Today, parallel computing experts can solve problems previously deemed impossible and make the "merely difficult" problems economically feasible to solve. This book presents and synthesizes the recent experiences of reknown expert developers who design robust and complex parallel computing applications. They demonstrate how to adapt and implement today's most advanced, most effective parallel computing techniques. The book begins with a highly focused introductory course designed to provide a working knowledge of all the relevant architectures, programming models, and performance issues, as well as the basic approaches to assessment, optimization, scheduling, and debugging. Next comes a series of seventeen detailed case studies all dealing with production-quality industrial and scientific applications, all presented firsthand by the actual code developers. Each chapter follows the same comparison-inviting format, presenting lessons learned and algorithms developed in the course of meeting real, non-academic challenges. A final section highlights the case studies' most important insights and turns an eye to the future of the discipline. * Provides in-depth case studies of seventeen parallel computing applications, some built from scratch, others developed through parallelizing existing applications. * Explains elements critical to all parallel programming environments, including: ** Terminology and architectures ** Programming models and methods ** Performance analysis and debugging tools * Teaches primarily by example, showing how scientists in many fields have solved daunting problems using parallel computing. * Covers a wide range of application areas biology, aerospace, semiconductor design, environmental modeling, data imaging and analysis, fluid dynamics, and more. * Summarizes the state of the art while looking to the future of parallel computing. Presents technical animations and visualizations from many of the applications detailed in the case studies via a companion web site.
Today all computers, from tablet/desktop computers to super computers, work in parallel. A basic knowledge of the architecture of parallel computers and how to program them, is thus, essential for students of computer science and IT professionals. In its second edition, the book retains the lucidity of the first edition and has added new material to reflect the advances in parallel computers. It is designed as text for the final year undergraduate students of computer science and engineering and information technology. It describes the principles of designing parallel computers and how to program them. This second edition, while retaining the general structure of the earlier book, has added two new chapters, ‘Core Level Parallel Processing’ and ‘Grid and Cloud Computing’ based on the emergence of parallel computers on a single silicon chip popularly known as multicore processors and the rapid developments in Cloud Computing. All chapters have been revised and some chapters are re-written to reflect the emergence of multicore processors and the use of MapReduce in processing vast amounts of data. The new edition begins with an introduction to how to solve problems in parallel and describes how parallelism is used in improving the performance of computers. The topics discussed include instruction level parallel processing, architecture of parallel computers, multicore processors, grid and cloud computing, parallel algorithms, parallel programming, compiler transformations, operating systems for parallel computers, and performance evaluation of parallel computers.
The most powerful computers work by harnessing the combined computational power of millions of processors, and exploiting the full potential of such large-scale systems is something which becomes more difficult with each succeeding generation of parallel computers. Alternative architectures and computer paradigms are increasingly being investigated in an attempt to address these difficulties. Added to this, the pervasive presence of heterogeneous and parallel devices in consumer products such as mobile phones, tablets, personal computers and servers also demands efficient programming environments and applications aimed at small-scale parallel systems as opposed to large-scale supercomputers. This book presents a selection of papers presented at the conference: Parallel Computing (ParCo2017), held in Bologna, Italy, on 12 to 15 September 2017. The conference included contributions about alternative approaches to achieving High Performance Computing (HPC) to potentially surpass exa- and zetascale performances, as well as papers on the application of quantum computers and FPGA processors. These developments are aimed at making available systems better capable of solving intensive computational scientific/engineering problems such as climate models, security applications and classic NP-problems, some of which cannot currently be managed by even the most powerful supercomputers available. New areas of application, such as robotics, AI and learning systems, data science, the Internet of Things (IoT), and in-car systems and autonomous vehicles were also covered. As always, ParCo2017 attracted a large number of notable contributions covering present and future developments in parallel computing, and the book will be of interest to all those working in the field.
This is an introductory book on supercomputer applications written by a researcher who is working on solving scientific and engineering application problems on parallel computers. The book is intended to quickly bring researchers and graduate students working on numerical solutions of partial differential equations with various applications into the area of parallel processing.The book starts from the basic concepts of parallel processing, like speedup, efficiency and different parallel architectures, then introduces the most frequently used algorithms for solving PDEs on parallel computers, with practical examples. Finally, it discusses more advanced topics, including different scalability metrics, parallel time stepping algorithms and new architectures and heterogeneous computing networks which have emerged in the last few years of high performance computing. Hundreds of references are also included in the book to direct interested readers to more detailed and in-depth discussions of specific topics.
Optical media are now widely used in the telecommunication networks, and the evolution of optical and optoelectronic technologies tends to show that their wide range of techniques could be successfully introduced in shorter-distance interconnection systems. This book bridges the existing gap between research in optical interconnects and research in high-performance computing and communication systems, of which parallel processing is just an example. It also provides a more comprehensive understanding of the advantages and limitations of optics as applied to high-speed communications. Audience: The book will be a vital resource for researchers and graduate students of optical interconnects, computer architectures and high-performance computing and communication systems who wish to understand the trends in the newest technologies, models and communication issues in the field.
Computers by Portugal) International Conference on Vector and Parallel Processing-Systems and Applications (2nd : 1996 : Porto
Author: Portugal) International Conference on Vector and Parallel Processing-Systems and Applications (2nd : 1996 : Porto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes a carefully arranged selection of revised full papers chosen from the presentations given at the Second International Conference on Vector and Parallel Processing - Systems and Applications, VECPAR'96, held in Porto, Portugal, in September 1996. Besides 10 invited papers by internationally leading experts, 17 papers were accepted from the submitted conference papers for inclusion in this documentation following a second round of refereeing. A broad spectrum of topics and applications for which parallelism contributes to progress is covered, among them parallel linear algebra, computational fluid dynamics, data parallelism, implementational issues, optimization, finite element computations, simulation, and visualisation.
Parallel processing for AI problems is of great current interest because of its potential for alleviating the computational demands of AI procedures. The articles in this book consider parallel processing for problems in several areas of artificial intelligence: image processing, knowledge representation in semantic networks, production rules, mechanization of logic, constraint satisfaction, parsing of natural language, data filtering and data mining. The publication is divided into six sections. The first addresses parallel computing for processing and understanding images. The second discusses parallel processing for semantic networks, which are widely used means for representing knowledge - methods which enable efficient and flexible processing of semantic networks are expected to have high utility for building large-scale knowledge-based systems. The third section explores the automatic parallel execution of production systems, which are used extensively in building rule-based expert systems - systems containing large numbers of rules are slow to execute and can significantly benefit from automatic parallel execution. The exploitation of parallelism for the mechanization of logic is dealt with in the fourth section. While sequential control aspects pose problems for the parallelization of production systems, logic has a purely declarative interpretation which does not demand a particular evaluation strategy. In this area, therefore, very large search spaces provide significant potential for parallelism. In particular, this is true for automated theorem proving. The fifth section considers the problem of constraint satisfaction, which is a useful abstraction of a number of important problems in AI and other fields of computer science. It also discusses the technique of consistent labeling as a preprocessing step in the constraint satisfaction problem. Section VI consists of two articles, each on a different, important topic. The first discusses parallel formulation for the Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG), which is a powerful formalism for describing natural languages. The second examines the suitability of a parallel programming paradigm called Linda, for solving problems in artificial intelligence. Each of the areas discussed in the book holds many open problems, but it is believed that parallel processing will form a key ingredient in achieving at least partial solutions. It is hoped that the contributions, sourced from experts around the world, will inspire readers to take on these challenging areas of inquiry.
The organization of data is clearly of great importance in the design of high performance algorithms and architectures. Although there are several landmark papers on this subject, no comprehensive treatment has appeared. This monograph is intended to fill that gap. We introduce a model of computation for parallel computer architec tures, by which we are able to express the intrinsic complexity of data or ganization for specific architectures. We apply this model of computation to several existing parallel computer architectures, e.g., the CDC 205 and CRAY vector-computers, and the MPP binary array processor. The study of data organization in parallel computations was introduced as early as 1970. During the development of the ILLIAC IV system there was a need for a theory of possible data arrangements in interleaved mem ory systems. The resulting theory dealt primarily with storage schemes also called skewing schemes for 2-dimensional matrices, i.e., mappings from a- dimensional array to a number of memory banks. By means of the model of computation we are able to apply the theory of skewing schemes to var ious kinds of parallel computer architectures. This results in a number of consequences for both the design of parallel computer architectures and for applications of parallel processing.