To citizens and political analysts alike, United States trade law is an incoherent conglomeration of policies, both liberal and protectionist. Seeking to understand the contradictions in American policy, Judith Goldstein offers the first book to demonstrate the impact of the political past on today's trade decisions. As she traces the history of trade agreements from the antebellum era through the 1980s, she addresses a fundamental question: What effects do shared ideas about economics—as opposed to national power or individual self-interest—have on the institutions that make and enforce trade law? Goldstein argues that successful ideas become embedded in institutions and typically outlive the time during which they served social interests. She sets the stage with a discussion of the shifting commercial policy of the first half of the nineteenth century. After examining the consequences of the Republican party's decision to promote high tariffs between 1870 and 1930, she then considers in detail the political aftermath of the Great Depression, when the Democratic party settled on a reciprocal trade platform. Because the Democrats did not completely dismantle the existing system, however, the combined legacies of protection and openness help explain the intricacies in the forms of protectionism that political leaders have advocated since World War II. Readers in such fields as political science, political economy, policy studies and law, international relations, and American history will welcome Ideas, Interests, and American Trade Policy.
When engaging with other countries, the U.S. government has a number of different policy instruments at its disposal, including foreign aid, international trade, and the use of military force. But what determines which policies are chosen? Does the United States rely too much on the use of military power and coercion in its foreign policies? Sailing the Water's Edge focuses on how domestic U.S. politics—in particular the interactions between the president, Congress, interest groups, bureaucratic institutions, and the public—have influenced foreign policy choices since World War II and shows why presidents have more control over some policy instruments than others. Presidential power matters and it varies systematically across policy instruments. Helen Milner and Dustin Tingley consider how Congress and interest groups have substantial material interests in and ideological divisions around certain issues and that these factors constrain presidents from applying specific tools. As a result, presidents select instruments that they have more control over, such as use of the military. This militarization of U.S. foreign policy raises concerns about the nature of American engagement, substitution among policy tools, and the future of U.S. foreign policy. Milner and Tingley explore whether American foreign policy will remain guided by a grand strategy of liberal internationalism, what affects American foreign policy successes and failures, and the role of U.S. intelligence collection in shaping foreign policy. The authors support their arguments with rigorous theorizing, quantitative analysis, and focused case studies, such as U.S. foreign policy in Sub-Saharan Africa across two presidential administrations. Sailing the Water’s Edge examines the importance of domestic political coalitions and institutions on the formation of American foreign policy.
East Asian countries are now pursuing greater formal economic institutionalization, weaving a web of bilateral and minilateral preferential trade agreements. Scholarly analysis of “formal” East Asian regionalism focuses on international political and economic factors such as the end of the Cold War, the Asian financial crisis, or the rising Sino-Japanese rivalry. Yet this work pays inadequate attention to the strategies of individual government agencies, business groups, labor unions, and NGOs across the region. Moreover, most studies also fail to adequately characterize different types of trade arrangements, often lumping together bilateral accords with minilateral ones, and transregional agreements with those within the region. To fully understand this cross-national variance, this book argues that researchers must give greater attention to the domestic politics within East Asian countries and the U.S., involving the interplay of these subnational players. With contributions from leading country and regional trade specialists, this book examines East Asian and American trade strategies through the lens of a domestic bargaining game approach with a focus on the interplay of interests, ideas, and domestic institutions within the context of broader international shifts. With respect to domestic politics, the chapters show how subnational actors engage in lobbying, both of their own governments and through their links to others in the region. They also trace the evolution of interests and ideas over time, helping us to generate a better understanding of historical trends in the region. In addition to scholars of East Asian and comparative regionalism, this book will be of interest to policy-makers concerned with international trade and U.S.-Asia relations, and those interested in understanding the rich trade institutional landscape that we see emerging in the Asia-Pacific.
Addresses questions surrounding the persistence of partisan conflict and legislation supporting various forms of protectionism amid bipartisan support for a liberal trade regime. Lays out a foundation for a nested-games framework and overviews American trade policy since 1934, then looks in depth at the dynamics of the electoral competition game and its effects on trade policy. Examines effects of institutional structure on the politics of trade policy, and analyzes the politics of trade in the aftermath of Republican reforms following the 1994 midterm elections. Author information is not given. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR
What was the “battle in Seattle” over trade all about? You may know...but do your students? With John Rothgeb's concise text U.S. Trade Policy: Balancing Economic Dreams and Political Realities, your students will learn about international trade, the political tensions it rouses, and its historical roots. Rothgeb carefully traces the forces that affect U.S. trade policy's development and implementation, including: * the strategic and competitive international arena * policymakers' views on the value of trade * the influence of special interest groups * the impact of institutional rivalries Supplement your foreign and economic policy course with a balanced discussion of the enormous changes spurred by the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, the Bretton Woods system, and the GATT, to the controversy surrounding current trade relations withteh European Union and China.
What goes on when government negotiators bargain over trade frictions? Does their behaviour have significant effects? This author argues that international variations in the process make a substantial difference to the outcomes of international economic issues and that the process can be improved.
Examines the historical and socioeconomic roots of "Buy American" campaigns through case studies involving William Randolph Hearst, Sam Walton, and the U.S. labor movement, analyzing the consequences for working people
An in-depth overview of US foreign policy that highlights a process that is shaped by a paradox: that the very sources of national strength (a sense of national exceptionalism, a diffusion of political powers, and more), also create vulnerabilities for the United States. Includes an array of features to aid student learning. About the Author: Steven W. hook is an associate professor of political science at Kent State University.