Essential Fish Biology provides an introductory overview of the functional biology of fish and how this may be affected by the widely contrasting habitat conditions within the aquatic environment. It describes the recent advances in comparative animal physiology which have greatly influenced our understanding of fish function as well as generating questions that have yet to be resolved. Fish taxa represent the largest number of vertebrates, with over 25,000 extant species. However, much of our knowledge, apart from taxonomy and habitat descriptions, has been based on relatively few of them , usually those which live in fresh water and/or are of commercial interest. Unfortunately there has also been a tendency to base our interpretation of fish physiology on that of mammalian systems, as well as to rely on a few type species of fish. This accessible textbook will redress the balance by using examples of fish from a wide range of species and habitats, emphasizing diversity as well as recognizing shared attributes with other vertebrates.
Recent decades have witnessed strong declines in fish stocks around the globe, amid growing concerns about the impact of fisheries on marine and freshwater biodiversity. Fisheries biologists and managers are therefore increasingly asking about aspects of ecology, behaviour, evolution and biodiversity that were traditionally studied by people working in very separate fields. This has highlighted the need to work more closely together, in order to help ensure future success both in management and conservation. The Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries has been written by an international team of scientists and practitioners, to provide an overview of the biology of freshwater and marine fish species together with the science that supports fisheries management and conservation. This volume, subtitled Fisheries, focuses on a wide range of topics, including the history of fisheries science, methods of capture, marketing, economics, major models used in stock assessments and forecasting, ecosystem impacts, marine protected areas and conservation. It builds on material in Volume 1, Fish Biology, which ranges from phylogenetics and biogeography to physiology, recruitment, life histories, genetics, foraging, reproductive behaviour and community ecology. Together, these books present the state of the art in our understanding of fish biology and fisheries and will serve as valuable references for undergraduates and graduates looking for a comprehensive source on a wide variety of topics in fisheries science. They will also be useful to researchers who need up-to-date reviews of topics that impinge on their fields, and decision makers who need to appreciate the scientific background for management and conservation of aquatic ecosystems. To order volume II, go to the box in the top right hand corner. Alternatively to order volume I, go to: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=0632054123 or to order the 2 volume set, go to: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=0632064838. Provides a unique overview of the study of fish biology and ecology, and the assessment and management of fish populations and ecosystems. The first volume concentrates on aspects of fish biology and ecology, both at the individual and population levels, whilst the second volume addresses the assessment and management of fish populations and ecosystems. Written by an international team of expert scientists and practitioners. An invaluable reference tool for both students, researchers and practitioners working in the fields of fish biology and fisheries.
The "precautionary principle"—the idea that society should guard against potentially harmful activities even if some cause and effect relationships have not been fully established—has often been attacked for being unscientific. However leading scientists studying the issue have begun to make the case that the precautionary principle is in fact science based, and that it creates a need for more rigorous and transparent science in examining complex and uncertain environmental risks.Precaution, Environmental Science, and Preventive Public Policy is the first book to explore the role of science in developing a more precautionary approach to environmental and public health policy. The book brings together leading scientists, legal experts, philosophers, environmental health professionals, and environmentalists to offer a multi-disciplinary perspective on the controversial debate over science and precaution. The book:discusses the critical need for science in promoting sustainabilityoutlines the ethical imperative of a more precautionary science and the philosophical foundations of that new approachconsiders some of the ways in which the current conduct of environmental science works against precautionary policiesexamines how the role and use of science differs across cultures and political systemsprovides the components of an approach to environmental science that more effectively supports precautionary decisionsThe book also offers case studies that consider various types of uncertainty and sets forth a framework for evaluating and addressing uncertainty in decision-making.Contributors include Juan Almendares, Katherine Barrett, Kamaljit Bawa, Finn Bro-Rasmussen, Donald Brown, Theofanis Christoforou, Terry Collins, Barry Commoner, Carl Cranor, Stephen Dovers, David Gee, Elizabeth Guillette, Cato ten Hallers-Tjabbes, James Huff, Matthias Kaiser, Richard Levins, Mary O'Brien, Carolyn Raffensperger, Jerry Ravetz, Vandana Shiva, Boyce Thorne-Miller, Joe Thornton, Reginald Victor, and Alistair Woodward.Precaution, Environmental Science, and Preventive Public Policy presents a broad overview of the role of science in implementing the precautionary principle and makes a compelling case that science should be used not just to study problems but to develop solutions.
Integrating research into freshwater biodiversity and the role of keystone species, this fascinating book presents freshwater crayfish as representatives of human-exacerbated threats to biodiversity and conservation. It uses examples from these and other large decapod invertebrates to explore how communities function and are controlled, alongside the implications of human demands and conflicts over limited resources, notably the severe impacts on biodiversity. The discussion is structured around three key topics – the present situation of crayfish in world freshwater ecosystems, the applications of science to conservation management and knowledge transfer for successful crayfish management. It outlines the historic exploitation of crayfish, addressing the problems caused by invasive alien forms and explaining the importance of correct identification when dealing with conservation issues. Offering a global perspective on freshwater systems, the book ultimately highlights how the conservation of such large and long-lived species will help protect ecosystem quality in the future.
Fishery resource managers face the challenge of ensuring sustainable fisheries and maintaining healthy, diverse ecosystems. This challenge can be met by advancing the scientific knowledge available to resource managers to evaluate and appropriately manage fishing activities that affect benthic habitats. Government agencies have been working to develop benthic habitat research initiatives focused on the effects of fishing gear and the linkage between biological resources and the geology of benthic habitats. This book provides the broad understanding of the effects of fishing activities on benthic habitats necessary to address the pressing issues of habitat alteration that challenge managers, practitioners, and ocean scientists.
Today's natural resource managers must be able to navigate among the complicated interactions and conflicting interests of diverse stakeholders and decisionmakers. Technical and scientific knowledge, though necessary, are not sufficient. Science is merely one component in a multifaceted world of decision making. And while the demands of resource management have changed greatly, natural resource education and textbooks have not. Until now. Ecosystem Management represents a different kind of textbook for a different kind of course. It offers a new and exciting approach that engages students in active problem solving by using detailed landscape scenarios that reflect the complex issues and conflicting interests that face today's resource managers and scientists. Focusing on the application of the sciences of ecology and conservation biology to real-world concerns, it emphasizes the intricate ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional matrix in which natural resource management functions, and illustrates how to be more effective in that challenging arena. Each chapter is rich with exercises to help facilitate problem-based learning. The main text is supplemented by boxes and figures that provide examples, perspectives, definitions, summaries, and learning tools, along with a variety of essays written by practitioners with on-the-ground experience in applying the principles of ecosystem management. Accompanying the textbook is an instructor's manual that provides a detailed overview of the book and specific guidance on designing a course around it. Ecosystem Management grew out of a training course developed and presented by the authors for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at its National Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. In 20 offerings to more than 600 natural resource professionals, the authors learned a great deal about what is needed to function successfully as a professional resource manager. The book offers important insights and a unique perspective dervied from that invaluable experience.