Author: Principal Lecturer in Anthropology Helen Macbeth
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Food preferences and tastes are among the fundamentals affecting human existence; the sociocultural, physiological and neurological factors involved have therefore been widely researched and are well documented. However, information and debate on these factors are scattered across the academic literature of different disciplines. In this volume cross-disciplinary perspectives are brought together by an international team of contributors that includes socialand biological anthropologists, ethologists and ethnologists, psychologists, neurologists and zoologists in order to provide access to the different specialisms on the topic. Helen Macbeth is chair of ICAF (Europe) and Honorary Research Fellow of the Anthropology Department, Oxford Brookes University.
This volume presents the latest research in the broad field of the chemical senses from the International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste. This field includes not only the obvious senses of taste and smell but also chemical irritation and related sensations. Scientists investigate the mechanisms and functions of the chemical senses in the oral and nasal cavity as well as in the viscera including the gut and airways. This volume takes an integrative approach and provides historical context for modern research in the field. NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas. ACADEMY MEMBERS: Please contact the New York Academy of Sciences directly to place your order (www.nyas.org). Members of the New York Academy of Science receive full-text access to the Annals online and discounts on print volumes. Please visit http://www.nyas.org/MemberCenter/Join.aspx for more information about becoming a member.
The term 'Anthropology of Food' has become an accepted abbreviation for the study of anthropological perspectives on food, diet and nutrition, an increasingly important subdivision of anthropology that encompasses a rich variety of perspectives, academic approaches, theories, and methods. Its multi-disciplinary nature adds to its complexity. This is the first publication to offer guidance for researchers working in this diverse and expanding field of anthropology.
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Nutrigenomics seeks to understand the variability of the individual's response to food and the underlying mechanisms whereby foods exert their health-promoting activities. With a deeper molecular understanding of nutrition, we may some day be able to design diets that truly maximize an individual's potential for health and wellness. Many Asian societies are currently experiencing a transition in diet-related morbidity and mortality. The identification and provision of an optimal diet relevant to all the people living in Asia is an extraordinary challenge as there exists a tremendous diversity in diet, dietary intake patterns, local culture, and nutritional needs. This volume explores the role of ethnic diversity, dietary patterns and genetic adaptation in determining individual nutrient requirements throughout the life-cycle. Conceptualized as an introductory publication providing a general overview as well as specific examples of the applications of concepts and methods, this publication will help scientists, medical, nutrition and other health professionals to learn more about the field of nutrigenomics.
From one person to the next, optimal health is governed by a huge array of minor genetic differences. When modulated by a variety of food bioiactives, these differences result in changes in gene expression and subsequent phenotypic expression. Combining biomedical and social science with contributions from leaders in both fields, Personalized Nutrition: Principles and Applications illustrates molecular, physiological, epidemiological, and public health aspects with examples from major diseases and discusses the behavioral, ethical, and consumer perspectives that will influence a successful introduction of personalized nutrition. Divided into three sections, the book answers pertinent questions crucial to the mainstream acceptance of personalized nutrition: to what extent is this personal diet-and-health relationship practically valid? how can nutrition science demonstrate this? And what is the proposition of stakeholders in society, including the consumer? The book begins with an overview of the state-of-the-science in nutrigenomic technologies including transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. It covers the use of genomics technology for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in major diet-related chronic disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Section two compares the practices and opinions of scientists, food companies, consumers, competitive athletes, and health care providers on the subject of personalized nutrition. It reviews marketing potential, consumer attitudes, and the ethical issues surrounding personalized advice. The final section focuses on humanitarian concerns related to developing countries and calls for international efforts to develop best practices, collaboration, and dataset sharing. The authors also consider ongoing innovations in food technology, nutrigenomics, and food delivery systems.
Writing this book has been a pleasure, but it has also been frustrating. It was a delight to see that the facts of food preferences, eating, and food behavior conform in many ways to the general principles of psychology. Matching these, however, was often like putting together a jigsaw puz zle-looking at a fact and trying to figure out which psychological theories or principles were relevant. This was made more difficult by conflicting principles in psychology and contradictory findings in psychological as well as food-preference research. The material cited is not meant to be exhaustive. Undoubtedly, I have been influenced by my own research interests and points of view. When conflicting data exist, I selected those that seemed to me most representa tive or relevant, and I have done so without consistently pointing out contrary findings. This applies also to the discussion of psychological prin ciples. Much psychological research is done in very restrictive conditions. Therefore, it has limited applicability beyond the confines of the context in which it was conducted. What holds true of novelty, complexity, and curiosity when two-dimensional line drawings are studied, for example, may not have much to do with novelty, complexity, and curiosity in rela tion to foods, which vary in many ways such as shape, color, taste, texture, and odor. Nevertheless, I have tried to suggest relationships between psy chological principles and food preferences.
Many of the diseases which afflict people in an affluent society like the United States seem to be related to food consumption (e.g., adult-onset diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and colon cancer). In recent years, the health-related professions have become aware that their exclusive aim of disease treatment must be expanded to include health promotion. Professionals in food and nutrition, health education, social marketing, and psychology, as well as others have become interested in finding ways to promote healthy behaviors such as appropriate food consumption patterns. To modify food-related behavior, knowledge about why people eat what they eat is required. Both biological and sociocultural factors determine people's consumption behavior. This monograph, however, examines only the sociocultural determinants of individuals' food-related behaviors within their zone of biological indifference. The sociocultural variables are divided into two major categories - sociodemographic and psychological. Sociodemographic variables are often called external variables and include income, ethnicity, age, and the like. Psychosocial variables are thought to reflect the individual's internal state, and commonly examined variables include knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes.
This collection of studies by anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, and biologists is an important contribution to the emerging field of historical ecology. The book combines cutting-edge research with new perspectives to emphasize the close relationship between humans and their natural environment. Contributors examine how alterations in the natural world mirror human cultures, societies, and languages. Treating the landscape like a text, these researchers decipher patterns and meaning in the Ecuadorian Andes, Amazonia, the desert coast of Peru, and other regions in the neotropics. They show how local peoples have changed the landscape over time to fit their needs by managing and modifying species diversity, enhancing landscape heterogeneity, and controlling ecological disturbance. In turn, the environment itself becomes a form of architecture rich with historical and archaeological significance. Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology explores thousands of years of ecological history while also addressing important contemporary issues, such as biodiversity and genetic variation and change. Engagingly written and expertly researched, this book introduces and exemplifies a unique method for better understanding the link between humans and the biosphere.
The availability of food is an especially significant issue in zones of conflict because conflict nearly always impinges on the production and the distribution of food, and causes increased competition for food, land and resources Controlling the production of and access to food can also be used as a weapon by protagonists in conflict. The logistics of supply of food to military personnel operating in conflict zones is another important issue. These themes unite this collection, the chapters of which span different geographic areas. This volume will appeal to scholars in a number of different disciplines, including anthropology, nutrition, political science, development studies and international relations, as well as practitioners working in the private and public sectors, who are currently concerned with food-related issues in the field.