The dark matter problem is one of the most fundamental and profoundly difficult to solve problems in the history of science. Not knowing what makes up most of the known universe goes to the heart of our understanding of the Universe and our place in it. In Search of Dark Matter is the story of the emergence of the dark matter problem, from the initial erroneous ‘discovery’ of dark matter by Jan Oort to contemporary explanations for the nature of dark matter and its role in the origin and evolution of the Universe. Written for the educated non-scientist and scientist alike, it spans a variety of scientific disciplines, from observational astronomy to particle physics. Concepts that the reader will encounter along the way are at the cutting edge of scientific research. However the themes are explained in such a way that no prior understanding of science beyond a high school education is necessary. .
For over ten years, the dark side of the universe has been headline news. Detailed studies of the rotation of spiral galaxies, and 'mirages' created by clusters of galaxies bending the light from very remote objects, have convinced astronomers of the presence of large quantities of dark (unseen) matter in the cosmos. The most striking fact is that they seem to compromise about 95% of the matter/energy content of the universe. As for ordinary matter, although we are immersed in a sea of dark particles, including primordial neutrinos and photons from fossil cosmological radiation, both we and our environment are made of ordinary, 'baryonic' matter. Authors Mazure and Le Brun present the inventory of matter, baryonic and exotic, and investigating the nature and fate of matter's twin, anti-matter. They show how technological progress has been a result of basic research, in tandem with the evolution of new ideas, and how the combined effect of these advances might help lift the cosmic veil.
These proceedings provide the latest results on dark matter and dark energy research. The UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy hosted its tenth Dark Matter and Dark Energy conference in Marina del Rey and brought together all the leaders in the field. The symposium provided a scientific forum for the latest discussions in the field. Topics covered at the symposium: •Status of measurements of the equation of state of dark energy and new experiments •The search for missing energy events at the LHC and implications for dark matter search •Theoretical calculations on all forms of dark matter (SUSY, axions, sterile neutrinos, etc.) •Status of the indirect search for dark matter •Status of the direct search for dark matter in detectors around the world •The low-mass wimp search region •The next generation of very large dark matter detectors •New underground laboratories for dark matter search
This thesis describes the search for Dark Matter at the LHC in the mono-jet plus missing transverse momentum final state, using the full dataset recorded in 2012 by the ATLAS Experiment. It is the first time that the number of jets is not explicitly restricted to one or two, thus increasing the sensitivity to new signals. Instead, a balance between the most energetic jet and the missing transverse momentum is required, thus selecting mono-jet-like final states. Collider searches for Dark Matter have typically used signal models employing effective field theories (EFTs), even when comparing to results from direct and indirect detection experiments, where the difference in energy scale renders many such comparisons invalid. The thesis features the first robust and comprehensive treatment of the validity of EFTs in collider searches, and provides a means by which the different classifications of Dark Matter experiments can be compared on a sound and fair basis.
This thesis describes in detail a search for weakly interacting massive particles as possible dark matter candidates, making use of so-called mono-jet events. It includes a detailed description of the run-1 system, important operational challenges, and the upgrade for run-2. The nature of dark matter, which accounts for roughly 25% of the energy-matter content of the universe, is one of the biggest open questions in fundamental science. The analysis is based on the full set of proton-proton collisions collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at √s = 8 TeV. Special attention is given to the experimental challenges and analysis techniques, as well as the overall scientific context beyond particle physics. The results complement those of non-collider experiments and yield some of the strongest exclusion bounds on parameters of dark matter models by the end of the Large Hadron Collider run-1. Details of the upgrade of the ATLAS Central Trigger for run-2 are also included.
This book discusses searches for Dark Matter at the CERN’s LHC, the world’s most powerful accelerator. It introduces the relevant theoretical framework and includes an in-depth discussion of the Effective Field Theory approach to Dark Matter production and its validity, as well as an overview of the formalism of Simplified Dark Matter models. Despite overwhelming astrophysical evidence for Dark Matter and numerous experimental efforts to detect it, the nature of Dark Matter still remains a mystery and has become one of the hottest research topics in fundamental physics. Two searches for Dark Matter are presented, performed on data collected with the ATLAS experiment. They analyze missing-energy final states with a jet or with top quarks. The analyses are explained in detail, and the outcomes and their interpretations are discussed, also in view of the precedent analysis of theoretical approaches. Given its depth of coverage, the book represents an excellent reference guide for all physicists interested in understanding the theoretical and experimental considerations relevant to Dark Matter searches at the LHC.
This thesis is devoted to searches for dark matter at colliders and direct detection experiments. The first half of the work focuses on the Tevatron and LHC. Jets and missing energy searches at these colliders are sensitive to a broad class of models and dark matter candidates. I show that current jets plus missing energy analyses can miss signals for new physics, and suggest an alternative model-independent search strategy that broadens the reach of these experiments I also discuss searches for Higgs bosons that decay to light pseudoscalars. Information about the Higgs sector obtained through such searches may hint at the nature of the dark matter. The second half of the thesis turns to direct detection experiments, with a focus on inelastic dark matter. I discuss the prospects for discovering inelastic dark matter at upcoming experiments, and present two models with inelastically scattering dark matter. One of these models posits composite dark matter and has unique phenomenology that can be studied with directional detection experiments.
“Splendidly satisfying reading, designed for a nonspecialist audience.”—Kirkus Reviews, starred review Evalyn Gates, a talented astrophysicist, transports readers to the edge of contemporary science to explore the revolutionary tool—”Einstein’s telescope”—that is unlocking the secrets of the Universe. Einstein’s telescope, or gravitational lensing, is so-called for the way gravity causes space to distort and allow massive objects to act like “lenses,” amplifying and distorting the images of objects behind them. By allowing for the detection of mass where no light is found, scientists can map out the distribution of dark matter and come a step closer to teasing out the effects of dark energy on the Universe—which may forever upend long-held notions about where the Universe came from and where it is going.
If standard gravitational theory is correct, then most of the matter in the universe is in an unidentified form which does not emit enough light to have been detected by current instrumentation. This book is the second editon of the lectures given at the 4th Jerusalem Winter School for Theoretical Physics, with new material added. The lectures are devoted to the ?missing matter? problem in the universe, the search to understand dark matter. The goal of this volume is to make current research work on unseen matter accessible to students without prior experience in this area and to provide insights for experts in related research fields. Due to the pedagogical nature of the original lectures and the intense discussions between the lecturers and the students, the written lectures included in this volume often contain techniques and explanations not found in more formal journal publications.
Based on a Simons Symposium held in 2018, the proceedings in this volume focus on the theoretical, numerical, and observational quest for dark matter in the universe. Present ground-based and satellite searches have so far severely constrained the long-proposed theoretical models for dark matter. Nevertheless, there is continuously growing astrophysical and cosmological evidence for its existence. To address present and future developments in the field, novel ideas, theories, and approaches are called for. The symposium gathered together a new generation of experts pursuing innovative, more complex theories of dark matter than previously considered.This is being done hand in hand with experts in numerical astrophysical simulations and observational techniques—all paramount for deciphering the nature of dark matter. The proceedings volume provides coverage of the most advanced stage of understanding dark matter in various new frameworks. The collection will be useful for graduate students, postdocs, and investigators interested in cutting-edge research on one of the biggest mysteries of our universe.