Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives is the first comprehensive book on the detection of explosives. It combines the two main fields of application: * Forensic detection of explosives - the detection of hidden explosives in airfreight, luggage, vehicles, and on suspects. * Environmental detection of explosives - detecting on-site explosives in soil and water of contaminated areas and the detection of landmines. Dr Jehuda Yinon is a world renowned expert on the analysis of explosives and has served as consulting expert during the Oklahoma bombing trial, where his previous book Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives was quoted by both the prosecution and defense experts. This new book complements the author's previous book on the analysis of explosives. It includes the following features: * Classifications of explosives * Explanations of the basic terms related to the detection of explosives * Vapor detection methods * Probing radiation methods * Tagging of explosives * Systems integration and performance testing * Detection of explosives in contaminated areas * Detection of landmines. This book is an ideal reference book for those working in forensic and law enforcement agencies concerned with the detection of hidden explosives, as well as for environmental scientists dealing with explosives decontamination. The book is also recommended as a text book for graduate students in analytical, environmental and forensic science.
The objective of this book will be to explore the possible applications in the field of spectroscopy toward matters related to security, the environment and forensics, with in-depth analyses of relative difficulties and advantages of the various techniques. Spectroscopic techniques have been contributing significantly to diverse areas, such as material processing and characterization, communication, forensic science, and defense with an unequaled precision by using lasers. Raman and infrared spectroscopic techniques are regularly used in the studies on semiconductors, microelectronics, catalysis and nano-materials. With the advent of nanotechnology, new materials are being reported with an improved sensitivity to various toxic gases, finger printing etc. Photo acoustic spectroscopy, with a quartz tuning fork sensor, makes it possible to detect trace amounts of explosive powders and residues on surfaces from a distance. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy from the Curiosity rover, roaming the Mars surface, has been sending valuable spectral data that will be used to understand the existence of life. The present book encompasses a wide range of topics pertaining to the variety of spectroscopic techniques which would be of great importance in the detection of explosives, chemical and biological agents and in meeting any defense threats. (Imprint: Nova)
This book represents a collection of papers presented at the 4th International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives held at the Mitzpeh Rachel Kibbutz Guesthouse in Jerusalem, September 7 to 10, 1992. The Symposium was attended by 150 participants from 20 countries and 50 lectures were given including 4 invited keynote lectures. The purpose of the Symposium, as the previous Symposia, was to present and to discuss new approaches, new applications, new methods and techniques in analysis and detection of explosives. The Symposium was, according to the feedback received from many participants, very successful and met the anticipated expectations. New collaborative initiatives between various laboratories from different countries were formed, which is a necessity in our common goals of law enforcement, aviation security and environmental quality, issues which are closely related to the analysis of explosives. I would like to extend my thanks to the Weizmann Institute of Science and the Israel National Police for sponsoring the Symposium, to the contributing Institutions and Agencies for making this Symposium financially possible, and to the members of the International Committee for helpful advice. I am most thankful to my colleagues from the Organizing Committee, especially Dr. Joseph Almog and Dr. Shmuel Zitrin from the Israel National Police, for helping in the organization of this Symposium.
This book examines both the potential application of electronic nose technology, and the current state of development of chemical sensors for the detection of vapours from explosives, such as those used in landmines. The two fields have developed, somewhat in parallel, over the past decade and so one of the purposes of this workshop, on which the book is based, was to bring together scientists from the two fields in order to challenge the two communities and, mutually, stimulate both fields. It begins with a review of the basic principles of an electronic nose and explores possible ways in which the detection limit of conventional electronic nose technology can be reduced to the level required for the trace levels observed for many explosive materials. Next are reviews of the use of several different types of solid-state chemical sensors: polymer-based sensors, i.e. chemiluminescent, fluorescent and optical, to detect explosive materials; metal oxide semiconducting resistive sensors; and then electrochemical sensors. Next, different pattern recognition techniques are presented to enhance the performance of chemical sensors. Then biological systems are considered as a possible blue-print for chemical sensing. The biology can be employed either to understand the way insects locate odorant sources, or to understand the signal processing neural pathways. Next is a discussion of some of the new types of electronic noses; namely, a fast GC column with a SAW detector and a micromechanical sensor. Finally, the important issues of sampling technologies and the design of the microfluidic systems are considered. In particular, the use of pre-concentrators and solid phase micro extractors to boost the vapour concentration before it is introduced to the chemical sensor or electronic nose.
This book provides a line of communication between academia and end users/practitioners to advance forensic science and boost its contribution to criminal investigations and court cases. By covering the state of the art of promising technologies for the analysis of trace evidence using a controlled vocabulary, this book targets the forensics community as well as, crucially, informing the end users on novel and potential forensic opportunities for the fight against crime. By reporting end users commentaries at the end of each chapter, the relevant academic community is provided with clear indications on where to direct further technological developments in order to meet the law requirements for operational deployment, as well as the specific needs of the end users. Promising chemistry based technologies and analytical techniques as well as techniques that have already shown to various degrees an operational character are covered. The majority of the techniques covered have imaging capabilities, that is the ability to visualize the distribution of the target molecules within the trace evidence recovered. This feature enhances intelligibility of the information making it also accessible to a lay audience such as that typically found with a court jury. Trace evidence discussed in this book include fingermarks, bodily fluids, hair, gunshot residues, soil, ink and questioned documents thus covering a wide range of possible evidence recovered at crime scenes.
The book presents the applications of separation methods, manly chromatography, in forensic practice. The first part, devoted to forensic toxicology, contains reviews on forensic relevant groups of compounds, like: Opiate agonists, cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens, cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics, antidepressive and antipsychotic drugs, analgesics, antidiabetics, muscle relaxants, and mushroom toxins. In these parts, the preliminary immunochemical tests were also included, together with separation methods. Screening procedures used in forensic toxicology were presented in separate chapters on forensic screening with GC, GC-MS, HPLC, LC-MS, CE, and LC-ICP-MS. In the part on actual and emerging problems of forensic toxicology, following chapters were included: Analytical markers of alcohol abuse, toxicological aspects of herbal remedies, drugs and driving, analysis in alternative matrices, doping analysis, pharmacogenomics in forensic toxicology, and quality assurance. The second part presents application of separation methods in forensic chemistry, and comprises chapters on: Explosives, chemical warfare agents, arson analysis, and writing media. Third part on forensic identification contains chapter on forensic genetics. All chapters are written up-to-date and present specific information up to 2006. The authors of each chapter are known not only from their scientific activity, but are also reputed experts, proven in everyday forensic casework. - Wide spectrum of topics presented - Up-to-date presentation of topics - Data are presented in comparative mode - Special stress put on screening procedures
The book "Technology in Forensic Science" provides an integrated approach by reviewing the usage of modern forensic tools as well as the methods for interpretation of the results. Starting with best practices on sample taking, the book then reviews analytical methods such as high-resolution microscopy and chromatography, biometric approaches, and advanced sensor technology as well as emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and taggant technology. It concludes with an outlook to emerging methods such as AI-based approaches to forensic investigations.
The organization of an Advanced Research Workshop with the title “Detection and Disposal of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism” was motivated by international findings about activities in this field of application. This ARW followed a meeting about the “Detection of Disposal Improvised Explosives” (St. Petersburg, 2005). Both items show the logistic problems as one of the lessons, terrorists have to overcome. These problems are connected with the illegal supply and transport of explosives and fuels and as counter-measure the detection of these materials. The invention of liquid explosives goes back to the middle of the 19th century and was used for special purposes in the commercial field of application. Because of the high sensitivity of liquid explosives against mechanical shock, caused by adiabatic compression of air-bobbles producing “hot spots” as origin of initiation the commercial application was not very successful. Because of this high risk, liquid explosives are not used in military or commercial application with some exceptions. In the commercial field explosives as slurries or emulsions consisting of suitable salts (Ammoniumnitrate etc.) and water are used to a large extend because of their high insensitivity. In many cases these slurries or emulsions were unfit for terrorist actions, because of their low sensitivity, large critical diameter and using in confinement. In the military field liquid explosives are used in World War I and II as bomb-fillings.
A comprehensive guide to training and certifying K9 explosive detection teams Learn how to: - Train your K9 to detect and safely alert for explosive substances. - Conduct operational searches in buildings, vehicles, ships, and planes. - Train your dog for the specialized work of mine detection. In the high stakes realm of explosive detection, where even the smallest mistake can have fatal consequences, the margin of error is zero. Well trained dog-handler teams can play a key role in explosive detection, but only if their training is top notch. Dr. Resi Gerritsen and Ruud Haak have worked with police departments around the world to help them establish and improve their K9 explosive detection training programs, and in this book they share their expertise with handlers and trainers looking to enhance their own performance. They teach how to pick the right dog for explosive detection work, how to train the dog to detect explosives, and how to properly execute a variety of training and operational searches. They also provide some of the background knowledge you'll need about common explosives and the many factors that can influence a K9's work. Along with essential health and safety precautions for you and your dog, you'll also learn how to test and certify dogs and handlers to ensure excellent performance in the field.
Technology & Engineering by National Research Council
Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques examines the scientific techniques currently used as the basis for explosives detection and determines whether other techniques might provide promising research avenues with possible pathways to new detection protocols. This report describe the characteristics of explosives, bombs, and their components that are or might be used to provide a signature for exploitation in detection technology; considers scientific techniques for exploiting these characteristics to detect explosives and explosive devices; discusses the potential for integrating such techniques into detection systems that would have sufficient sensitivity without an unacceptable false-positive rate; and proposes areas for research that might be expected to yield significant advances in practical explosives and bomb detection technology in the near, mid, and long term.
Recent developments in analytical instrumentation have had an enormous influence on forensic analysis. The mass spectrometer is now an integral part of every forensic laboratory, resulting in greater analytical accuracy, more reliable identification, and lower detection limits. As the instrumental method of choice among forensic analysts, the mass spectrometer continues to pave the way for innovative applications in forensic analysis. Exploring the latest developments in the field, Advances in Forensic Applications of Mass Spectrometry provides a comprehensive reference guide to forensic applications using modern mass spectrometry techniques. The book features methods developed from advanced instrumentation, drug detection and toxicological analysis, and methodology of applications of stable isotope ratios. The final chapters present approaches for identifying accelerants in fire debris and procedures for analyzing explosives in post-blast residues. Jehuda Yinon, Ph.D., is one of the top forensic chemists in the world. As the editor of this authoritative volume, he compiles the knowledge of leading experts to demonstrate the use of novel mass spectrometry techniques in a vast range of forensic applications.
The bible of gas chromatography-offering everything the professional and the novice need to know about running, maintaining, and interpreting the results from GC Analytical chemists, technicians, and scientists in allied disciplines have come to regard Modern Practice of Gas Chomatography as the standard reference in gas chromatography. In addition to serving as an invaluable reference for the experienced practitioner, this bestselling work provides the beginner with a solid understanding of gas chromatographic theory and basic techniques. This new Fourth Edition incorporates the most recent developments in the field, including entirely new chapters on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); optimization of separations and computer assistance; high speed or fast gas chromatography; mobile phase requirements: gas system requirements and sample preparation techniques; qualitative and quantitative analysis by GC; updated information on detectors; validation and QA/QC of chromatographic methods; and useful hints for good gas chromatography. As in previous editions, contributing authors have been chosen for their expertise and active participation in their respective areas. Modern Practice of Gas Chromatography, Fourth Edition presents a well-rounded and comprehensive overview of the current state of this important technology, providing a practical reference that will greatly appeal to both experienced chomatographers and novices.
This timely book covers the most recent developments in the chemical detection of explosives in a variety of environments. Beginning with a broad view of the need for and the potential applications of chemical sensing, the book considers the issue of how to effectively include chemical sensing into systems designed to find hidden explosives devices. Offering a firsthand look at the latest technologies direct from those who are actively developing them, the book features: A look at the history of the field, including the contributions of recent programs A brief explanation of the chemistry of various explosives and differences in the place where they may be detected An introduction to the problems presented by trace element sensing An overview and comparison of the technologies currently being used and developed Case studies of field experiences with chemical sensors A look at the emerging threat of non-traditional explosives This book is an important reference for explosives engineers, systems engineers involved in the development of related devices, government agencies and NGOs involved in demining efforts, military and law enforcement specialists in mines and explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), as well as environmental scientists and chemists involved in explosives research. In addition to providing field workers with knowledge that will help them decide where and how to search for explosives using chemical sensors. It will provide them with an understanding of the potential and the limitations of chemical sensing in their search for and identification of dangerous devices.
Now in its second edition, Forensic Investigation of Explosions draws on the editor’s 30 years of explosives casework experience, including his work on task forces set up to investigate major explosives incidents. Dr. Alexander Beveridge provides a broad, multidisciplinary approach, assembling the contributions of internationally recognized experts who present the definitive reference work on the subject. Topics discussed include: The physics and chemistry of explosives and explosions The detection of hidden explosives The effect of explosions on structures and persons Aircraft sabotage investigations Explosion scene investigations Casework management The role of forensic scientists Analysis of explosives and their residues Forensic pathology as it relates to explosives Presentation of expert testimony With nearly 40 percent more material, this new edition contains revised chapters and several new topics, including: A profile of casework management in the UK Forensic Explosives Laboratory, one of the world’s top labs, with a discussion of their management system, training procedures, and practical approaches to problem solving Properties and analysis of improvised explosives An examination of the Bali bombings and the use of mobile analytical techniques and mobile laboratories The collection, analysis, and presentation of evidence in vehicle-borne improvised explosive device cases, as evidenced in attacks on US overseas targets This volume offers valuable information to all members of prevention and post-blast teams. Each chapter was written by an expert or experts in a specific field and provides well-referenced information underlying best practices that can be used in the field, laboratory, conference room, classroom, or courtroom.
Over 1000 soil samples were collected at the surface and at depth near buried TMA-5, TMM-1, PMA-1A, PMA-2, and Type 72 land mines at a research minefield at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, in 1998 and 1999. Soil samples were extracted with acetonitrile and analyzed by GC-BCD for nitroaromatic, nitramine, and aminonitroaromatic compounds to determine the concentrations of explosives-related chemical (ERC) signatures that collect in soil near buried land mines. The most often detected 20 different ERC compounds were 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT), and two environmental transformation products of 2,4,6-TNT: 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). Generally, in surface soils, either 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, or 2,4-DNT were the ERCs most often detected and were present at the highest concentrations. ERCs were much more prevalent near TMA-5 and PMA-1A land mines than TMM-1 and PMA-2 mines. ERCs were spatially heterogeneous in soil, but were found most often in a discontinuous cylinder around the perimeters of the mines, under the mines, and in a discontinuous halo in the surface soil. It appears that the frequency of detection of ERCs in soil near the TMA-5 and PMA-1A mines is continuing to increase with time. Soil/air partition coefficients, estimated for ERC analyses using explosives-contaminated soil from the research minefield, and the median values for these compounds, estimated in the surface soils, were used to predict the concentrations of ERCs in the boundary layer air above buried TMA-5 and PMA-1A mines. 2,4-DNT and the two isomers of ADNT give the greatest promise for success in chemically detecting buried mines.
Technology & Engineering by National Research Council
Protection of the traveling public from terrorist threats involving explosives is a major goal of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). For 20 years, the TSA (and the Federal Aviation Administration before it) have been investing in technologies to meet that goal. To support that activity, the TSA has asked the NRC to assess a variety of technological opportunities for offering such protection. The NRC is approaching this assignment by issuing a series of reports on chosen technology applications. This is the first of that series and presents an assessment of mass spectrometry for enhanced trace detection (ETD) of chemicals contained in explosives. The report describes limitations of trace detection in general and the current technologies in particular. It then presents a discussion of the potential for mass spectrometry to improve EDT including challenges faced by such a system, recommendations for starting a program to take advantage of mass spectrometry, and recommendations for a phased implementation plan.
An up-to-date handbook, with the latest advances including all the various methods and techniques for analyzing explosives. Explosive compounds and mixtures, residues--their recovery and clean-up procedures--chromatography, polarography, spectroscopy, environmental analysis and mass spectroscopy are among the topics covered.
Crime Reconstruction, Second Edition is an updated guide to the interpretation of physical evidence, written for the advanced student of forensic science, the practicing forensic generalist and those with multiple forensic specialists. It is designed to assist reconstructionists with understanding their role in the justice system; the development and refinement of case theory’ and the limits of physical evidence interpretation. Chisum and Turvey begin with chapters on the history and ethics of crime reconstruction and then shift to the more applied subjects of reconstruction methodology and practice standards. The volume concludes with chapters on courtroom conduct and evidence admissibility to prepare forensic reconstructionists for what awaits them when they take the witness stand. Crime Reconstruction, Second Edition, remains an unparalleled watershed collaborative effort by internationally known, qualified, and respected forensic science practitioner holding generations of case experience among them. Forensic pioneer such as W. Jerry Chisum, John D. DeHaan, John I. Thorton, and Brent E. Turvey contribute chapters on crime scene investigation, arson reconstruction, trace evidence interpretation, advanced bloodstain interpretation, and ethics. Other chapters cover the subjects of shooting incident reconstruction, interpreting digital evidence, staged crime scenes, and examiner bias. Rarely have so many forensic giants collaborated, and never before have the natural limits of physical evidence been made so clear. Updates to the majority of chapters, to comply with the NAS Report New chapters on forensic science, crime scene investigation, wound pattern analysis, sexual assault reconstruction, and report writing Updated with key terms, chapter summaries, discussion questions, and a comprehensive glossary; ideal for those teaching forensic science and crime reconstruction subjects at the college level Provides clear practice standards and ethical guidelines for the practicing forensic scientist
Bombings by United States. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. Office of Enforcement Programs and Services