Throughout the history of the environmental movement, the mass media, environmentalists, governments and various power groups have interacted at various levels to affect social change. The authors of Mass Media and Environmental Conflict emphasize these interactions using a series of case studies in environmental conflict from the United States. They explore the role of books, magazines and newspaper articles amongst other media and the ways media coverage has created both regional and national communities of environmental understanding. Cases covered include: contests over public land; the depletion of wildlife species and the evolution of hunting regulations; campaigns for clean air; and workplace hazards.
Conflict over issues such as climate change, toxic waste and wilderness provides a key site for examining the shaping and negotiation of public debate. This book offers a new understanding of the relationship between media roles and environmental futures, and of the ways in which news works to influence environmental decision-making across boundaries and over time. Drawing on a range of international examples, Dr Libby Lester invites readers to develop a nuanced understanding of changing media practices and dynamics by connecting local, national and global environmental issues, journalistic practices and news sources, public relations and protests, and the symbolic and strategic circulation of meanings in the public sphere. Media and Environment argues that news maintains a central role in environmental politics. As such, it asks about our understandings of place and community, of local responsibility and global citizenship, and how communication as a society on these crucial issues affects our lives, now and into the future.
Abstract: In December 2013, local media reported an oil spill off the southwestern coast of Trinidad. Subsequent media reports generated local and international interest, statements, and commentary from company and government interests and members of the La Brea community (fisherfolk and residents directly affected by the oil spill), the national community, trade unionists, politicians, oil spill experts, and environmentalists. As the news coverage developed, various narrative themes emerged. Within these themes, various conflict issues, mainly pertaining to the nature and focus of communication, and differences over the prevention, mitigation and management of environmental disasters were manifested in the media coverage and corporate communications management of crisis and reputation. Using crisis communication theory, and content analysis of media and company texts, this study examined the extent of media coverage and organizational and corporate communications framing of the creation, escalation, and management of a significant environmental conflict situation.
A step-by-step guide connecting theory to practice Environmental Conflict Management introduces students to the research and practice of environmental conflict and provides a step-by-step process for engaging stakeholders and other interested parties in the management of environmental disputes. In each chapter, authors Dr. Tracylee Clarke and Dr. Tarla Rai Peterson first introduce a specific concept or process step and then provide exercises, worksheets, role-plays, and brief case studies so students can directly apply what they are learning. The appendix includes six additional extended case studies for further analysis. In addition to providing practical steps for understanding and managing conflict, the text identifies the most relevant laws and policies to help students make more informed decisions. Students will develop techniques for public involvement and community outreach, strategies for effective meeting management, approaches to negotiating options and methodologies for communicating concerns and working through differences, and outlines for implementing and evaluating strategies for sustaining positive community relations.
As more governments, companies and individuals scan the globe for access to primary resources such as minerals and timber, food, power and water, and destinations for work, holidays and homes, pressures on places and communities grow. At the same time, global environmental risks – most notably, climate change – produce new networks and unfamiliar forms of politics. Communication media are integral to this change. This book explores how geographically diverse groups and individuals interact in and through media to influence the negotiations and decisions affecting often distant landscapes and communities. Drawing on extensive fieldwork in the Australia-Asia region, the book includes case studies on the environmental protests that follow the international flow of people and resources, including timber, fish, coal, water and tourism. It asks how ‘communities of concern’ are evoked, which transcend local places and national boundaries.
This Handbook provides a comprehensive statement and reference point for theory, research and practice with regard to environment and communication, and it does this from a perspective which is both international and multi-disciplinary in scope. Offering comprehensive critical reviews of the history and state of the art of research into the key dimensions of environmental communication, the chapters of this handbook together demonstrate the strengths of multi-disciplinary and cross-disciplinary approaches to understanding the centrality of communication to how the environment is constructed, and indeed contested, socially, politically and culturally. Organised in five thematic sections, The Routledge Handbook of Environment and Communication includes contributions from internationally recognised leaders in the field. The first section looks at the history and development of the discipline from a range of theoretical perspectives. Section two considers the sources, communicators and media professionals involved in producing environmental communication. Section three examines research on news, entertainment media and cultural representations of the environment. The fourth section looks at the social and political implications of environmental communication, with the final section discussing likely future trajectories for the field. The first reference Handbook to offer a state of the art comprehensive overview of the emerging field of environmental communication research, this authoritative text is a must for scholars of environmental communication across a range of disciplines, including environmental studies, media and communication studies, cultural studies and related disciplines.
Environmental Risks and the Media explores the ways in which environmental risks, threats and hazards are represented, transformed and contested by the media. At a time when popular conceptions of the environment as a stable, natural world with which humanity interferes are being increasingly contested, the medias methods of encouraging audiences to think about environmental risks - from the BSE or 'mad cow' crisis to global climate change - are becoming more and more controversial. Examining large-scale disasters, as well as 'everyday' hazards, the contributors consider the tensions between entertainment and information in media coverage of the environment. How do the media frame 'expert', 'counter-expert' and 'lay public' definitions of environmental risk? What role do environmental pressure groups like Greenpeace or 'eco-warriors' and 'green guerrillas' play in shaping what gets covered and how? Does the media emphasis on spectacular events at the expense of issue-sensitive reporting exacerbate the public tendency to overestimate sudden and violent risks and underestimate chronic long-term ones?
A comprehensive tour d'horizon of the debate on the environment and security, focusing on the various policy options for building peace and preventing environmental conflict. Experts from the areas survey the key environmental challenges in Eastern and Central European states and those of the former Soviet Union, extending the debate to such regions as the Balkans, the Black Sea and Central Europe. This is the first time such extensive case study research has been reported for these regions. Both practical and theoretical approaches to the debate are presented, within a multi-disciplinary framework, the contributors ranging from academic experts involved with peace and conflict research to actual policy makers active in the fields of environmental and security policy. Readership: Experts already working in the relevant disciplines, both academic and governmental, as well as those seeking an introduction to the various policy fields. A graduate-level study text, excellent survey for policy makers and an academic contribution to ongoing studies.
This history of environmental journalism looks at how the practice now defines issues and sets the public agenda evolving from a tradition that includes the works of authors such as Pliny the Elder, John Muir, and Rachel Carson. It makes the case that the relationship between the media and its audience is an ongoing conversation between society and the media on what matters and what should matter.
The news media has become a key arena for staging environmental conflicts. Through a range of illuminating examples ranging from climate change to oil spills, Media, Environment and the Network Society provides a timely and far-reaching analysis of the media politics of contemporary environmental debates.
This thoughtful reference identifies, applies, and evaluates criteria to define success in complex multi-party natural resource disputes. The authors examine 28 "success" criteria from many angles, present a method for systematically considering all the elements necessary for successful environmental CR, and then apply this analytic framework to eight specific western U.S. water conflicts.
This impressive collection of original essays explores the relationship between social conflict and the environment - a topic that has received little attention within criminology. The chapters provide a systematic and comprehensive introduction and overview of conflict situations stemming from human exploitation of environments, as well as the impact of social conflicts on the wellbeing and health of specific species and ecosystems. Largely informed by green criminology perspectives, the chapters in the book are intended to stimulate new understandings of the relationships between humans and nature through critical evaluation of environmental destruction and degradation associated with social conflicts occurring around the world. With a goal of creating a typology of environment-social conflict relationships useful for green criminological research, this study is essential reading for scholars and academics in criminology, as well as those interested in crime, law and justice.
Nils Petter Gleditsch International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) & Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trond heim This book could hardly have happened but for the end of the Cold War. The decline of the East-West conflict has opened up the arena for increased attention to other lines of conflict, in Europe and at the global level. Environmental disruption, not a new phenomenon by any means, is a chief beneficiary of the shift in priorities in the public debate. The Scientific and Environmental Affairs Divi sion of NATO has moved with the times and has defined environmental security as one of its priority areas for cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union. This book is the main output of an Advanced Research Workshop (ARW), held in Bolkesjl/l, Norway, 12-16 June 1996. I would like to acknowledge the personal support of L. Veiga da Cunha, Director of the Priority Area on Environmental Security. Research on these issues is now very much a collaborative effort across former lines of division in Europe. NATO encourages, indeed requires, that this be reflected in the composition of the participants, as well as the organizing committee. This meeting was organized by a group of five people from five different countries: Lothar Brock (Germany), Nils Petter Gleditsch (Norway), Thomas Homer-Dixon (Canada), Renat Perelet (Co-Director, Russia), and Evan Vlachos (USA).
This important book brings together the latest research findings and theoretical discussions to develop an encompassing, multidimensional and sophisticated understanding of the social complexities, political dynamics and cultural forms of mediatized conflicts in the world today.
Since all-out interstate wars for the time being seem to belong to the past, con flict studies focus more and more on domestic conflicts. This is a broad field, not only because the arbitrary line between war and sub-war violence disap pears and the analyst is confronted with phenomena reaching from criminal violence and clashes between communities to violent conflicts of long duration and civil wars with massacres and genocides as their characteristics. It is also because there are so many different types of conflicts to be analyzed, so many different types of behavior to be studied, whereas there is often little informa tion available on what is really going on. Against the background of internal conflicts, which tend to be as protracted as diffuse in terms of time, intensity, actors, and their goals, this study aims to follow a specific pathway through the current thicket of violent circumstances. It focuses on causation patterns by exploring the causal role of the environ mental factor in the genesis of violent conflicts occurring today and probably even more so tomorrow. This approach, which for once does not focus on a specific level of the conflict system, on one area in the conflict geography, or on a specific category of actors, analyzes causation dynamics.
Despite a vast amount of effort and expertise devoted to them, many environmental conflicts have remained mired in controversy, stubbornly defying resolution. Why can some environmental problems be resolved in one locale but remain contentious in another, often carrying on for decades? What is it about certain issues or the people involved that make a conflict seemingly insoluble? Making Sense of Intractable Environmental Conflicts addresses those and related questions, examining what researchers and experts in the field characterize as "intractable" disputes—intense disputes that persist over long periods of time and cannot be resolved through consensus-building efforts or by administrative, legal, or political means. The approach focuses on the "frames" parties use to define and enact the dispute—the lenses through which they interpret and understand the conflict and critical conflict dynamics. Through analysis of interviews, news media coverage, meeting transcripts, and archival data, the contributors to the book examine the concept of framing and the role that it plays in conflicts; outline the essential characteristics of intractability and its major causes; offer case studies of eight intractable environmental conflicts; present a rich body of original interview material from affected parties; and set forth recommendations for intervention that can help resolve disputes. Within each case chapter, the authors describe the historical development and fundamental nature of the conflict and then analyze the case from the perspective of the key frames that are integral to understanding the dynamics of the dispute. They also offer cross-case analyses of related conflicts. Conflicts examined include those over natural resource use, toxic pollutants, water quality, and growth.
Since the end of the Cold War, conflict prevention and resolution, peacekeeping and peacebuilding have risen to the top of the international agenda. The third edition of this hugely popular text explains the key concepts, charts the development of the field, evaluates successes and failures, and assesses the main current challenges and debates in the second decade of the twenty-first century. Existing material has been thoroughly updated and seven new chapters added, on conflict resolution in a changing international order; environmental conflict resolution; conflict resolution in the arts and popular culture; conflict resolution, the media and the communications revolution; managing radical disagreement in intractable conflict; theories and critiques of the field; and upcoming challenges and tasks for the next generation. The authors argue that a new form of cosmopolitan conflict resolution is emerging, which offers a hopeful means for human societies to handle their conflicts non-violently and eventually to transcend and celebrate their differences. Part I offers a comprehensive survey of the theory and practice of conflict resolution. Part II sets the field within the context of rapid global change and addresses the controversies that have surrounded conflict resolution as it has entered the mainstream. Contemporary Conflict Resolution is essential reading for students of peace and security studies, conflict management and international politics, as well as for those working in non-governmental organizations and think-tanks.
Social Science by Alison Anderson University of Plymouth.
This book is intended for final year undergraduates and postgraduates in cultural and media studies, as well as postgraduate and academic researchers. Courses on culture and the media within sociology, environmental studies, human geography and politics.