Microfabrication is the key technology behind integrated circuits, microsensors, photonic crystals, ink jet printers, solar cells and flat panel displays. Microsystems can be complex, but the basic microstructures and processes of microfabrication are fairly simple. Introduction to Microfabrication shows how the common microfabrication concepts can be applied over and over again to create devices with a wide variety of structures and functions. Featuring: * A comprehensive presentation of basic fabrication processes * An emphasis on materials and microstructures, rather than device physics * In-depth discussion on process integration showing how processes, materials and devices interact * A wealth of examples of both conceptual and real devices Introduction to Microfabrication includes 250 homework problems for students to familiarise themselves with micro-scale materials, dimensions, measurements, costs and scaling trends. Both research and manufacturing topics are covered, with an emphasis on silicon, which is the workhorse of microfabrication. This book will serve as an excellent first text for electrical engineers, chemists, physicists and materials scientists who wish to learn about microstructures and microfabrication techniques, whether in MEMS, microelectronics or emerging applications.
This accessible text is now fully revised and updated, providing an overview of fabrication technologies and materials needed to realize modern microdevices. It demonstrates how common microfabrication principles can be applied in different applications, to create devices ranging from nanometer probe tips to meter scale solar cells, and a host of microelectronic, mechanical, optical and fluidic devices in between. Latest developments in wafer engineering, patterning, thin films, surface preparation and bonding are covered. This second edition includes: expanded sections on MEMS and microfluidics related fabrication issues new chapters on polymer and glass microprocessing, as well as serial processing techniques 200 completely new and 200 modified figures more coverage of imprinting techniques, process integration and economics of microfabrication 300 homework exercises including conceptual thinking assignments, order of magnitude estimates, standard calculations, and device design and process analysis problems solutions to homework problems on the complementary website, as well as PDF slides of the figures and tables within the book With clear sections separating basic principles from more advanced material, this is a valuable textbook for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students wanting to understand the fundamentals of microfabrication. The book also serves as a handy desk reference for practicing electrical engineers, materials scientists, chemists and physicists alike. www.wiley.com/go/Franssila_Micro2e
Microfluidics is a young discipline which enables scientists and engineers to handle fluids in the biochips of the future.The book is an introduction to this discipline. It presents in simple terms the most important notions of the domain: how fluids move on the chip, conveying materials, molecules, electrical charges, and heat.
The fabrication of an integrated circuit requires a variety of physical and chemical processes to be performed on a semiconductor substrate. In general, these processes fall into three categories: film deposition, patterning, and semiconductor doping. Films of both conductors and insulators are used to connect and isolate transistors and their components. By creating structures of these various components millions of transistors can be built and wired together to form the complex circuitry of modern microelectronic devices. Fundamental to all of these processes is lithography, ie, the formation of three-dimensional relief images on the substrate for subsequent transfer of the pattern to the substrate. This book presents a complete theoretical and practical treatment of the topic of lithography for both students and researchers. It comprises ten detailed chapters plus three appendices with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Additional Information: Visiting http://www.lithoguru.com/textbook/index.html enhances the reader's understanding as the website supplies information on how you can download a free laboratory manual, Optical Lithography Modelling with MATLAB®, to accompany the textbook. You can also contact the author and find help for instructors.
Microfluidics and Microfabrication discusses the interconnect between microfluidics, microfabrication and the life sciences. Specifically, this includes fundamental aspects of fluid mechanics in micro-scale and nano-scale confinements and microfabrication. Material is also presented discussing micro-textured engineered surfaces, high-performance AFM probe-based, micro-grooving processes, fabrication with metals and polymers in bio-micromanipulation and microfluidic applications. Editor Suman Chakraborty brings together leading minds in both fields who also: Cover the fundamentals of microfluidics in a manner accessible to multi-disciplinary researchers, with a balance of mathematical details and physical principles Discuss the explicit interconnection between microfluiodics and microfabrication from an application perspective Detail the amalgamation of microfluidics with logic circuits and applications in micro-electronics Microfluidics and Microfabrication is an ideal book for researchers, engineers and senior-level graduate students interested in learning more about the two fields.
Presents readers with the basic science, technology, and applications for every type of adaptive lens An adaptive lens is a lens whose shape has been changed to a different focal length by an external stimulus such as pressure, electric field, magnetic field, or temperature. Introduction to Adaptive Lenses is the first book ever to address all of the fundamental operation principles, device characteristics, and potential applications of various types of adaptive lenses. This comprehensive book covers basic material properties, device structures and performance, image processing and zooming, optical communications, and biomedical imaging. Readers will find homework problems and solutions included at the end of each chapter—and based on the described device structures, they will have the knowledge to fabricate adaptive lenses for practical applications or develop new adaptive devices or concepts for advanced investigation. Introduction to Adaptive Lenses includes chapters on: Optical lenses Elastomeric membrane lenses Electro-wetting lenses Dielectrophoretic lenses Mechanical-wetting lenses Liquid crystal lenses This is an important reference for optical engineers, research scientists, graduate students, and undergraduate seniors.
Providing a definitive source of knowledge about the principles, materials, and process techniques used in the fabrication of microfluidics, this practical volume is a must for your reference shelf. The book focuses on fabrication, but also covers the basic purpose, benefits, and limitations of the fabricated structures as they are applied to microfluidic sensor and actuator functions. You find guidance on rapidly assessing options and tradeoffs for the selection of a fabrication method with clear tabulated process comparisons.
MEMS technology and applications have grown at a tremendous pace, while structural dimensions have grown smaller and smaller, reaching down even to the molecular level. With this movement have come new types of applications and rapid advances in the technologies and techniques needed to fabricate the increasingly miniature devices that are literally changing our world. A bestseller in its first edition, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition reflects the many developments in methods, materials, and applications that have emerged recently. Renowned author Marc Madou has added exercise sets to each chapter, thus answering the need for a textbook in this field. Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition offers unique, in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials. From the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering, it provides the background, tools, and directions you need to confidently choose fabrication methods and materials for a particular miniaturization problem. New in the Second Edition Revised chapters that reflect the many recent advances in the field Updated and enhanced discussions of topics including DNA arrays, microfluidics, micromolding techniques, and nanotechnology In-depth coverage of bio-MEMs, RF-MEMs, high-temperature, and optical MEMs. Many more links to the Web Problem sets in each chapter
Introductory MEMS: Fabrication and Applications is a practical introduction to MEMS for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Part I introduces the student to the most commonly used MEMS fabrication techniques as well as the MEMS devices produced using these techniques. Part II focuses on MEMS transducers: principles of operation, modeling from first principles, and a detailed look at commercialized MEMS devices, in addition to microfluidics. Multiple field-tested laboratory exercises are included, designed to facilitate student learning about the fundamentals of microfabrication processes. References, suggested reading, review questions, and homework problems are provided at the close of each chapter. Introductory MEMS: Fabrication and Applications is an excellent introduction to the subject, with a tested pedagogical structure and an accessible writing style suitable for students at an advanced undergraduate level across academic disciplines.
This volume highlights recent important advances in microfluidic techniques for biological applications. Opening chapters focus on the most popular techniques for fabrication of microchips (photolithography, laser ablation, and soft lithography), while further sections focus on microfluidic techniques for bioanalytical assays and bioprocesses, such as DNA analysis, PCR, immunoassays, and cell reactors. Microfluidic Techniques will provide molecular biologists and biochemists with the state-of-the-art technical information required to perform microscale bioassays and bioprocessing in the laboratory.
This book presents a basic introduction to micromechanisms and microactuators, particularly to their basic configurations and design. This book fills the persisting gap in the published literature on the mechanical manipulative aspects of micromechanisms. It also helps in offering specialized introductory courses on micromechanisms and microactuators not as part of MEMS sensing devices, but as mechanical manipulative systems. The level of the book is suitable for use in both undergraduate and introductory graduate programmes. The book presents an overview of miniaturization and scaling laws, basic design principles of micro-sized mechanisms and actuators, micro-fabrication processes, and some futuristic issues. The volume contains a large number of figures and illustrations for easy understanding by the readers. It will also be useful to researchers and professionals looking for an introduction to the topic.
Nanotechnology and regenerative engineering have emerged to the forefront as the most versatile and innovative technologies to foster novel therapeutic techniques and strategies of the twenty-first century. The first edition of Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering: The Scaffold was the first comprehensive source to explain the developments in nanostructured biomaterials for tissue engineering, the relevance of nanostructured materials in tissue regeneration, and the current applications of nanostructured scaffolds for engineering various tissues. This fully revised second edition, renamed Nanotechnology and Regenerative Engineering: The Scaffold, provides a thorough update to the existing material, bringing together these two unique areas to give a perspective of the emerging therapeutic strategies for a wide audience. New coverage includes: Updated discussion of the importance of scaffolds in tissue engineering Exploration of cellular interactions at the nanoscale Complete range of fabrication processes capable of developing nanostructured scaffolds for regenerative engineering Applications of nanostructured scaffolds for neural, skin, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal regenerative engineering FDA approval process of nanostructure scaffolds Products based on nanostructured scaffolds Due to the unique and tissue-mimic properties of the nanostructured scaffolds, the past five years have seen a tremendous growth in nanostructured materials for biological applications. The revised work presents the current state-of-the-art developments in nanostructured scaffolds for regenerative engineering.
A thorough introduction to 3D laser microfabrication technology, leading readers from the fundamentals and theory to its various potent applications, such as the generation of tiny objects or three-dimensional structures within the bulk of transparent materials. The book also presents new theoretical material on dielectric breakdown, allowing a better understanding of the differences between optical damage on surfaces and inside the bulk, as well as a look into the future. Chemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers will find this a valuable source of interdisciplinary knowledge in the field of laser optics and nanotechnology.
Bringing you up-to-date with the latest developments in MEMS technology, this major revision of the best-selling An Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems Engineering offers you a current understanding of this cutting-edge technology. You gain practical knowledge of MEMS materials, design, and manufacturing, and learn how it is being applied in industrial, optical, medical and electronic markets. The second edition features brand new sections on RF MEMS, photo MEMS, micromachining on materials other than silicon, reliability analysis, plus an expanded reference list. With an emphasis on commercialized products, this unique resource helps you determine whether your application can benefit from a MEMS solution, understand how other applications and companies have benefited from MEMS, and select and define a manufacturable MEMS process for your application. You discover how to use MEMS technology to enable new functionality, improve performance, and reduce size and cost. The book teaches you the capabilities and limitations of MEMS devices and processes, and helps you communicate the relative merits of MEMS to your company's management. From critical discussions on design operation and process fabrication of devices and systems, to a thorough explanation of MEMS packaging, this easy-to-understand book clearly explains the basics of MEMS engineering, making it an invaluable reference for your work in the field.
An Introduction to Surface-Micromachining provides for the first time a unified view of surface-micromachining. Building up from the basic building block of microfabrication techniques, to the general surface-micromachining design, it will finish with the theory and design of concrete components. An Introduction to Surface-Micromachining connects the manufacturing process, microscale phenomena, and design data to physical form and function. This book will be of interest to mechanical engineers looking to scale down into micromachining and microelectronics designers looking to move horizontally to micromachining.
There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part of the "Materials for Sustainable Energy & Development" series. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells brings together world leaders and experts in this field and provides a lucid description of the materials assessment of fuel cell technologies. With an emphasis on the technical development and applications of key materials in low-temperature fuel cells, this text covers fundamental principles, advancement, challenges, and important current research themes. Topics covered include: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, direct methanol and ethanol fuel cells, microfluidic fuel cells, biofuel cells, alkaline membrane fuel cells, functionalized carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports, nanostructured Pt catalysts, non-PGM catalysts, membranes, and materials modeling. This book is an essential reference source for researchers, engineers and technicians in academia, research institutes and industry working in the fields of fuel cells, energy materials, electrochemistry and materials science and engineering.
The successful launch of viable MEMs product hinges on MEMS reliability, the reliability and qualification for MEMs based products is not widely understood. Companies that have a deep understanding of MEMs reliability view the information as a competitive advantage and are reluctant to share it. MEMs Reliability, focuses on the reliability and manufacturability of MEMS at a fundamental level by addressing process development and characterization, material property characterization, failure mechanisms and physics of failure (POF), design strategies for improving yield, design for reliability (DFR), packaging and testing.
Volume 2 of the Handbook focuses on the process technology and the numerous device applications using Micromachining and microfabrication. Ths handbook will be useful to researchers and engineers who are not yet specilists in the field and will serve as a reference book for experts. The material is presented in such a manner as to allow the book to be utilised as a comprehensive reference book.
The entire scope of the BioMEMS field—at your fingertips Helping to educate the new generation of engineers and biologists, Introduction to BioMEMS explains how certain problems in biology and medicine benefit from and often require the miniaturization of devices. The book covers the whole breadth of this dynamic field, including classical microfabrication, microfluidics, tissue engineering, cell-based and noncell-based devices, and implantable systems. It focuses on high-impact, creative work encompassing all the scales of life—from biomolecules to cells, tissues, and organisms. Brilliant color presentation Avoiding the overwhelming details found in many engineering and physics texts, this groundbreaking book—in color throughout—includes only the most essential formulas as well as many noncalculation-based exercises. Important terms are highlighted in bold and defined in a glossary. The text contains more than 400 color figures, most of which are from the original researchers. Coverage of both historical perspectives and the latest developments Developed from the author’s long-running course, this classroom-tested text gives readers a vivid picture of how the field has grown by presenting historical perspectives and a timeline of seminal discoveries. It also describes numerous state-of-the-art biomedical applications that benefit from "going small," including devices that record the electrical activity of brain cells, measure the diffusion of molecules in microfluidic channels, and allow for high-throughput studies of gene expression.
This is the first book to address modelling of systems that are important to the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures. It is unique in that it focuses on high aspect ratio microtechnology, ranging from ion beam micromachining to x-ray lithography.