Media attention has recently raised public awareness of hazing rituals, generating curiosity, interest, and debate about hazing as an initiation practice. Making the Team is a ground-breaking collection of contemporary perspectives on this topic. This book provides a theoretical analysis of hazing from a sociological perspective, both in the United States and in Canada. It is designed to provide an understanding of hazing for use in sociology and sport management classes, and is also highly suitable for courses that examine gender roles and socialisation. The collection chronicles the hazing practices that exist in sport and offers an historical overview of hazing and its emergence in today's sport culture. It also provides a theoretical and legal guide for understanding and managing hazing in sport. The discussion focuses on the role of tradition, power, and violence in hazing and on how the rituals serve as a confirmation of masculinity and dominance. These issues engage the reader in critical thought about a contentious aspect of sport that until recently has gone unchallenged.
International Perspectives on Key Issues in Sport and Exercise Psychology is a series of edited books, with a global focus, which reflect the state of art in areas of current and emerging interest in the study of sport and exercise psychology. Each volume in the series contributes to the better understanding of a key issue facing researchers and practitioners in sport psychology. This volume in the series focuses upon the sociocultural issues that challenge and often undermine participation, performance, and well-being in sports. Contributors address a number of important issues, such as exclusion, miscommunication, and ineffective practice in sport. The book extends the recent interest in culture within sport psychology by using a critical approach to highlight less mainstream sports such as martial arts, circus arts, extreme sports, and dance, and it will help sports participants and social scientists to gain an understanding of these marginalized sporting identities. By highlighting "subcultural" contexts, with their individual practices and values, it is hoped that the volume will promote the goal of achieving a more just, inclusive, and ethical sport psychology. The Psychology of Sub-Culture in Sport and Physical Activity will be ideal reading for sport and exercise academics and practitioners, advanced students of applied sport psychology, and related fields such as sport science, critical studies, sociology, cultural studies and social anthropology.
The Routledge Handbook of Applied Sport Psychology is a definitive guide to the theory and practice of applied sport psychology. It goes further than any other book in surveying the full variety of issues that practising sport psychologists will confront in their working lives. It introduces the most important tools and skills that psychologists will need to be truly helpful to their clients, and it also adopts a holistic definition of the role of the sport psychologist, explaining how effective counselling, assessment, and therapeutic models can add important extra dimensions to professional practice. The book is divided into seven thematic sections, addressing: counselling assessment theoretical and therapeutic models issues for the individual athlete, from injury and overtraining to depression issues for teams, from conflict resolution to travel working with special populations mental skills, such as imagery, goal setting, and concentration. Moving beyond the traditional tracks of clinical psychology and performance enhancement, the authors in this book argue convincingly that psychologists would benefit from attempting to understand athletes’ social and familial contexts – their health, happiness, and interpersonal dynamics in the broadest sense – if they are to serve their clients’ best interests. With contributions from many of the world’s leading sport psychologists, and with clear descriptions of best practice in each chapter, the Routledge Handbook of Applied Sport Psychology is essential reading for all serious students and practitioners of sport psychology, counselling, applied sport science, health psychology, and related fields.
Praise for the First Edition: "Barrie Houlihan's astonishingly ambitious and skilfully assembled collection examines the relations between sport, social policy and the social context that underlies the two. Organized around such themes as exclusion, commercialism and international comparisons, the book allows the reader to understand not only the centrality of sport to contemporary society, but the often perplexing policies that contrive to encourage or deny participation, promote or deter public sector involvement and support or undermine physical education. Importantly, Houlihan never prioritises the general over the particular, always striving to find detail amid the bigger picture." - Ellis Cashmore, Professor of Culture, Media and Sport, Staffordshire University "The most comprehensive study of contemporary issues in sport by leading international scholars. Houlihan's book is the answer to sports students' prayers, full of information, statistics, tables and figures, extensive guides to further reading and, most important of all, challenging ideas. A weighty vademecum for the early 21st century." - Jim Riordan Honorary Professor of Sports Studies, University of Stirling, Professor Emeritus at University of Surrey, and President of the European Sports History Association Fully updated and revised, the Second Edition of Barrie Houlihan's ground-breaking book provides students and lecturers with a one-stop text that is comprehensive, multi-disciplinary, accessible, international and engaging. Sport and Society allows students to: Approach the study of sport from a multi-disciplinary perspective. Understand the importance of social structure, power and inequality in analyzing the nature and significance of sport in society. Address the rapid commercialization and regulation of sport. Engage in comparative analysis to understand problems clearly and produce sound solutions. Expand their knowledge through chapter summaries, guides to further reading and extensive bibliographies. This Second Edition contains five brand new chapters, which reflect recent concerns with: young athletes and human rights, sport and the city, sport and violence, sport and health, and sport and Islam. A superb teaching text, it will be relished by lecturers seeking an authoritative introduction to sport and society and students who want a relevant, enriching text for their learning and research needs.
What impact does sport have on the lives of ordinary people? How does sport help to perpetuate inequalities in society? What can social theory tell us about the role of sport in society?? At their origin competitive sports were institutionalized in Western cultures for the privilege of white, heterosexual men. Over time sport has become more open to categories of people traditionally marginalized in society: women; those from lower social classes; gay men; people of colour; and those differently abled. However, focusing solely on increased social inclusion in sport masks significant problems with both the culture and structure of sport. This critical textbook examines social exclusion in sport and analyzes the socio-negative attributes associated with competitive, institutionalized sport, for all who play. Focusing on sport at non-elite levels, this book explores the lives of everyday citizens who play and examines how inequality and social deviance are structured into the social and sporting system. Each chapter uses a key social theory to address a particular social problem in sport, such as learned obedience to authority; the acceptance of pain and injury; the adoption of hyper-masculine, homophobic and sexist attitudes; the teaching of in-group/out-group; and the use of sport as a false mechanism for social mobility. By concentrating on real sport, and through the use of startling vignettes illustrating the experiences of real people, this textbook develops the critical senses, social conscience and theoretical understanding of all students of sport and anybody for whom sport is part of their everyday life.
Drawing on hundreds of interviews with 15-22 year old straight and gay male athletes in both the United States and the United Kingdom, this book explores how jocks have redefined heterosexuality, and no longer fear being thought gay for behaviors that constrained men of the previous generation.
Publisher: Don Mills, Ont. : Oxford University Press
Category: Social Science
This contributed volume includes articles on sport and gender written by leading scholars in their areas of expertise. Part I demonstrates that 1) the relationship between sport and gender has not developed in a smooth, uncontested, or linear way that always privileges all males and always discriminates against all females, and 2) that the relationship between sport and gender can best be understood sociologically by tracing the intersections between sport, gender, and other ways that Canadian life has been - and remains - stratified, such as social class, age, race, ethnicity, and sexuality. In Chapter 1, Melissa Parker and Philip White explore the chronological development of theoretical frameworks addressing both the gendering of sport and what it means to be gendered in sport. Michael Atkinson argues in Chapter 2 that there is a strong link between types of research methods used and knowledge claims made by researchers. In 'Cultural Struggle and Resistance: Gender, History and Canadian Sport', M. Ann Hall traces the early moments of organized women's sport in Canada to show that women's sport in Canada is built on far stronger foundations than is often assumed. In the following chapter, Kevin Wamsley argues that not all men were privileged by early Canadian sport practices. For instance, he outlines the process through which sport became an arena for the construction of particular types of masculinity, notably masculinities that helped reinforce the dominance of powerful groups of men. Beginning from the premise that Canadian society - and thus Canadian sport - is far from 'classless', Peter Donnelly and Jean Harvey provide numerous examples in Chapter 6 to show that there have been major social class and gender inequalities throughout the history of sport. Again, we are reminded that gender is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that can best be understood if we trace power differences not only between different groups of men and womenbut also between different versions of 'masculinity' and 'femininity' associated with particular social groups, social classes, and social settings. Part II of this book focuses on the work currently being done by leading researchers in the area of sport and gender in Canada on a broad spectrum of sport-related topics. The chapters reflect a variety of theoretical standpoints and methodological procedures. These chapters emphasize the need to study gender in a way that is not only non-categorical but perhaps moves beyond the distributive level towards understanding how sport assumes particular forms at particular historical junctures and grows out of relations of power that are determined culturally and reinforced ideologically. In Chapter 6, Sally Shaw and Larena Hoeber show how the prevalence of gendered discourses hinders the achievement of gender equity in Canadian amateur sport organizations. The idea that there is no singular masculinity and femininity operating withinCanadian sport is developed in Chapter 7 in which Philip White and Kevin Young review research findings on gender and rates and types of sport injury. In Chapter 8 Caroline Davis observes that some femininities are more closely associated with body image disorders than others and discusses the biological, sociological, and psychological factors acting on the relationship between sport, physical activity, and eating disorders. Chapter 9 by Peter Donnelly ('Who's Fair Game? Sport, Sexual Harassment, and Abuse') identifies how power differences tend to exist at the heart of abusive and exploitive sport-based relationships. Notions of power relations are also central to Chapter 10 written by Patricia Vertinsky and Sandra O'Brien Cousins on the effects of gender on participation in sport among older Canadians. Specifically, their chapter demonstrates how older women are disadvantaged relative to men when it comes to involvement in sport and physical activity. Victoria Paraschak's chapter on sport and Canada's First Nations peoples (Chapter 11) provides vivid examples of how unequal gender relations are created and reproduced over time. Chapter 12 calls for a collapsing of the rigid binary categories of hetero/homosexuality on the grounds that these are used to preclude full and equal gay and lesbian participation in sport. Identifying patterns of exclusion from participation in sport and physical activity is also the focus of Chapter 13 which is authored by Wendy Frisby,Colleen Reid and Pamela Ponic. This chapter demonstrates how a combination of poverty and prevailing municipal recreation department policies seriously limit the opportunities of many women from active recreation. In Chapter 14, Brian Wilson explores how the media reinforces taken-for-granted understandings of gender-appropriate orientations toward the body and sport. In the following chapter, Jamie Bryshun and Kevin Young provide some of the first substantial evidence for the routine involvement of female athletes in initiation (hazing) rituals in Canada and conclude that power relations between neophyte and veteran female players may be just as aggressive, coercive, and high-risk as those occurring on male teams. Sport and Gender in Canada reflects a growing body of work highlighting the diversity that exists among Canadian sportswomen and sportsmen in terms of factors such as age, race, heritage, sexuality, and social class. To speak of a 'generic' sporting masculinity or femininity, or indeed of a generic sporting experience, simply does not do justice to the complexity of Canadian sporting life.