During geologic spans of time, Earth's shifting tectonic plates, atmosphere, freezing water, thawing ice, flowing rivers, and evolving life have shaped Earth's surface features. The resulting hills, mountains, valleys, and plains shelter ecosystems that interact with all life and provide a record of Earth surface processes that extend back through Earth's history. Despite rapidly growing scientific knowledge of Earth surface interactions, and the increasing availability of new monitoring technologies, there is still little understanding of how these processes generate and degrade landscapes. Landscapes on the Edge identifies nine grand challenges in this emerging field of study and proposes four high-priority research initiatives. The book poses questions about how our planet's past can tell us about its future, how landscapes record climate and tectonics, and how Earth surface science can contribute to developing a sustainable living surface for future generations.
"Given the sheer scale of the topic under consideration here, Professor Gregory does well to condense it into bite-size pieces for the reader. I recommend this text to all undergraduate students of physical geography and earth sciences, particularly to those in their first and second years... This book is a comprehensive and (crucially) inexpensive text that will provide students with a useful source on geomorphology." - Lynda York, The Geographical Journal "I would highly recommend this to anyone doing geology or geography at university as a 'go to' book for geomorphology and landform." - Sara Falcone, Teaching Earth Science "An excellent source of information for anyone who needs a well-informed, easy to use reference volume to introduce them to the fascinating complexities of the earth’s land surface, past, present and future." - Angela Gurnell, Queen Mary, University of London This introductory text details the land surface of the earth in a readable style covering the major issues, key themes and sensitivities of the environments/landscape. Emphasising the major ideas and their development, each chapter includes case studies and details of influential scientists (not necessarily geomorphologists) who have contributed to the progress of understanding. Providing a very clear explanation of the understanding achieved and of the debates that have arisen, the book is comprised of 12 chapters in four sections: Visualising the land surface explains and explores the composition of the land surface and outlines how it has been studied. Dynamics of the land surface considers the dynamics affecting the earth's land surface including its influences, processes and the changes that have occurred. Environments of the land surface looks to understand the land surface in major world regions highlighting differences between the areas. Management of the land surface is an examination of the current and future prospects of the management of the earth's land surface. With pedagogical features including further reading, questions for discussion and a glossary, this original, lively text is authored by one of the leading experts in the field and will be core reading for first and second year undergraduates on all physical geography courses.
Computational models are invaluable in understanding the complex effects of physical processes and environmental factors which interact to influence landform evolution of geologic time scales. This book provides a holistic guide to the construction of numerical models to explain the co-evolution of landforms, soil, vegetation and tectonics, and describes how the geomorphology observable today has been formed. It explains the science of the physical processes and the mechanics of how to solve them, providing a useful resource for graduates studying geomorphology and sedimentary and erosion processes. It also emphasises the methods for assessing the relative importance of different factors at field sites, enabling researchers to select the appropriate processes to model. Integrating a discussion of the fundamental processes with mathematical formulations, it guides the reader in understanding which processes are important and why; and creates a framework through which to study the interaction of soils, vegetation and landforms over time.
Science by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
The Earth system functions and connects in unexpected ways - from the microscopic interactions of bacteria and rocks to the macro-scale processes that build and erode mountains and regulate Earth's climate. Efforts to study Earth's intertwined processes are made even more pertinent and urgent by the need to understand how the Earth can continue to sustain both civilization and the planet's biodiversity. A Vision for NSF Earth Sciences 2020-2030: Earth in Time provides recommendations to help the National Science Foundation plan and support the next decade of Earth science research, focusing on research priorities, infrastructure and facilities, and partnerships. This report presents a compelling and vibrant vision of the future of Earth science research.
Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.
Amid increasing interactions with other disciplines and technical advances for detecting, monitoring, and modeling fluvial landscape origin, dynamics, and diversity, a number of scientific works have come out and nested in globally recognized edited books. This book is an attempt in this regard, where a few precise regular research works from diverse disciplinary expertise from around the globe are compiled as chapters. In this collective effort, the application of geoinformatics, field data on natural rivers, instrumentation, use of analytic tools, scientific techniques, numerical models, case studies, illustrations, etc. in understanding formative processes and appraising fluvial landscapes will hopefully provide insight into the current practice of fluvial geomorphology and may guide fruitful and coherent scientific enquiry into the field.
Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source for the latest research in agronomy. As always, the subjects covered are varied and exemplary of the myriad of subject matter dealt with by this long-running serial. Maintains the highest impact factor among serial publications in agriculture Presents timely reviews on important agronomy issues Enjoys a long-standing reputation for excellence in the field
This book presents the basic concepts of quantitative soil science and, within this framework, it seeks to construct a new body of knowledge. There is a growing need for quantitative approach in soil science, which arises from a general demand for improved economic production and environmental management. Pedometrics can be defined as the development and application of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in soil science. This book shows how pedometrics can address key soil-related questions from a quantitative point of view. It addresses four main areas which are akin to the problems of conventional pedology: (i) Understanding the pattern of soil distribution in character space – soil classification, (ii) Understanding soil spatial and temporal variation, (iii) Evaluating the utility and quality of soil and ultimately, (iv) Understanding the genesis of soil. This is the first book that address these problems in a coherent quantitate approach.