmass-balance approaches and kinetic information; a new chapter onenvironmental considerations; expanded compilation of thermodynamicdata; and more.(0 471 04831-3)1981Cloth(0 471 09173-1)1981Paper
Science

Ecotoxicology: Problems and Approaches

Author: Simon A. Levin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 547

View: 396

Ecotoxicology is the science that seeks to predict the impacts of chemi cals upon ecosystems. This involves describing and predicting ecological changes ensuing from a variety of human activities that involve release of xenobiotic and other chemicals to the environment. A fundamental principle of ecotoxicology is embodied in the notion of change. Ecosystems themselves are constantly changing due to natural processes, and it is a challenge to distinguish the effects of anthropogenic activities against this background of fluctuations in the natural world. With the frustratingly large, diverse, and ever-emerging sphere of envi ronmental problems that ecotoxicology must address, the approaches to individual problems also must vary. In part, as a consequence, there is no established protocol for application of the science to environmental prob lem-solving. The conceptual and methodological bases for ecotoxicology are, how ever, in their infancy, and thus still growing with new experiences. In deed, the only robust generalization for research on different ecosystems and different chemical stresses seems to be a recognition of the necessity of an ecosystem perspective as focus for assessment. This ecosystem basis for ecotoxicology was the major theme of a previous pUblication by the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University, a special issue of Environmental Management (Levin et al. 1984). With that effort, we also recognized an additional necessity: there should be a continued develop ment of methods and expanded recognition of issues for ecotoxicology and for the associated endeavor of environmental management.