"This book collects the text of the lectures given at the Les Houches Summer School on "Fundamental aspects of turbulent flows in climate dynamics", held in August 2017. Leading scientists in the fields of climate dynamics, atmosphere and ocean dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics, physics and non-linear sciences present their views on this fast growing and interdisciplinary field of research, by venturing upon fundamental problems of atmospheric convection, clouds, large scale circulation, and predictability. Climate is controlled by turbulent flows. Turbulent motions are responsible for the bulk of the transport of energy, momentum, and water vapor in the atmosphere, which determine the distribution of temperature, winds, and precipitation on Earth. Clouds, weather systems, and boundary layers in the oceans and atmosphere are manifestations of turbulence in the climate system. Because turbulence remains as the great unsolved problem of classical physics, we do not have a complete physical theory of climate. The aim of this summer school was to survey what is known about how turbulent flows control climate, what role they may play in climate change, and to outline where progress in this important area can be expected, given today's computational and observational capabilities. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides an essential background to future studies. All chapters are written from a pedagogical perspective, making the book accessible to masters and PhD students and all researchers wishing to enter this field. It is complemented by online video of several lectures and seminars recorded during the summer school"
This volume, number 109 of the Les Houches Summer School series, presents the lectures held in August 2017 on the subject of turbulent flows in climate dynamics. Leading scientists in the fields of climate dynamics, atmosphere and ocean dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics, physics and non-linear sciences present their views on this fast growing and interdisciplinary field of research, by venturing upon fundamental problems of atmospheric convection, clouds, large scale circulation, and predictability. Climate is controlled by turbulent flows. Turbulent motions are responsible for the bulk of the transport of energy, momentum, and water vapor in the atmosphere, which determine the distribution of temperature, winds, and precipitation on Earth. The aim of this book is to survey what is known about how turbulent flows control climate, what role they may play in climate change, and to outline where progress in this important area can be expected, given today's computational and observational capabilities. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides an essential background to future studies. All chapters are written from a pedagogical perspective, making the book accessible to masters and PhD students and all researchers wishing to enter this field.
The topic of the CVIII session of the Ecole de Physique des Houches, held in July 2017, was Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology. Effective Field Theory (EFT) is a general method for describing quantum systems with multiple length scales in a tractable fashion. It allows to perform precise calculations in established models (such as the Standard Models of particle physics and cosmology), as well as to concisely parametrise possible effects from physics beyond the Standard Models. The goal of this school was to offer a broad introduction to the foundations and modern applications of Effective Field Theory in many of its incarnations. This is all the more important as there are preciously few textbooks covering the subject, none of them in a complete way. In this book, the lecturers present the concepts in a pedagogical way so that readers can adapt some of the latest developments to their own problems. The chapters cover almost all the lectures given at the school and will serve as an introduction to the topic and as a reference manual to students and researchers.
Climate change is a major challenge facing modern society. The chemistry of air and its influence on the climate system forms the main focus of this book. Vol. 1 of Chemistry of the Climate System provides the reader with a physicochemical understanding of atmospheric processes. The chemical substances and reactions found in the Earth's atmosphere are presented along with their influence on the global climate system.
This millennium will see the increased use of parallel computing technologies at all levels of mainstream computing. Most computer hardware will use these technologies to achieve higher computing speeds, high speed access to very large distributed databases and greater flexibility through heterogeneous computing. These developments can be expected to result in the extended use of all types of parallel computers in virtually all areas of human endeavour. Compute-intensive problems in emerging areas such as financial modelling and multimedia systems, in addition to traditional application areas of parallel computing such as scientific computing and simulation, will stimulate the developments. Parallel computing as a field of scientific research and development will move from a niche concentrating on solving compute-intensive scientific and engineering problems to become one of the fundamental computing technologies. This book gives a retrospective view of what has been achieved in the parallel computing field during the past three decades, as well as a prospective view of expected future developments. Contents: Invited PapersApplicationsAlgorithmsSystem Software and Hardware ArchitectureIndustrial PerspectiveExtended Abstracts Readership: Researchers in high-speed computing. Keywords:Computing Technologies;Algorithms;System Software;Hardware Architecture;High-Speed Computing
It is now widely recognized that the climate system is governed by nonlinear, multi-scale processes, whereby memory effects and stochastic forcing by fast processes, such as weather and convective systems, can induce regime behavior. Motivated by present difficulties in understanding the climate system and to aid the improvement of numerical weather and climate models, this book gathers contributions from mathematics, physics and climate science to highlight the latest developments and current research questions in nonlinear and stochastic climate dynamics. Leading researchers discuss some of the most challenging and exciting areas of research in the mathematical geosciences, such as the theory of tipping points and of extreme events including spatial extremes, climate networks, data assimilation and dynamical systems. This book provides graduate students and researchers with a broad overview of the physical climate system and introduces powerful data analysis and modeling methods for climate scientists and applied mathematicians.
Multiphase Particulate Systems in Turbulent Flows: Fluid-Liquid and Solid-Liquid Dispersions provides methods necessary to analyze complex particulate systems and related phenomena including physical, chemical and mathematical description of fundamental processes influencing crystal size and shape, suspension rheology, interfacial area of drops and bubbles in extractors and bubble columns. Examples of mathematical model formulation for different processes taking place in such systems is shown. Discussing connections between turbulent mixing mechanisms and precipitation, it discusses influence of fine-scale structure of turbulence, including its intermittent character, on breakage of drops, bubbles, cells, plant cell aggregates. An important aspect of the mathematical modeling presented in the book is multi-fractal, taking into account the influence of internal intermittency on different phenomena. Key Features Provides detailed descriptions of dispersion processes in turbulent flow, interactions between dispersed entities, and continuous phase in a single volume Includes simulation models and validation experiments for liquid-liquid, gas-liquid, and solid-liquid dispersions in turbulent flows Helps reader learn formulation of mathematical models of breakage or aggregation processes using multifractal theory Explains how to solve different forms of population balance equations Presents a combination of theoretical and engineering approaches to particulate systems along with discussion of related diversity, with exercises and case studies
For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the material.
With major implications for applied physics, engineering, and the natural and social sciences, the rapidly growing area of environmental fluid dynamics focuses on the interactions of human activities, environment, and fluid motion. A landmark for the field, the two-volume Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics presents the basic principles, fundamental flow processes, modeling techniques, and measurement methods used in the study of environmental motions. It also offers critical discussions of environmental sustainability related to engineering. The handbook features 81 chapters written by 135 renowned researchers from around the world. Covering environmental, policy, biological, and chemical aspects, it tackles important cross-disciplinary topics such as sustainability, ecology, pollution, micrometeorology, and limnology. Volume One: Overview and Fundamentals provides a comprehensive overview of the basic principles. It starts with general topics that emphasize the relevance of environmental fluid dynamics research in society, public policy, infrastructure, quality of life, security, and the law. It then discusses established and emerging focus areas. The volume also examines the sub-mesoscale flow processes and phenomena that form the building blocks of environmental motions, with emphasis on turbulent motions and their role in heat, momentum, and species transport. As communities face existential challenges posed by climate change, rapid urbanization, and scarcity of water and energy, the study of environmental fluid dynamics becomes increasingly relevant. This volume is a valuable resource for students, researchers, and policymakers working to better understand the fundamentals of environmental motions and how they affect and are influenced by anthropogenic activities. See also Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Two-Volume Set and Volume Two: Systems, Pollution, Modeling, and Measurements.