Regardless of culture, most adult humans report experiencing similar feelings such as anger, fear, humor, and joy. Such subjective emotional states, however, are not universal. Members of some cultures deny experiencing specific emo tions such as fear or grief. Moreover, within any culture, individuals differ widely in their self-reports of both the variety and intensity of their emotions. Some people report a vivid tapestry of positive and negative emotional experi ences. Other people report that a single emotion such as depression or fear totally dominates their existences. Still others report flat and barren emotional lives. Over the past 100 years, scientists have proposed numerous rival explana tions of why such large individual differences in emotions occur. Various authors have offered anthropological, biochemical, ethological, neurological, psycholog ical, and sociological models of human emotions. Indeed, the sheer number of competing theories precludes a comprehensive review in a single volume. Ac cordingly, only a representative sample of models are discussed in this book, and many equally important theories have been omitted. These omissions were not intended to prejudice the reader in favor of any particular conceptual frame work. Rather, this selective coverage was intended to focus attention upon the empirical findings that contemporary theories attempt to explain.
Based upon lectures presented at an invitational colloquium in honor of Nico Frijda, this collection of essays represents a brief and up-to-date overview of the field of emotions, their significance and how they function. For most, emotions are simply what we feel, giving our lives affective value. Scientists approach emotions differently -- some considering the "feeling" aspect to be of little relevance to their research questions. Some investigators consider emotions from a phenomenological perspective, while others believe that the psychophysiological bases of the emotions are of prime importance, and still others observe and study animals in order to generate hypotheses about human emotions. Containing essays which represent each of these approaches, this book is in one sense a heterogenous collection. Nevertheless, the variety of approaches and interests come together, since these scholars are all operating from a more or less cognitive psychological orientation and use the same conceptual reference scheme. Written by experts in their own area, the essays reflect the richness of research in emotions. Whether these approaches and opinions can be harmonized into a single theory of emotions is a question which the future will have to answer.
Stress has been recognized as an important factor in the development or recurrence of various mental disorders, from major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder to anxiety disorders. Stressful stimuli also appear to exert their effects by acting upon individuals with susceptible genotypes. Over the past 50 years, animal models have been developed to study these dynamic interactions between stressful stimuli and genetically susceptible individuals during prenatal and postnatal development and into adulthood. Stress and Mental Disorders: Insights from Animal Models begins with a discussion of the history of psychiatric diagnosis and the recent goal of moving toward precision psychiatry, followed by a review of clinical research on connections between stressful stimuli and the development of psychiatric disorders. Chapters are also included on neuroendocrine, immune, and brain systems involved in responses to stress. Additional chapters focus on the development of animal models in psychiatry and the susceptibility of the developing organism to stressful stimuli. Subsequent chapters are devoted to animal models of specific stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. These chapters also focus on identification of promising molecular targets for development of new drug therapies. The section concludes with a chapter on animal models of resilience to stress-induced behavioral alterations as a newer approach to understanding why some animals are susceptible to stress and others are resilient, even though they are essentially genetically identical. The final chapter discusses how these basic laboratory studies are providing promising leads for future breakthroughs in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
Stress in Health and Disease presents the principal pathways mediating the response to a stressor. It discusses the clinical background of cross-resistance and treatment with stress-hormones. It addresses the diseases of adaptation or stress diseases, diagnostic indicators, and functional changes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the concept of heterostasis; stressors and conditioning agents; morphology of frostbite; characteristics manifestations of stress; catecholamines and their derivatives; various hormones and hormone-like substances; FFA, triglycerides and lipoproteins; morphologic changes; and hypothalamo-hypophyseal system . The gastrointestinal diseases of adaptation are covered. The schizophrenia and related psychoses is discussed. The text describes the manic-depressive disease and senile psychosis. A study of the experimental cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases is presented. A chapter is devoted to the diseases of adaptation in animals. Another section focuses on the shift in adenohypophyseal activity and catatoxic hormones. The book can provide useful information to scientists, doctors, students, and researchers.
Stress and Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions, by William R. Lovallo, is a brief and accessible examination of psychological stress and its psychophysiological relationships with cognition, emotions, brain functions, and the peripheral mechanisms by which the body is regulated. Updated throughout, the Third Edition covers two new and significant areas of emerging research: how our early life experiences alter key stress responsive systems at the level of gene expression; and what large, normal, and small stress responses may mean for our overall health and well-being.
Medicine by National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Division of Research Grants