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A volume of selected original papers on the synthesis of the two fundamental forces of nature. It is intended to provide graduate students and physicists in the field with an easy access to the original literature.
This third edition of an enduring and popular book has been fully updated and revised, exploring the two opposing paradigms of sustainability in an insightful and accessible way. Eric Neumayer contends that central to the debate on sustainable development is the question of whether natural capital can be substituted by other forms of capital. Proponents of weak sustainability maintain that such substitutability is possible, whilst followers of strong sustainability regard natural capital as non-substitutable. The author examines the availability of natural resources for the production of consumption goods and the environmental consequences of economic growth. He identifies the critical forms of natural capital in need of preservation given risk, uncertainty and ignorance about the future and opportunity costs of preservation. He goes on to provide a critical discussion of measures of sustainability. Indicators of weak sustainability such as Genuine Savings and the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare also known as the Genuine Progress Indicator are analysed, as are indicators of strong sustainability, including ecological footprints, material flows and sustainability gaps. This book will prove essential reading for students, scholars and policymakers with an interest in ecological and environmental economics and sustainable development.
Based on the widely used finite element method (FEM) and the latest Meshfree methods, a next generation of numerical method called Smoothed Point Interpolation Method (S-PIM) has been recently developed. The S-PIM is an innovative and effective combination of the FEM and the meshfree methods, and enables automation in computation, modeling and simulations — one of the most important features of the next generation methods. This important book describes the various S-PIM models in a systematic, concise and easy-to-understand manner. The underlying principles for the next generation of computational methods, G space theory, novel weakened weak (W2) formulations, techniques for shape functions, formulation procedures, and implementation strategies are presented in detail. Numerous examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the S-PIM solutions in comparison with the FEM and other existing methods. Effective techniques to compute solution bounds employing both S-PIM and FEM are highlighted to obtain certified solutions with both upper and lower bounds. The book also presents a systematically way to conduct adaptive analysis for solutions of desired accuracy using these bound properties, which is another key feature of the next generation of computational methods. This will benefit researchers, engineers and students who are venturing into new areas of research and computer code development. Contents:PreliminariesG SpacesPIM Shape Function CreationStrain Field ConstructionWeak and Weakened Weak FormulationsNode-Based Smoothed Point Interpolation Method (NS-PIM)Edge-Based Smoothed Point Interpolation Method (ES-PIM)Cell-Based Smoothed Point Interpolation Method (CS-PIM)The Cell-Based Smoothed Alpha Radial Point Interpolation Method (CS-αRPIM)Strain-Constructed Point Interpolation Method (SC-PIM)S-PIM for Heat Transfer and Thermoelasticity ProblemsSingular CS-RPIM for Fracture Mechanics ProblemsAdaptive Analysis Using S-PIMsAppendices: Program Codes Library:Description of the SubroutinesA Demonstration Input FileSource Codes of Two ModulesSource Codes of the Common Subroutines Readership: Researchers, practitioners, academics, and graduate students in engineering mechanics, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, civil engineering and computational physics. Keywords:Numerical Method;Meshfree Method;Finite Element Method;Point Interpolation Method;G Space;Weakened Weak Form;Applied Mechanics;Adaptive Analysis;Radial Basis Functions;Radial Point Interpolation Method
This completely revised and updated graduate-level textbook is an ideal introduction to gauge theories and their applications to high-energy particle physics, and takes an in-depth look at two new laws of nature--quantum chromodynamics and the electroweak theory. From quantum electrodynamics through unified theories of the interactions among leptons and quarks, Chris Quigg examines the logic and structure behind gauge theories and the experimental underpinnings of today's theories. Quigg emphasizes how we know what we know, and in the era of the Large Hadron Collider, his insightful survey of the standard model and the next great questions for particle physics makes for compelling reading. The brand-new edition shows how the electroweak theory developed in conversation with experiment. Featuring a wide-ranging treatment of electroweak symmetry breaking, the physics of the Higgs boson, and the importance of the 1-TeV scale, the book moves beyond established knowledge and investigates the path toward unified theories of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Explicit calculations and diverse exercises allow readers to derive the consequences of these theories. Extensive annotated bibliographies accompany each chapter, amplify points of conceptual or technical interest, introduce further applications, and lead readers to the research literature. Students and seasoned practitioners will profit from the text's current insights, and specialists wishing to understand gauge theories will find the book an ideal reference for self-study. Brand-new edition of a landmark text introducing gauge theories Consistent attention to how we know what we know Explicit calculations develop concepts and engage with experiment Interesting and diverse problems sharpen skills and ideas Extensive annotated bibliographies
After an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics, which lays the foundation for the rest of the text, the author moves on to the phenomenology and physics of fundamental interactions via a detailed discussion of the empirical principles of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. There then follows a development of local gauge theories and the minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions together with their characteristic applications. The book concludes with further possibilities and the theory of interactions for elementary particles probing complex nuclei. Numerous exercises with solutions make this an ideal text for graduate courses on quantum mechanics and elementary particle physics.
The natural framework of high-energy physics is relativistic quantum ?eld theory. This is a complex subject, and it is di?cult to illustrate it in all its aspects within a normal undergraduate course in particle physics, while devoting a su?cient attention to phenomenological aspects. However, in the small-wavelength limit, the semi-classical approximation is, in many cases of practical relevance, accurate enough to provide reliable predictions without entering the technicalities connected with radiative corrections. In particular, in the framework of the semi-classical approximation it is possible to obtain, in alimited number of pages,the expressionsfor relativisticcrosssections and decay rates in a self-contained and rigorous presentation, starting from the basic principles of Quantum Mechanics. Furthermore, even in the case of the standard model of Electroweak Interactions, the construction of the theory in the semi-classical approximation is exhausted by the study of the classical Lagrangian; many di?cult problems, such as those related to the unphysical content of gauge theories, can be dealt with by means of simple prescriptions. Thesearethereasonsthathavedeterminedourchoicetobasetheselecture notes on the semi-classicalapproximationto relativisticquantum ?eld theory. Webelievethatthisapproachleadstoadescriptionofthemostrelevantph- ical processes in high-energy physics, which is adequate to an undergraduate level course on fundamental interactions. Ofcourse,the lackof controlonradiativecorrectionshassomedrawbacks: forexample,theroleofanomalies,andthelimitationstotheHiggsmechanism, cannot be discussed in this context. These issues, however, are beyond the scope of the present text. During the preparation of our manuscript we have bene?ted of the inva- able help and encouragement of Raymond Stora. We are also grateful to our editor Marina Forlizzi for her continuous assistance and frieldly advices. Genova, Carlo M.
This book offers a self-contained introduction to the theory of electroweak interactions based on the semi-classical approach to relativistic quantum field theory, with thorough discussion of key aspects of the field. The basic tools for the calculation of cross sections and decay rates in the context of relativistic quantum field theory are reviewed in a short, but complete and rigorous, presentation. Special attention is focused on relativistic scattering theory and on calculation of amplitude in the semi-classical approximation. The central part of the book is devoted to an illustration of the unified field theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions as a quantum field theory with spontaneously broken gauge invariance; particular emphasis is placed on experimental confirmations of the theory. The closing chapters address the most recent developments in electroweak phenomenology and provide an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations. In this 2nd edition the discussion of relativistic scattering processes in the semi-classical approximation has been revised and as a result intermediate results are now explicitly proven. Furthermore, the recent discovery of the Higgs boson is now taken into account throughout the book. In particular, the Higgs decay channel into a pair of photons, which has played a crucial role in the discovery, is discussed. As in the first edition, the accent is still on the semi-classical approximation. However, in view of the necessity of a discussion of H !, the authors give several indications about corrections to the semiclassical approximation. Violation of unitarity is discussed in more detail, including the dispersion relations as a tool for computing loop corrections; the above-mentioned Higgs decay channel is illustrated by means of a full one-loop calculation; and finally, loop effects on the production of unstable particles (such as the Z0 boson) are now discussed. Finally, the neutrino mass and oscillation analysis is updated taking into account the major achievements of the last years.
The observation, in 1919 by A.S. Eddington and collaborators, of the gra- tational de?ection of light by the Sun proved one of the many predictions of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity: The Sun was the ?rst example of a gravitational lens. In 1936, Albert Einstein published an article in which he suggested - ing stars as gravitational lenses. A year later, Fritz Zwicky pointed out that galaxies would act as lenses much more likely than stars, and also gave a list of possible applications, as a means to determine the dark matter content of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It was only in 1979 that the ?rst example of an extragalactic gravitational lens was provided by the observation of the distant quasar QSO 0957+0561, by D. Walsh, R.F. Carswell, and R.J. Weymann. A few years later, the ?rst lens showing images in the form of arcs was detected. The theory, observations, and applications of gravitational lensing cons- tute one of the most rapidly growing branches of astrophysics. The gravi- tional de?ection of light generated by mass concentrations along a light path producesmagni?cation,multiplicity,anddistortionofimages,anddelaysp- ton propagation from one line of sight relative to another. The huge amount of scienti?c work produced over the last decade on gravitational lensing has clearly revealed its already substantial and wide impact, and its potential for future astrophysical applications.
In recent years there has been a significant increase of interest in continuous-time Principal-Agent models, or contract theory, and their applications. Continuous-time models provide a powerful and elegant framework for solving stochastic optimization problems of finding the optimal contracts between two parties, under various assumptions on the information they have access to, and the effect they have on the underlying "profit/loss" values. This monograph surveys recent results of the theory in a systematic way, using the approach of the so-called Stochastic Maximum Principle, in models driven by Brownian Motion. Optimal contracts are characterized via a system of Forward-Backward Stochastic Differential Equations. In a number of interesting special cases these can be solved explicitly, enabling derivation of many qualitative economic conclusions.
This authoritative volume is the first book specifically devoted to symptom validity assessment with individuals with a known or suspected history of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). It brings together leading experts in MTBI, symptom validity assessment, and malingering to provide a thorough and practical guide to the challenging task of assessing the validity of patient presentations after an MTBI. The book describes techniques that can drastically alter case conceptualization, treatment, and equitable allocation of resources. In addition to covering the most important symptom validity assessment methods, this timely volume provides guidance to clinicians on professional and research issues, and information on symptom validity testing in varied populations. The book covers MTBI assessment in such specific settings and populations as clinical, forensic, sports, children, gerontological, and military. It also addresses professional issues such as providing feedback to patients about symptom validity, ethical issues, and diagnostic schemas. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury will provide neuropsychologists, referring health care providers, courts, disability insurance companies, the military, and athletic teams/leagues with the in-depth, current information that is critical for the accurate and ethical evaluation of MTBI. Key Features: Provides in-depth, expert coverage of one of the most critical topics for clinical neuropsychologists Includes contributions from the leading authorities on both MTBI/post-concussive syndrome and malingering/symptom validity Covers assessment in such contexts as civil forensics, sports, military/veterans, and gerontological settings
Hilbert's Program was founded on a concern for the phenomenon of paradox in mathematics. To Hilbert, the paradoxes, which are at once both absurd and irresistible, revealed a deep philosophical truth: namely, that there is a discrepancy between the laws accord ing to which the mind of homo mathematicus works, and the laws governing objective mathematical fact. Mathematical epistemology is, therefore, to be seen as a struggle between a mind that naturally works in one way and a reality that works in another. Knowledge occurs when the two cooperate. Conceived in this way, there are two basic alternatives for mathematical epistemology: a skeptical position which maintains either that mind and reality seldom or never come to agreement, or that we have no very reliable way of telling when they do; and a non-skeptical position which holds that there is significant agree ment between mind and reality, and that their potential discrepan cies can be detected, avoided, and thus kept in check. Of these two, Hilbert clearly embraced the latter, and proposed a program designed to vindicate the epistemological riches represented by our natural, if non-literal, ways of thinking. Brouwer, on the other hand, opted for a position closer (in Hilbert's opinion) to that of the skeptic. Having decided that epistemological purity could come only through sacrifice, he turned his back on his classical heritage to accept a higher calling.
The Standard Model and Beyond presents an advanced introduction to the physics and formalism of the standard model and other non-abelian gauge theories. It provides a solid background for understanding supersymmetry, string theory, extra dimensions, dynamical symmetry breaking, and cosmology. The book first reviews calculational techniques in field theory and the status of quantum electrodynamics. It then focuses on global and local symmetries and the construction of non-abelian gauge theories, before explaining the structure and tests of quantum chromodynamics. The book also describes the electroweak interactions and theory, including neutrino masses. The final chapter discusses the motivations for extending the standard model and examines supersymmetry, extended gauge groups, and grand unification. Thoroughly covering gauge field theories, symmetries, and topics beyond the standard model, this text equips readers with the tools to understand the structure and phenomenological consequences of the standard model, to construct extensions, and to perform calculations at tree level. It establishes the necessary background for readers to carry out more advanced research in particle physics. Supplementary materials are provided on the author’s website and a solutions manual is available for qualifying instructors.
“...a much-needed handbook with contributions from well-chosen practitioners. A primary accomplishment is to provide guidance for those involved in modeling and simulation in support of Systems of Systems development, more particularly guidance that draws on well-conceived academic research to define concepts and terms, that identifies primary challenges for developers, and that suggests fruitful approaches grounded in theory and successful examples.” Paul Davis, The RAND Corporation Modeling and Simulation Support for System of Systems Engineering Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the underlying theory, methods, and solutions in modeling and simulation support for system of systems engineering. Highlighting plentiful multidisciplinary applications of modeling and simulation, the book uniquely addresses the criteria and challenges found within the field. Beginning with a foundation of concepts, terms, and categories, a theoretical and generalized approach to system of systems engineering is introduced, and real-world applications via case studies and examples are presented. A unified approach is maintained in an effort to understand the complexity of a single system as well as the context among other proximate systems. In addition, the book features: Cutting edge coverage of modeling and simulation within the field of system of systems, including transportation, system health management, space mission analysis, systems engineering methodology, and energy State-of-the-art advances within multiple domains to instantiate theoretic insights, applicable methods, and lessons learned from real-world applications of modeling and simulation The challenges of system of systems engineering using a systematic and holistic approach Key concepts, terms, and activities to provide a comprehensive, unified, and concise representation of the field A collection of chapters written by over 40 recognized international experts from academia, government, and industry A research agenda derived from the contribution of experts that guides scholars and researchers towards open questions Modeling and Simulation Support for System of Systems Engineering Applications is an ideal reference and resource for academics and practitioners in operations research, engineering, statistics, mathematics, modeling and simulation, and computer science. The book is also an excellent course book for graduate and PhD-level courses in modeling and simulation, engineering, and computer science.
A comprehensive overview of weak convergence of stochastic processes and its application to the study of financial markets. Split into three parts, the first recalls the mathematics of stochastic processes and stochastic calculus with special emphasis on contiguity properties and weak convergence of stochastic integrals. The second part is devoted to the analysis of financial theory from the convergence point of view. The main problems, which include portfolio optimization, option pricing and hedging are examined, especially when considering discrete-time approximations of continuous-time dynamics. The third part deals with lattice- and tree-based computational procedures for option pricing both on stocks and stochastic bonds. More general discrete approximations are also introduced and detailed. Includes detailed examples.
World-renowned experts in spatial statistics and spatial econometrics present the latest advances in specification and estimation of spatial econometric models. This includes information on the development of tools and software, and various applications. The text introduces new tests and estimators for spatial regression models, including discrete choice and simultaneous equation models. The performance of techniques is demonstrated through simulation results and a wide array of applications related to economic growth, international trade, knowledge externalities, population-employment dynamics, urban crime, land use, and environmental issues. An exciting new text for academics with a theoretical interest in spatial statistics and econometrics, and for practitioners looking for modern and up-to-date techniques.
This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever
Offering an up-to-date coverage of the basic principles and tools of Bayesian inference in economics, this textbook then shows how to use Bayesian methods in a range of models suited to the analysis of macroeconomic and financial time series.
From the series that publishes some of the AMS's most distingushed titles, this book stands alone in its class. The authors present a good, detailed introduction to a topic that serves as a standard tool in algebraic topology. It works well as an independent study resource for both students and researchers. A must for bookstores.