Fundamentals of MEG and EEG: Biophysics, Instrumentation, and Data Analysis gives graduate students and researchers a technical understanding of the fundamentals of MEG and EEG that will enable them to: Gain expertise in the state-of-the-art of MEG and EEG Understand the generation, measurement, and modeling of electromagnetic brain signals Understand the relationship of MEG/EEG with other brain imaging methods Design MEG / EEG measurement systems and evaluate their performance Develop and evaluate data analysis methods A well-integrated and systematic presentation of the principles and their application, using a common notation Authored by the leading people in the field On-line examples implemented in (MNE-) Python
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an exciting brain imaging technology that allows real-time tracking of neural activity, making it an invaluable tool for advancing our understanding of brain function. In this comprehensive introduction to MEG, Peter Hansen, Morten Kringelbach, and Riitta Salmelin have brought together the leading researchers to provide the basic tools for planning and executing MEG experiments, as well as analyzing and interpreting the resulting data. Chapters on the basics describe the fundamentals of MEG and its instrumentation, and provide guidelines for designing experiments and performing successful measurements. Chapters on data analysis present it in detail, from general concepts and assumptions to analysis of evoked responses and oscillatory background activity. Chapters on solutions propose potential solutions to the inverse problem using techniques such as minimum norm estimates, spatial filters and beamformers. Chapters on combinations elucidate how MEG can be used to complement other neuroimaging techniques. Chapters on applications provide practical examples of how to use MEG to study sensory processing and cognitive tasks, and how MEG can be used in a clinical setting. These chapters form a complete basic reference source for those interested in exploring or already using MEG that will hopefully inspire them to try to develop new, exciting approaches to designing and analyzing their own studies. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers from diverse fields, including neuroimaging, cognitive neuroscience, medical imaging, computer modelling, as well as for clinical practitioners.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) provide complementary views to the neurodynamics of healthy and diseased human brains. Both methods are totally noninvasive and can track with millisecond temporal resolution spontaneous brain activity, evoked responses to various sensory stimuli, as well as signals associated with the performance of motor, cognitive and affective tasks. MEG records the magnetic fields, and EEG the potentials associated with the same neuronal currents, which however are differentially weighted due to the physical and physiological differences between the methods. MEG is rather selective to activity in the walls of cortical folds, whereas EEG senses currents from the cortex (and brain) more widely, making it harder to pinpoint the locations of the source currents in the brain. Another important difference between the methods is that skull and scalp dampen and smear EEG signals, but do not affect MEG. Hence, to fully understand brain function, information from MEG and EEG should be combined. Additionally, the excellent neurodynamical information these two methods provide can be merged with data from other brain-imaging methods, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging where spatial resolution is a major strength. MEG-EEG Primer is the first-ever volume to introduce and discuss MEG and EEG in a balanced manner side-by-side, starting from their physical and physiological bases and then advancing to methods of data acquisition, analysis, visualization, and interpretation. The authors pay special attention to careful experimentation, guiding readers to differentiate brain signals from various artifacts and to assure that the collected data are reliable. The book weighs the strengths and weaknesses of MEG and EEG relative to one another and to other methods used in systems, cognitive, and social neuroscience. The authors also discuss the role of MEG and EEG in the assessment of brain function in various clinical disorders. The book aims to bring members of multidisciplinary research teams onto equal footing so that they can contribute to different aspects of MEG and EEG research and to be able to participate in future developments in the field.
Fundamentals of Brain Network Analysis is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to methods for unraveling the extraordinary complexity of neuronal connectivity. From the perspective of graph theory and network science, this book introduces, motivates and explains techniques for modeling brain networks as graphs of nodes connected by edges, and covers a diverse array of measures for quantifying their topological and spatial organization. It builds intuition for key concepts and methods by illustrating how they can be practically applied in diverse areas of neuroscience, ranging from the analysis of synaptic networks in the nematode worm to the characterization of large-scale human brain networks constructed with magnetic resonance imaging. This text is ideally suited to neuroscientists wanting to develop expertise in the rapidly developing field of neural connectomics, and to physical and computational scientists wanting to understand how these quantitative methods can be used to understand brain organization. Extensively illustrated throughout by graphical representations of key mathematical concepts and their practical applications to analyses of nervous systems Comprehensively covers graph theoretical analyses of structural and functional brain networks, from microscopic to macroscopic scales, using examples based on a wide variety of experimental methods in neuroscience Designed to inform and empower scientists at all levels of experience, and from any specialist background, wanting to use modern methods of network science to understand the organization of the brain
This book is rather unique in its approach and coverage. The approach is essentially that of an engineering textbook, emphasizing the quantitative aspects and highlighting the fundamentals and basic concepts involved. The coverage progresses in a logical and systematic manner from the subcellular, starting with the electrophysiology of the cell membrane, then proceeding to synapses, neurons, and muscle, before considering neuronal motor ensembles and the neuromuscular system as a whole. Simple, clear, and comprehensive explanations are given throughout. After an introductory chapter on some background material in biology, biophysics, and chemical kinetics, a substantial part of the book (Chapters 2-8) necessarily covers in considerable detail the basic components and processes that underlie the electrical and associated activities of the nervous system. The remaining chapters of the book (Chapters 9-13) focus on the neuromuscular system, starting with the structure of muscle cells, the generation of force by muscular contraction, and muscle receptors. The last chapter examines aspects of the control of movement, motor learning and memory, the maintenance of posture, and locomotion, and critically examines some of the theories that have been advanced to explain how movement is controlled. The book is intended for undergraduate or graduate students in the natural sciences, mathematics, or engineering who seek a deeper understanding of the fundamentals of neuroscience and the somatomotor system, in accordance with the aforementioned objectives. The book can serve as a textbook for a one-semester course on the neuromuscular system or as a reference in a more general course on neuroscience. Provides a thorough analytical treatment of membrane electrophysiology, starting from the first principles Emphasizes strongly the basic and fundamental concepts throughout Discusses thoroughly the essential features and properties of the basic constituents of the nervous system, that is, neurons and synapses, including the neuromuscular junction Explains the main aspects of posture, locomotion, and control of movement Includes practice problems throughout the text and a solutions manual will be available for adopting professors Nassir Sabah is professor of biomedical engineering in the electrical and computer engineering department at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. He received his B.Sc. (Hons. Class I) and his M.Sc. in electrical engineering from the University of Birmingham, U.K., and his Ph.D. in biophysical sciences from the State University of New York (SUNY/Buffalo). He has served as Chairman of the Electrical Engineering Department, Director of the Institute of Computer Studies, and Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture at the American University of Beirut. In these capacities, he was responsible for the development of programs, curricula, and courses in electrical, biomedical, communications, and computer engineering. Professor Sabah has extensive professional experience in the fields of electrical engineering, electronics, and computer systems, with more than 35 years’ teaching experience in neuroengineering, biomedical engineering, electronics, and electric circuits. He has over 100 technical publications, mainly in neurophysiology, biophysics, and biomedical instrumentation. He has served on numerous committees and panels in Lebanon and the region. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET, U.K.), a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and a member of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE).
Fundamentals of Cognitive Neuroscience: A Beginner's Guide, Second Edition, is a comprehensive, yet accessible, beginner’s guide on cognitive neuroscience. This text takes a distinctive, commonsense approach to help newcomers easily learn the basics of how the brain functions when we learn, act, feel, speak and socialize. This updated edition includes contents and features that are both academically rigorous and engaging, including a step-by-step introduction to the visible brain, colorful brain illustrations, and new chapters on emerging topics in cognition research, including emotion, sleep and disorders of consciousness, and discussions of novel findings that highlight cognitive neuroscience’s practical applications. Written by two leading experts in the field and thoroughly updated, this book remains an indispensable introduction to the study of cognition. Presents an easy-to-read introduction to mind-brain science based on a simple functional diagram linked to specific brain functions Provides new, up-to-date, colorful brain images directly from research labs Contains "In the News" boxes that describe the newest research and augment foundational content Includes both a student and instructor website with basic terms and definitions, chapter guides, study questions, drawing exercises, downloadable lecture slides, test bank, flashcards, sample syllabi and links to multimedia resources
Technology & Engineering by João Manuel R.S. Tavares
This book contains keynote lectures and full papers presented at the International Symposium on Computational Modelling of Objects Represented in Images (CompIMAGE), held in Coimbra, Portugal, on 20-21 October 2006. International contributions from nineteen countries provide a comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in the fields of: - Image Processing and Analysis; - Image Segmentation; - Data Interpolation; - Registration, Acquisition and Compression; - 3D Reconstruction; - Objects Tracking; - Motion and Deformation Analysis; - Objects Simulation; - Medical Imaging; - Computational Bioimaging and Visualization. Related techniques also covered in this book include the finite element method, modal analyses, stochastic methods, principal and independent components analyses and distribution models. Computational Modelling of Objects Represented in Images will be useful to academics, researchers and professionals in Computational Vision (image processing and analysis), Computer Sciences, and Computational Mechanics.
Over the last century,medicine has come out of theblack bag and emerged as one of the most dynamic and advanced fields of development in science and technology. Today, biomedical engineering plays a critical role in patient diagnosis, care, and rehabilitation. As such, the field encompasses a wide range of disciplines, from biology and physiolog
A unified treatment of the generation and analysis of brain-generated electromagnetic fields. In Brain Signals, Risto Ilmoniemi and Jukka Sarvas present the basic physical and mathematical principles of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), describing what kind of information is available in the neuroelectromagnetic field and how the measured MEG and EEG signals can be analyzed. Unlike most previous works on these topics, which have been collections of writings by different authors using different conventions, this book presents the material in a unified manner, providing the reader with a thorough understanding of basic principles and a firm basis for analyzing data generated by MEG and EEG. The book first provides a brief introduction to brain states and the early history of EEG and MEG, describes the generation of electromagnetic fields by neuronal activity, and discusses the electromagnetic forward problem. The authors then turn to EEG and MEG analysis, offering a review of linear and matrix algebra and basic statistics needed for analysis of the data, and presenting several analysis methods: dipole fitting; the minimum norm estimate (MNE); beamforming; the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC), including RAP-MUSIC with the RAP dilemma and TRAP-MUSIC, which removes the RAP dilemma; independent component analysis (ICA); and blind source separation (BSS) with joint diagonalization.
Among the most interesting fields in research are the emerging possibilities to interface the human brain directly with machines, e.g. with computers and robotic interfaces. The European Space Agency's Advanced Concept team as a multidisciplinary team from engineering, artificial intelligence, and neural engineering has been working on the cutting edge of exploring brain machine interfaces for application in space as solutions to limitations astronauts face in space, and this book for the first time presents the state-of-the-art-cohesively. * A pioneering book for a pioneering field * Presents the application of cutting-edge brain machine interface technologies and concepts to support astronauts in space * Of great interest to space scientists, neuroscientists, and biomedical engineers alike
Motor control is a relatively young field of research exploring how the nervous system produces purposeful, coordinated movements in its interaction with the body and the environment through conscious and unsconscious thought. Many books purporting to cover motor control have veered off course to examine biomechanics and physiology rather than actual control, leaving a gap in the literature. This book covers all the major perspectives in motor control, with a balanced approach. There are chapters explicitly dedicated to control theory, to dynamical systems, to biomechanics, to different behaviors, and to motor learning, including case studies. Reviews current research in motor control Contains balanced perspectives among neuroscience, psychology, physics and biomechanics Highlights controversies in the field Discusses neurophysiology, control theory, biomechanics, and dynamical systems under one cover Links principles of motor control to everyday behaviors Includes case studies delving into topics in more detail
This book introduces and reviews all of the currently available methods being used for computational electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, from the fundamentals through to the state-of-the-art. The aim of the book is to help biomedical engineers and medical doctors who use EEG to better understand the methods and applications of computational EEG analysis from a single, well-organized resource. Following a brief introduction to the principles of EEG and acquisition techniques, the book is divided into two main sections. The first of these covers analysis methods, beginning with preprocessing, and then describing EEG spectral analysis, event-related potential analysis, source imaging and multimodal neuroimaging, and functional connectivity analysis. The following section covers application of EEG analysis to specific fields, including the diagnosis of psychiatric diseases and neurological disorders, brain-computer interfacing, and social neuroscience. Aimed at practicing medical specialists, engineers, researchers and advanced students, the book features contributions from world-renowned biomedical engineers working across a broad spectrum of computational EEG analysis techniques and EEG applications.
As the first comprehensive title on network biology, this book covers a wide range of subjects including scientific fundamentals (graphs, networks, etc) of network biology, construction and analysis of biological networks, methods for identifying crucial nodes in biological networks, link prediction, flow analysis, network dynamics, evolution, simulation and control, ecological networks, social networks, molecular and cellular networks, network pharmacology and network toxicology, big data analytics, and more. Across 12 parts and 26 chapters, with Matlab codes provided for most models and algorithms, this self-contained title provides an in-depth and complete insight on network biology. It is a valuable read for high-level undergraduates and postgraduates in the areas of biology, ecology, environmental sciences, medical science, computational science, applied mathematics, and social science. Contents: Mathematical Fundamentals: Fundamentals of Graph TheoryGraph AlgorithmsFundamentals of Network TheoryOther FundamentalsCrucial Nodes/Subnetworks/Modules, Network Types, and Structural Comparison: Identification of Crucial Nodes and Subnetworks/ModulesDetection of Network TypesComparison of Network StructureNetwork Dynamics, Evolution, Simulation and Control: Network DynamicsNetwork Robustness and Sensitivity AnalysisNetwork ControlNetwork EvolutionCellular AutomataSelf-OrganizationAgent-based ModelingFlow Analysis: Flow/Flux AnalysisLink and Node Prediction: Link Prediction: Sampling-based MethodsLink Prediction: Structure- and Perturbation-based MethodsLink Prediction: Node-Similarity-based MethodsNode PredictionNetwork Construction: Construction of Biological NetworksPharmacological and Toxicological Networks: Network Pharmacology and ToxicologyEcological Networks: Food WebsMicroscopic Networks: Molecular and Cellular NetworksSocial Networks: Social Network AnalysisSoftware: Software for Network AnalysisBig Data Analytics: Big Data Analytics for Network Biology Readership: Advanced undergraduates and graduate students and researchers in biology, ecology, pharmacology, applied mathematics, computational science, etc. Keywords: Network Biology;Network Analysis;Food Webs;Molecular Networks;Social Networks;Network Pharmacology;Link Prediction;Network Dynamics;Big Data Analytics;Software;Models;Algorithms;Nodes;LinksReview:0
Epilepsy, Part I, Basic Principles and Diagnosis, Volume 107, in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series offers a comprehensive review of our knowledge of the field today, including epidemiology, basic mechanisms, animal models, and topics of increasing interest such as the role of inflammation in epilepsy. It provides a comprehensive approach to description of the clinical, electrographic and imaging aspects of the epilepsies, with a clear outline of contemporary classification and the role of modern diagnostic techniques, as well as neuropsychological and psychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Chapters are authored by internationally respected neurologists with varied perspectives insuring depth to the content. Epilepsy, Part II, Treatment, Volume 108, continues coverage of epilepsy with a focus on treatment. The volumes will be a very important resource for basic scientists, clinical investigators, and all health professionals treating patients with epilepsy. A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology International list of contributors including the leading workers in the field Describes the advances which have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences, their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care
This volume gives an overview of the state-of-the-art with respect to the development of all types of parallel computers and their application to a wide range of problem areas. The international conference on parallel computing ParCo97 (Parallel Computing 97) was held in Bonn, Germany from 19 to 22 September 1997. The first conference in this biannual series was held in 1983 in Berlin. Further conferences were held in Leiden (The Netherlands), London (UK), Grenoble (France) and Gent (Belgium). From the outset the aim with the ParCo (Parallel Computing) conferences was to promote the application of parallel computers to solve real life problems. In the case of ParCo97 a new milestone was reached in that more than half of the papers and posters presented were concerned with application aspects. This fact reflects the coming of age of parallel computing. Some 200 papers were submitted to the Program Committee by authors from all over the world. The final programme consisted of four invited papers, 71 contributed scientific/industrial papers and 45 posters. In addition a panel discussion on Parallel Computing and the Evolution of Cyberspace was held. During and after the conference all final contributions were refereed. Only those papers and posters accepted during this final screening process are included in this volume. The practical emphasis of the conference was accentuated by an industrial exhibition where companies demonstrated the newest developments in parallel processing equipment and software. Speakers from participating companies presented papers in industrial sessions in which new developments in parallel computing were reported.
In summarizing current insights and controversies over concussions in athletics, this book makes the vital point that symptom resolution does not necessarily mean injury resolution. Research shows that dysfunctional pathways continue for extended periods even after a minor concussion. Until the consequences of short-term perturbations and long-term residual brain dysfunctions are better understood, concussions must be treated with respect and given a higher priority for continued research activity.
Niedermeyer's Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields, Seventh Edition keeps the clinical neurophysiologist on the forefront of medical advancements. This authoritative text covers basic neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, and neuroimaging to provide a better understanding of clinical neurophysiological findings. This edition further delves into current state-of-the-art recording EEG activity both in the normal clinical environment and unique situations such as the intensive care unit, operating rooms, and epilepsy monitoring suites. As computer technology evolves, so does the integration of analytical methods that significantly affect the reader's interpretations of waveforms and trends that are occurring on long-term monitoring sessions. Compiled and edited by Donald L. Schomer and Fernando H. Lopes da Silva, along with a global team of experts, they collectively bring insight to crucial sections including basic principles of EEG and MEG, normal EEG, EEG in a clinical setting, clinical EEG in seizures and epilepsy, complementary and special techniques, event-related EEG phenomena, and shed light on the future of EEG and clinical neurophysiology. Akin to an encyclopedia of everything EEG, this comprehensive work is perfect for neurophysiology fellows, as well as neurology, neurosurgery, and general medical residents, and for the interns and medical students, and is a one-stop-shop for anyone training in EEG or preparing for neurophysiology or epilepsy board exams.
Established in 1982 as the leading reference on electroencephalography, Drs. Niedermeyer's and Lopes da Silva's text is now in its thoroughly updated Fifth Edition. An international group of experts provides comprehensive coverage of the neurophysiologic and technical aspects of EEG, evoked potentials, and magnetoencephalography, as well as the clinical applications of these studies in neonates, infants, children, adults, and older adults. This edition includes digital EEG and advances in areas such as neurocognition. Three new chapters cover the topics of Ultra-Fast EEG Frequencies, Ultra-Slow Activity, and Cortico-Muscular Coherence. Hundreds of EEG tracings and other illustrations complement the text.
The principle of tomography is to explore the structure and composition of objects non-destructively along spatial and temporal dimensions, using penetrating radiation, such as X- and gamma-rays, or waves, such as electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Based on computer-assisted image reconstruction, tomography provides maps of parameters that characterize the emission of the employed radiation or waves, or their interaction with the examined objects, for one or several cross-sections. Thus, it gives access to the inner structure of inert objects and living organisms in their full complexity. In this book, multidisciplinary specialists explain the foundations and principles of tomographic imaging and describe a broad range of applications. The content is organized in five parts, which are dedicated to image reconstruction, microtomography, industrial tomography, morphological medical tomography and functional medical tomography.