A comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies and manufacturing, examining the state of the art with a particular emphasis on current and future applications. Key topics covered include: Silicon as MEMS material Material properties and measurement techniques Analytical methods used in materials characterization Modeling in MEMS Measuring MEMS Micromachining technologies in MEMS Encapsulation of MEMS components Emerging process technologies, including ALD and porous silicon Written by 73 world class MEMS contributors from around the globe, this volume covers materials selection as well as the most important process steps in bulk micromachining, fulfilling the needs of device design engineers and process or development engineers working in manufacturing processes. It also provides a comprehensive reference for the industrial R&D and academic communities. Veikko Lindroos is Professor of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science at Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. Markku Tilli is Senior Vice President of Research at Okmetic, Vantaa, Finland. Ari Lehto is Professor of Silicon Technology at Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. Teruaki Motooka is Professor at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan. Provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques Shows how to protect devices from the environment and decrease package size for dramatic reduction of packaging costs Discusses properties, preparation, and growth of silicon crystals and wafers Explains the many properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc), manufacturing, processing, measuring (incl. focused beam techniques), and multiscale modeling methods of MEMS structures
The Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies, Second Edition, is a comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies, and manufacturing that examines the state-of-the-art with a particular emphasis on silicon as the most important starting material used in MEMS. The book explains the fundamentals, properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), materials selection, preparation, manufacturing, processing, system integration, measurement, and materials characterization techniques, sensors, and multi-scale modeling methods of MEMS structures, silicon crystals, and wafers, also covering micromachining technologies in MEMS and encapsulation of MEMS components. Furthermore, it provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques, shows how to protect devices from the environment, and provides tactics to decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in costs. Provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques Shows how to protect devices from the environment and decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in packaging costs Discusses properties, preparation, and growth of silicon crystals and wafers Explains the many properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), manufacturing, processing, measuring (including focused beam techniques), and multiscale modeling methods of MEMS structures Geared towards practical applications rather than theory
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning: Methods for Surface Cleaning, Volume 9, part of the Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning series provide a state-of-the-art guide to the current knowledge on the behavior of film-type and particulate surface contaminants and their associated cleaning methods. This newest volume in the series discusses methods of surface cleaning of contaminants and the resources that are needed to deal with them. Taken as a whole, the series forms a unique reference for professionals and academics working in the area of surface contamination and cleaning. A strong theme running through the series is that of surface contamination and cleaning at the micro and nano scales. Provides a comprehensive coverage of innovations in surface cleaning Written by established experts in the surface cleaning field, presenting an authoritative resource Contains a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art, including case studies to enhance the learning process
The MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) market returned to growth in 2010. The total MEMS market is worth about $6.5 billion, up more than 11 percent from last year and nearly as high as its historic peak in 2007. MEMS devices are used across sectors as diverse as automotive, aerospace, medical, industrial process control, instrumentation and telecommunications - forming the nerve center of products including airbag crash sensors, pressure sensors, biosensors and ink jet printer heads. Part of the MEMS cluster within the Micro & Nano Technologies Series, this book covers the fabrication techniques and applications of thick film piezoelectric micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). It includes examples of applications where the piezoelectric thick films have been used, illustrating how the fabrication process relates to the properties and performance of the resulting device. Other topics include: top-down and bottom-up fabrication of thick film MEMS, integration of thick films with other materials, effect of microstructure on properties, device performance, etc. Provides detailed guidance on the fabrication techniques and applications of thick film MEMS, for engineers and R&D groups. Written by a single author, this book provides a clear, coherently-written guide to this important emerging technology. Covers materials, fabrication and applications in one book.
Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries
The ability to mix minute quantities of fluids is critical in a range of recent and emerging techniques in engineering, chemistry and life sciences, with applications as diverse as inkjet printing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, specialty and hazardous chemical manufacturing, DNA analysis and disease diagnosis. The multidisciplinary nature of this field – intersecting engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, microtechnology and biotechnology – means that the community of engineers and scientists now engaged in developing microfluidic devices has entered the field from a variety of different backgrounds. Micromixers is uniquely comprehensive, in that it deals not only with the problems that are directly related to fluidics as a discipline (aspects such as mass transport, molecular diffusion, electrokinetic phenomena, flow instabilities, etc.) but also with the practical issues of fabricating micomixers and building them into microsystems and lab-on-chip assemblies.With practical applications to the design of systems vital in modern communications, medicine and industry this book has already established itself as a key reference in an emerging and important field. The 2e includes coverage of a broader range of fabrication techniques, additional examples of fully realized devices for each type of micromixer and a substantially extended section on industrial applications, including recent and emerging applications. Introduces the design and applications of micromixers for a broad audience across chemical engineering, electronics and the life sciences, and applications as diverse as lab-on-a-chip, ink jet printing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and DNA analysis Helps engineers and scientists to unlock the potential of micromixers by explaining both the scientific (microfluidics) aspects and the engineering involved in building and using successful microscale systems and devices with micromixers The author's applied approach combines experience-based discussion of the challenges and pitfalls of using micromixers, with proposals for how to overcome them
This book tackles the debate over nanotechnology's environmental health and safety (EHS) by thoroughly explaining EHS issues, financial implications, foreseeable risks (i.e. exposure, dose, hazards of nanomaterials), and the implications of occupational hygiene precautions and consumer protections. Real-world case studies are included, e.g. the discussion of a leading chemical company's unusual pairing with the USA's largest environmental NGO, and an innovative program designed for small- to mid-sized businesses, which became a model approach for proactive nanotechnology EHS risk management. Considers the potential of nanotechnology from multiple perspectives (NGO, insurance industry, small business, etc) Provides guidance and advice for appropriate, proactive risk management strategies Reviews toxicological studies and industrial initiatives, documented with actual case studies Of significant interest to CEOs/CTOs of technology companies (SMEs), Health and Safety officers of technology companies (SMEs), Government officials (HSE), Toxicology experts, and venture capitalists
The revolution is well underway. Our understanding and utilization of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are growing at an explosive rate with a worldwide market approaching billions of dollars. In time, microdevices will fill the niches of our lives as pervasively as electronics do right now. But if these miniature devices are to fulfill their mammoth potential, today's engineers need a thorough grounding in the underlying physics, modeling techniques, fabrication methods, and materials of MEMS. The MEMS Handbook delivers all of this and more. Its team of authors-unsurpassed in their experience and standing in the scientific community- explore various aspects of MEMS: their design, fabrication, and applications as well as the physical modeling of their operations. Designed for maximum readability without compromising rigor, it provides a current and essential overview of this fledgling discipline.
Thoroughly Revised, State-of-the-Art Semiconductor Design, Manufacturing, and Operations Information Written by 70 international experts and reviewed by a seasoned technical advisory board, this fully updated resource clearly explains the cutting-edge processes used in the design and fabrication of IC chips, MEMS, sensors, and other electronic devices. Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook, Second Edition, covers the emerging technologies that enable the Internet of Things, the Industrial Internet of Things, data analytics, artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and and smart manufacturing. You will get complete details on semiconductor fundamentals, front- and back-end processes, nanotechnology, photovoltaics, gases and chemicals, fab yield, and operations and facilities. •Nanotechnology and microsystems manufacturing •FinFET and nanoscale silicide formation •Physical design for high-performance, low-power 3D circuits •Epitaxi, anneals, RTP, and oxidation •Microlithography, etching, and ion implantations •Physical, chemical, electrochemical, and atomic layer vapor deposition •Chemical mechanical planarization •Atomic force metrology •Packaging, bonding, and interconnects •Flexible hybrid electronics •Flat-panel,flexible display electronics, and photovoltaics •Gas distribution systems •Ultrapure water and filtration •Process chemicals handling and abatement •Chemical and slurry handling systems •Yield management, CIM, and factory automation •Manufacturing execution systems •Advanced process control •Airborne molecular contamination •ESD controls in clean-room environments •Vacuum systems and RF plasma systems •IC manufacturing parts cleaning technology •Vibration and noise design •And much more
This significant and uniquely comprehensive five-volume reference is a valuable source for research workers, practitioners, computer scientists, students, and technologists. It covers all of the major topics within the subject and offers a comprehensive treatment of MEMS design, fabrication techniques, and manufacturing methods. It also includes current medical applications of MEMS technology and provides applications of MEMS to opto-electronic devices. It is clearly written, self-contained, and accessible, with helpful standard features including an introduction, summary, extensive figures and design examples with comprehensive reference lists.
Industrial electronics systems govern so many different functions that vary in complexity-from the operation of relatively simple applications, such as electric motors, to that of more complicated machines and systems, including robots and entire fabrication processes. The Industrial Electronics Handbook, Second Edition combines traditional and new
The focus behind this book on wafer bonding is the fast paced changes in the research and development in three-dimensional (3D) integration, temporary bonding and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) with new functional layers. Written by authors and edited by a team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies. Part I sorts the wafer bonding technologies into four categories: Adhesive and Anodic Bonding; Direct Wafer Bonding; Metal Bonding; and Hybrid Metal/Dielectric Bonding. Part II summarizes the key wafer bonding applications developed recently, that is, 3D integration, MEMS, and temporary bonding, to give readers a taste of the significant applications of wafer bonding technologies. This book is aimed at materials scientists, semiconductor physicists, the semiconductor industry, IT engineers, electrical engineers, and libraries.
The new edition of this professional resource reveals how to optimize all aspects of the global manufacturing process to build the highest quality goods at the lowest price in the shortest possible time. How can one apply technical and business knowledge to develop a strategic plan that delivers increased productivity, quality, sustainability, reliability, agility, resilience, and best practices with rapid time to production and value? The answers are found in the fully updated new edition of Manufacturing Engineering Handbook. The goal of this second edition is to provide the essential knowledge needed to build products with the highest quality at the lowest cost in the least amount of time by optimizing all aspects of the manufacturing process—design, development, tools, processes, quality, speed, output, safety, and sustainability. You will gain access to information on conventional and modern technologies, manufacturing processes, and operations management that will assist you in achieving these goals. The book is written by a team of more than 100 internationally renowned manufacturing engineering experts, and pared down from its original 1200 pages. The new and vastly improved second edition is specifically designed to concisely and succinctly cover traditional manufacturing processes and advanced technologies as well as newer manufacturing software and systems to integrate them into the modern, global manufacturing world. Brand-new chapters on: eco-design and sustainability; nano materials and nano manufacturing; facilities planning; operations research New sections on plastics, composites, and moldmaking; global manufacturing and supply chain management Increased coverage of Design for Six Sigma and adaptive manufacturing Affiliated web site with color illustrations, graphs, charts, discussions on future trends, additional technical papers, and suggestions for further reading
The Industrial Communication Technology Handbook focuses on current and newly emerging communication technologies and systems that are evolving in response to the needs of industry and the demands of industry-led consortia and organizations. Organized into two parts, the text first summarizes the basics of data communications and IP networks, then presents a comprehensive overview of the field of industrial communications. This book extensively covers the areas of fieldbus technology, industrial Ethernet and real-time extensions, wireless and mobile technologies in industrial applications, the linking of the factory floor with the Internet and wireless fieldbuses, network security and safety, automotive applications, automation and energy system applications, and more. The Handbook presents material in the form of tutorials, surveys, and technology overviews, combining fundamentals and advanced issues with articles grouped into sections for a cohesive and comprehensive presentation. The text contains 42 contributed articles by experts from industry and industrial research establishments at the forefront of development, and some of the most renowned academic institutions worldwide. It analyzes content from an industrial perspective, illustrating actual implementations and successful technology deployments.
This second edition of Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology addresses the rapid evolution within this field, serving as a reference for the novice and the expert alike. Two parts divide this handbook: Part I covers basic studies, and Part II addresses design, construction, and applications to magnetic storage devices and MEMS. Discussions include: surface physics and methods for physically and chemically characterizing solid surfaces roughness characterization and static contact models using fractal analysis sliding at the interface and friction on an atomic scale scratching and wear as a result of sliding nanofabrication/nanomachining as well as nano/picoindentation lubricants for minimizing friction and wear surface forces and microrheology of thin liquid films measurement of nanomechanical properties of surfaces and thin films atomic-scale simulations of interfacial phenomena micro/nanotribology and micro/nanomechanics of magnetic storage devices This comprehensive book contains 16 chapters contributed by more than 20 international researchers. In each chapter, the presentation starts with macroconcepts and then lead to microconcepts. With more than 500 illustrations and 50 tables, Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology covers the range of relevant topics, including characterization of solid surfaces, measurement techniques and applications, and theoretical modeling of interfaces. What's New in the Second Edition? New chapters on: AFM instrumentation Surface forces and adhesion Design and construction of magnetic storage devices Microdynamical devices and systems Mechanical properties of materials in microstructure Micro/nanotribology and micro/nanomechanics of MEMS devices
The Standard Handbook of Electronics Engineering has defined its field for over thirty years. Spun off in the 1960’s from Fink’s Standard Handbook of Electrical Engineering, the Christiansen book has seen its markets grow rapidly, as electronic engineering and microelectronics became the growth engine of digital computing. The EE market has now undergone another seismic shift—away from computing and into communications and media. The Handbook will retain much of its evergreen basic material, but the key applications sections will now focus upon communications, networked media, and medicine—the eventual destination of the majority of graduating EEs these days.
A State-of-the-Art Guide to Biomedical Engineering and Design Fundamentals and Applications The two-volume Biomedical Engineering and Design Handbook, Second Edition offers unsurpassed coverage of the entire biomedical engineering field, including fundamental concepts, design and development processes, and applications. This landmark work contains contributions on a wide range of topics from nearly 80 leading experts at universities, medical centers, and commercial and law firms. Volume 1 focuses on the basics of biomedical engineering, including biomedical systems analysis, biomechanics of the human body, biomaterials, and bioelectronics. Filled with more than 500 detailed illustrations, this superb volume provides the foundational knowledge required to understand the design and development of innovative devices, techniques, and treatments. Volume 1 covers: Modeling and Simulation of Biomedical Systems Bioheat Transfer Physical and Flow Properties of Blood Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange Biomechanics of the Respiratory Muscles Biomechanics of Human Movement Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System Biodynamics Bone Mechanics Finite Element Analysis Vibration, Mechanical Shock, and Impact Electromyography Biopolymers Biomedical Composites Bioceramics Cardiovascular Biomaterials Dental Materials Orthopaedic Biomaterials Biomaterials to Promote Tissue Regeneration Bioelectricity Biomedical Signal Analysis Biomedical Signal Processing Intelligent Systems and Bioengineering BioMEMS
The increasing demand for mobile and wireless sensing necessitates the use of highly integrated technology featuring small size, low weight, high performance and low cost: micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) can meet this need. The Handbook of MEMS for wireless and mobile applications provides a comprehensive overview of radio frequency (RF) MEMS technologies and explores the use of these technologies over a wide range of application areas. Part one provides an introduction to the use of RF MEMS as an enabling technology for wireless applications. Chapters review RF MEMS technology and applications as a whole before moving on to describe specific technologies for wireless applications including passive components, phase shifters and antennas. Packaging and reliability of RF MEMS is also discussed. Chapters in part two focus on wireless techniques and applications of wireless MEMS including biomedical applications, such as implantable MEMS, intraocular pressure sensors and wireless drug delivery. Further chapters highlight the use of RF MEMS for automotive radar, the monitoring of telecommunications reliability using wireless MEMS and the use of optical MEMS displays in portable electronics. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert authors, the Handbook of MEMS for wireless and mobile applications is a technical resource for MEMS manufacturers, the electronics industry, and scientists, engineers and academics working on MEMS and wireless systems. Reviews the use of radio frequency (RF) MEMS as an enabling technology for wireless applications Discusses wireless techniques and applications of wireless MEMS, including biomedical applications Describes monitoring structures and the environment with wireless MEMS
A State-of-the-Art Guide to Biomedical Engineering and Design Fundamentals and Applications The two-volume Biomedical Engineering and Design Handbook, Second Edition offers unsurpassed coverage of the entire biomedical engineering field, including fundamental concepts, design and development processes, and applications. This landmark work contains contributions on a wide range of topics from nearly 80 leading experts at universities, medical centers, and commercial and law firms. Volume 1 focuses on the basics of biomedical engineering, including biomedical systems analysis, biomechanics of the human body, biomaterials, and bioelectronics. Filled with more than 500 detailed illustrations, this superb volume provides the foundational knowledge required to understand the design and development of innovative devices, techniques, and treatments. Volume 2 provides timely information on breakthrough developments in medical device design, diagnostic equipment design, surgery, rehabilitation engineering, prosthetics design, and clinical engineering. Filled with more than 400 detailed illustrations, this definitive volume examines cutting-edge design and development methods for innovative devices, techniques, and treatments. Volume 1 covers: Modeling and Simulation of Biomedical Systems Bioheat Transfer Physical and Flow Properties of Blood Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange Biomechanics of the Respiratory Muscles Biomechanics of Human Movement Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System Biodynamics Bone Mechanics Finite Element Analysis Vibration, Mechanical Shock, and Impact Electromyography Biopolymers Biomedical Composites Bioceramics Cardiovascular Biomaterials Dental Materials Orthopaedic Biomaterials Biomaterials to Promote Tissue Regeneration Bioelectricity Biomedical Signal Analysis Biomedical Signal Processing Intelligent Systems and Bioengineering BioMEMS Volume 2 covers: Medical Product Design FDA Medical Device Requirements Cardiovascular Devices Design of Respiratory Devices Design of Artificial Kidneys Design of Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Systems Sterile Medical Device Package Development Design of Magnetic Resonance Systems Instrumentation Design for Ultrasonic Imaging The Principles of X-Ray Computed Tomography Nuclear Medicine Imaging Instrumentation Breast Imaging Systems Surgical Simulation Technologies Computer-Integrated Surgery and Medical Robotics Technology and Disabilities Applied Universal Design Design of Artificial Arms and Hands for Prosthetic Applications Design of Artificial Limbs for Lower Extremity Amputees Wear of Total Knee and Hip Joint Replacements Home Modification Design Intelligent Assistive Technology Rehabilitators Risk Management in Healthcare Technology Planning for Healthcare Institutions Healthcare Facilities Planning Healthcare Systems Engineering Enclosed Habitat Life Support
This handbook will provide engineers with the principles, applications, and solutions needed to design and manage semiconductor manufacturing operations. Consolidating the many complex fields of semiconductor fundamentals and manufacturing into one volume by deploying a team of world class specialists, it allows the quick look up of specific manufacturing reference data across many subdisciplines.