The most enduring testament to the Mamluk Sultanate is its architecture. Not only do Mamluk buildings embody one of the most outstanding medieval architectural traditions, Mamluk architecture is actually a key to the social history of the period. Analysing Mamluk constructions as a form of communication and documentation as well as a cultural index, "Mamluk History Through Architecture" shows how the buildings mirror the complex - and historically unique - military, political, social and financial structures of Mamluk society. With this original and authoritative study, Nasser Rabbat offers an innovative approach to the history of the Mamluks - through readings of the spectacular architecture of the period. Drawing on examples from throughout both Egypt and Syria, from the Citadel and Al-Azhar Mosque of Cairo to the Mausoleum of al-Zahir Baybars in Damascus, Rabbat demonstrates how Mamluk architecture served to reinforce visually the spirit of the counter-Crusade, when the Muslim world rebounded from the setbacks of the First Crusade. Both holistically and in case studies, Rabbat demonstrates how history is inscribed into and reflected by a culture's artefacts. This is a groundbreaking work in the study of architecture and social history in the Middle East and beyond.
A History of Architecture and Trade draws together essays from an international roster of distinguished and emerging scholars to critically examine the important role architecture and urbanism played in the past five hundred years of global trading, moving away from a conventional Western narrative. The book uses an alternative holistic lens through which to view the development of architecture and trade, covering diverse topics such as the coercive urbanism of the Dutch East India Company; how slavery and capitalism shaped architecture and urbanization; and the importance of Islamic trading in the history of global trade. Each chapter examines a key site in history, using architecture, landscape and urban scale as evidence to show how trade has shaped them. It will appeal to scholars and researchers interested in areas such as world history, economic and trade history and architectural history.
The Mamluk City in the Middle East offers an interdisciplinary study of urban history, urban experience, and the nature of urbanism in the region under the rule of the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). The book focuses on three less-explored but politically significant cities in the Syrian region - Jerusalem, Safad (now in Israel), and Tripoli (now in Lebanon) - and presents a new approach and methodology for understanding historical cities. Drawing on diverse textual sources and intensive field surveys, Nimrod Luz reveals the character of the Mamluk city as well as various aspects of urbanism in the region, establishing the pre-modern city of the Middle East as a valid and useful lens through which to study various themes such as architecture, art history, history, and politics of the built environment. As part of this approach, Luz considers the processes by which Mamluk discourses of urbanism were conceptualized and then inscribed in the urban environment as concrete expressions of architectural design, spatial planning, and public memorialization.
Comparative approaches to political rituals and ceremonies in Byzantium and other court cultures of the Mediterranean basin form the subject of this collective volume, which examines related topics from the viewpoint of transformation, succession, appropriation, and representation in art and literature.
Bernhard von Breydenbach’s Peregrinatio in terram sanctam (Journey to the Holy Land), first published in 1486, is one of the seminal books of early printing and is especially renowned for the originality of its woodcuts. In Picturing Experience in the Early Printed Book, Elizabeth Ross considers the Peregrinatio from a variety of perspectives to explain its value for the cultural history of the period. Breydenbach, a high-ranking cleric in Mainz, recruited the painter Erhard Reuwich of Utrecht for a religious and artistic adventure in a political hot spot—a pilgrimage to research the peoples, places, plants, and animals of the Levant. The book they published after their return ambitiously engaged with the potential of the new print medium to give an account of their experience. The Peregrinatio also aspired to rouse readers to a new crusade against Islam by depicting a contest in the Mediterranean between the Christian bastion of the city of Venice and the region’s Muslim empires. This crusading rhetoric fit neatly with the state of the printing industry in Mainz, which largely subsisted as a tool for bishops’ consolidation of authority, including selling the pope’s plans to combat the Ottoman Empire. Taking an artist on such an enterprise was unprecedented. Reuwich set a new benchmark for technical achievement with his woodcuts, notably a panorama of Venice that folds out to 1.62 meters in length and a foldout map that stretches from Damascus to Sudan around the first topographically accurate view of Jerusalem. The conception and execution of the Peregrinatio show how and why early printed books constructed new means of visual representation from existing ones—and how the form of a printed book emerged out of the interaction of eyewitness experience and medieval scholarship, real travel and spiritual pilgrimage, curiosity and fixed belief, texts and images.
This book attempts to look at the structure and functions of the constituent elements of the Ghuriyya complex through the medium of contemporary sources --in particular its waqfiyya--and in doing so, the motives and attitudes of the patron, his goals and his ambitions are defined. In addition, the study seeks to place the monuments in broader context and examine them within the more extended social, economic, political, and cultural environment of al- Ghuri's reign. This book will be of considerable interest to academics and students working on the history of art and architecture, history, culture and urbanism of the Middle East. Its subject is the expressive intent of Mamluk architecture, using new cultural and iconographical approaches. The book offers the first complete English translation of the main parts of Islamic Arabic waqf. The Ghuriyya complex is of interest and significance because of its relatively good conservation; moreover, it constitutes one of the largest and finest late Mamluk royal foundations. The Waqfiyya of Ghuriyya foundations contains not only descriptions of specific monuments, but also stipulations defining, in the most precise detail, types of activities taking place within the confines of these monuments. The book shows how important the waqf documents are-- they are a valuable source for understanding Mamluk architecture. This work, illustrated by 25 fine-quality images, introduces new primary sources and provides new interpretations.
Praise for the First Edition "Because of its exceptionally wide perspective, even architectural historians who do not teach general survey courses are likely to enjoy and appreciate it." —Annali d'architettura "Not only does A Global History of Architecture own the territory (of world architecture), it pulls off this audacious task with panache, intelligence, and—for the most part—grace." —Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Revised and updated—the compelling history of the world's great architectural achievements Organized along a global timeline, A Global History of Architecture, Second Edition has been updated and revised throughout to reflect current scholarship. Spanning from 3,500 b.c.e. to the present, this unique guide is written by an all-star team of architectural experts in their fields who emphasize the connections, contrasts, and influences of architectural movements throughout history. The architectural history of the world comes to life through a unified framework for interpreting and understanding architecture, supplemented by rich drawings from the renowned Frank Ching, as well as brilliant photographs. This new Second Edition: Delivers more coverage of non-Western areas, particularly Africa, South Asia, South East Asia, and Pre-Columbian America Is completely re-designed with full-color illustrations throughout Incorporates additional drawings by Professor Ching, including new maps with more information and color Meets the requirements set by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) for "non-Western" architecture in history education. Offers new connections to a companion Web site, including Google EarthTM coordinates for ease of finding sites. Architecture and art enthusiasts will find A Global History of Architecture, Second Edition perpetually at their fingertips.
The authors of this volume discuss a wide range of issues: medicine and non-Muslim doctors in Mamluk Cairo, social order in 15th-century Damascus, official reports of natural disasters (mahadir) as sources for Mamluk geography, folk literature, the narrative analysis of ego-documents, the legal system in Damascus during the late Mamluk and early Osman period, and the problems posed by urban planning drawn up at the centre of the empire. All the essays contribute to a better, more differentiated understanding of the Mamluk era. The contributions originated in the Annemarie Schimmel Lecture Series on the History and Society of the Mamluk Era at the University of Bonn. It is the aim of the lecture series to mark new directions in Mamluk research through international and interdisciplinary projects. In this volume, fellows of the first two cohorts present the results of their research.
"Muqarnas" is sponsored by The Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. In "Muqarnas" articles are being published on all aspects of Islamic visual culture, historical and contemporary, as well as articles dealing with unpublished textual primary sources.
Muqarnas is sponsored by The Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.In Muqarnas articles are being published on all aspects of Islamic visual culture, historical and contemporary, as well as articles dealing with unpublished textual primary sources.
A dynamic account of the practice of Islamic law, this book focuses on the actions of a particular legal official, the muhtasib, whose vast jurisdiction included all public behavior. In the cities of Cairo and neighboring Fustat during the Mamluk period (1250-1517), the men who held the position of muhtasib acted as regulators of markets and public spaces generally. They traversed their jurisdictions carrying out the duty to command right and forbid wrong, and were as much a part of the legal landscape as the better-known figures of judge and mufti. Taking directions from the rulers, the sultan foremost among them, they were also guided by legal doctrine as formulated by the jurists, combining these two sources of law in one face of authority. The daily workings of the law are illuminated by the reports of the muhtasib in the vivid Mamluk-era chronicles, which often also captured the responses of the individuals who encountered the official. The book is organized around actions taken by the muhtasib in the areas of Muslim devotional and pious practices; crimes and offenses; the management of Christians and Jews; market regulation and consumer protection; the specific markets for essential bread; currency and taxes; and public order. The case studies presented show that while legal doctrine was clearly relevant to the muhtasib's actions, the policy demands of the sultan were also quite significant, and rules from both sources of authority intersected with social, political, economic, and personal factors to create full and vibrant scenarios that reveal the practice of Islamic law.
The Arab philosopher Ibn Khaldun described Cairo under the Mamluks as ""a city beyond imagination"". The Mamluk sultans originated as a slave-based caste rose to rule in the mid-13th century. Accordingly, they designed their capital to be the heart of the Muslim world. It became the focus of their enormous patronage of art and architecture, the stage for their ceremonial rituals, and a memorial to their achievements. This history of Mamluk architecture spans three centuries and examines the monuments of the Mamluks in their social, political and urban context, during the period of their rule (1250 - 1517). The book displays the multiple facets of Mamluk patronage, and also provides a succinct discussion of the sixty key monuments built in Cairo by the Mamluk sultans. The unique strength of Doris Abouseif's work lies in its scholarly yet engaging presentation of original material, diligently researched in the waqf (Islamic endowments) archives including architectural plans and personal records. A richly illustrated volume with colour photographs, plans and isometric drawings, it will be an essential reference work for scholars and students of the art and architecture of the Islamic world as well as art historians and historians of late medieval Islamic history. Cairo of the Mamluks received a Commendation from the 2008 BRISMES book awards.
Oxford University Press is proud to present the most up-to-date and comprehensive encyclopedia in this field. In three illustrated volumes with more than 1,500 entries, the Encyclopedia deals with all aspects of this important area of study, ranging from the Middle East to Central Asia to Southeast Asia and Africa as well as Europe and North America. The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture covers all subject areas including: artists, ruler, writers, architecture, ceramics, sculpture, painting, calligraphy, coins, textiles, and much more. The Encyclopedia offers fully-updated articles and bibliographies that draw upon the expansive scholarship of The Dictionary of Art, as well as more than 500 plans, maps, diagrams, illustrations, and color plates. This exciting reference work is accessible to scholars, students, and general readers, making it a reliable and essential resource covering this topic of burgeoning importance in world history and the visual arts.