Author: National Research Council of Canada. Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality. Panel on Atmospheric Aerosols. Subcommittee on Air
Naslagwerk over de huidige kennis wat betreft aerosolen: eigenschappen van de deeltjes, bronnen van deze vorm van luchtverontreiniging, effect op mist en neerslag en effect op het klimaat. Tot nu toe is de aerosol met name bekeken vanuit het gezichtspunt concentratie; in deze publikatie wordt de aerosol ook bekeken vanuit eigenschappen van de samenstellende deeltjes
Aerosols by National Research Council Canada. Panel on Atmospheric Aerosols
This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of how aerosols form in the atmosphere through in situ processes as well as via transport from the surface (dust storms, seas spray, biogenic emissions, forest fires etc.). Such an analysis has been followed by the consideration of both observation data (various field observational experiments) and numerical modeling results to assess climate impacts of aerosols bearing in mind that these impacts are the most significant uncertainty in studying natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change.
Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments. However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion. Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes: • Satellite aerosol remote sensing • The effects of aerosols on climate change • Air pollution and health • Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery • Bioaerosols and hospital infections • Particle emissions from vehicles • The safety of emerging nanomaterials • Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely, concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.
The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation.
This is the first book to provide a complete overview of aerosol physics in climate research, containing details of work carried out in the former Soviet Union that has not been fully recognised in the West.
Atmospheric Processes and Systems presents a concise introduction to the atmosphere and the fundamentals of weather. Examining different aspects of the mass, energy and circulation systems in the atmosphere, this text provides detailed accounts of specific phenomena, including * the composition and structure of the atmosphere * energy transfers * the cycle of atmospheric water in terms of evaporation, condensation and precipitation * pressure and winds at the primary or global scale * secondary air masses and fronts * thermal differences and weather disturbances. The text includes sixteen boxed case studies, annotated further reading lists and a glossary of key terms.
Thoroughly restructured and updated with new findings and new features The Second Edition of this internationally acclaimed text presents the latest developments in atmospheric science. It continues to be the premier text for both a rigorous and a complete treatment of the chemistry of the atmosphere, covering such pivotal topics as: * Chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere * Formation, growth, dynamics, and properties of aerosols * Meteorology of air pollution * Transport, diffusion, and removal of species in the atmosphere * Formation and chemistry of clouds * Interaction of atmospheric chemistry and climate * Radiative and climatic effects of gases and particles * Formulation of mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere All chapters develop results based on fundamental principles, enabling the reader to build a solid understanding of the science underlying atmospheric processes. Among the new material are three new chapters: Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry, General Circulation of the Atmosphere, and Global Cycles. In addition, the chapters Stratospheric Chemistry, Tropospheric Chemistry, and Organic Atmospheric Aerosols have been rewritten to reflect the latest findings. Readers familiar with the First Edition will discover a text with new structures and new features that greatly aid learning. Many examples are set off in the text to help readers work through the application of concepts. Advanced material has been moved to appendices. Finally, many new problems, coded by degree of difficulty, have been added. A solutions manual is available. Thoroughly updated and restructured, the Second Edition of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics is an ideal textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a reference for researchers in environmental engineering, meteorology, chemistry, and the atmospheric sciences. Click here to Download the Solutions Manual for Academic Adopters: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-292291.html
This book investigates elementary processes in the Earth’s atmosphere involving photons, electrons, ions, radicals, and aerosols. It is based on global atmospheric models such as the standard atmospheric model with averaged atmospheric parameters across the globe and over time, the Earth’s energetic balance, and the global electric circuit that allows to analyze fundamental atmospheric properties to be analyzed. Rate constants of elementary processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, together with measured atmospheric parameters and existing concepts of atmospheric phenomena, are used in the analysis of global and local atmospheric processes. Atmospheric photoprocesses result from the interaction of solar radiation with the atmosphere and processes involving ions, oxygen atoms, excited atomic particles and ozone molecules. Atmospheric electricity as a secondary phenomenon to atmospheric water circulation results in a chain of processes that begins with collisions of water aerosols in different aggregate states. Cosmic rays are of importance for atmospheric electricity, as they create positive and negative ions in the air. Air breakdown in an electric field of clouds in the form of lightning may develop under the influence of cosmic ray-created seed electrons, which are necessary for electron multiplication in ionization wave-streamers. The upper atmosphere (ionosphere) is formed under solar radiation in a vacuum ultraviolet spectrum, and absorption of this radiation leads to air photoionization. The greenhouse effect is determined by atmospheric water, whereas transitions between a water vapor and aerosols may lead to a change in atmospheric optical depth. Carbon dioxide contributes in small portions to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Cosmic rays are of importance for atmospheric discharge, the origin of lightning and cloud formation in the first stage of aerosol growth. This book provides a qualitative description of atmospheric properties and phenomena based on elementary processes and simple models.
There are a large variety of aerosol particles in Earth's atmosphere. These tiny particles can scatter and absorb solar radiation, affect cloud properties, and impact air quality and climate. The quantification of aerosol effects in atmospheric processes requires the knowledge of their optical, microphysical, and compositional properties.
Aerosols: An Industrial and Environmental Science is a comprehensive account of the science and technology of aerosols as well as their aerodynamic and physico-chemical properties. Measurement techniques and results are presented in terms of a framework of classical mechanics and macroscopic chemistry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a discussion on the foundations of modern aerosol science and technology, followed by a review of the dynamic theory of aerosols as rigid spheres. The production of particle suspensions, the methods of particle sampling and measurement, and physical or chemical characterization are then considered, along with particle diffusion by Brownian motion, particle formation and growth, and coagulation processes. The formation of particle clouds is described by means of molecular agglomeration (condensation) processes, breakup and disintegration, and chemical reactions. The remaining chapters focus on several major applications of aerosol science in areas such as combustion, agriculture, and medicine. This monograph is intended to serve scientists and engineers who are concerned with the underlying principles of aerodynamic and physical chemical behavior of aerosols, and could also be used as a text for graduate students in specialized courses on aerosol or colloid chemistry, atmospheric processes, and chemical, mechanical, or environmental engineering.
Bioaerosols, sampling and characterization -- Sources and transport of microbial aerosols -- Impacts of microbial aerosols on atmospheric processes -- Impacts of bioaerosols on human health and environment
Life on Earth is critically dependent upon the continuous cycling of water between oceans, continents and the atmosphere. Precipitation (including rain, snow, and hail) is the primary mechanism for transporting water from the atmosphere back to the Earth’s surface. It is also the key physical process that links aspects of climate, weather, and the global hydrological cycle. Changes in precipitation regimes and the frequency of extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, severe ice/snow storms, monsoon fluctuations and hurricanes are of great potential importance to life on the planet. One of the factors that could contribute to precipitation modification is aerosol pollution from various sources such as urban air pollution and biomass burning. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric aerosols might have important implications for precipitation by influencing the hydrological cycle, which in turn could feed back to climate changes. From an Earth Science perspective, a key question is how changes expected in climate will translate into changes in the hydrological cycle, and what trends may be expected in the future. We require a much better understanding and hence predictive capability of the moisture and energy storages and exchanges among the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, continents and biological systems. This book is a review of our knowledge of the relationship between aerosols and precipitation reaching the Earth's surface and it includes a list of recommendations that could help to advance our knowledge in this area.
Anja Schmidt's thesis is a unique and comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of tropospheric volcanic aerosol on the atmosphere, climate, air quality and human health. Using a state-of-the-art global microphysics model, the thesis describes and quantifies the impact of volcanic sulphur emissions on global aerosol, clouds and the radiative forcing of climate. The advanced model enables the first ever estimate of the impact of the emissions on aerosol microphysical properties such as particle number concentrations and sizes, and therefore a considerably improved ability to quantify the climate and air quality effects. There are several important discoveries in this thesis. Firstly, it is shown that continuously degassing volcanoes exert a major effect on global clouds and climate. Secondly, the impact of the 1783 Laki eruption in Iceland is re-examined to show that this long-lasting flood lava eruption would have had major effects on clouds and climate. Thirdly, by combining her research on volcanism, atmospheric science and epidemiology, she shows that a present-day Laki-like eruption would seriously affect European air quality and cause over 100000 premature deaths in the first year.