Microelectromenchanical systems (MEMS) is a revolutionary field that adapts for new uses a technology already optimized to accomplish a specific set of objectives. The silicon-based integrated circuits process is so highly refined it can produce millions of electrical elements on a single chip and define their critical dimensions to tolerances of 100-billionths of a meter. The MEMS revolution harnesses the integrated circuitry know-how to build working microsystems from micromechanical and microelectronic elements. MEMS is a multidisciplinary field involving challenges and opportunites for electrical, mechanical, chemical, and biomedical engineering as well as physics, biology, and chemistry. As MEMS begin to permeate more and more industrial procedures, society as a whole will be strongly affected because MEMS provide a new design technology that could rival--perhaps surpass--the societal impact of integrated circuits.
Presenting unified coverage of the design and modeling of smart micro- and macrosystems, this book addresses fabrication issues and outlines the challenges faced by engineers working with smart sensors in a variety of applications. Part I deals with the fundamental concepts of a typical smart system and its constituent components. Preliminary fabrication and characterization concepts are introduced before design principles are discussed in detail. Part III presents a comprehensive account of the modeling of smart systems, smart sensors and actuators. Part IV builds upon the fundamental concepts to analyze fabrication techniques for silicon-based MEMS in more detail. Practicing engineers will benefit from the detailed assessment of applications in communications technology, aerospace, biomedical and mechanical engineering. The book provides an essential reference or textbook for graduates following a course in smart sensors, actuators and systems.
The field of materials and process integration for MEMS research has an extensive past as well as a long and promising future. Researchers, academicians and engineers from around the world are increasingly devoting their efforts on the materials and process integration issues and opportunities in MEMS devices. These efforts are crucial to sustain the long-term growth of the MEMS field. The commercial MEMS community is heavily driven by the push for profitable and sustainable products. In the course of establishing high volume and low-cost production processes, the critical importance of materials properties, behaviors, reliability, reproducibility, and predictability, as well as process integration of compatible materials systems become apparent. Although standard IC fabrication steps, particularly lithographic techniques, are leveraged heavily in the creation of MEMS devices, additional customized and novel micromachining techniques are needed to develop sophisticated MEMS structures. One of the most common techniques is bulk micromachining, by which micromechanical structures are created by etching into the bulk of the substrates with either anisotropic etching with strong alk:ali solution or deep reactive-ion etching (DRIB). The second common technique is surface micromachining, by which planar microstructures are created by sequential deposition and etching of thin films on the surface of the substrate, followed by a fmal removal of sacrificial layers to release suspended structures. Other techniques include deep lithography and plating to create metal structures with high aspect ratios (LIGA), micro electrodischarge machining (J.
This issue of ECS Transactions covers emerging materials, process and technology options for large-area silicon wafers to enhance advanced IC performance or to enable revolutionary device structures with entirely new functionalities. Topics : high-mobility channel materials, (e.g. strained Si/Ge, compound semiconductors and graphene), high-performance gate stacks and low-resistivity junctions and contacts on new, Si-compatible materials; new materials and processes for 3-D (TSV) integration ; synthesis of nano-structures including wires, pores and membranes of Si-compatible materials; novel MEMS/NEMS structures and their integration with the mainstream Si-IC technology.
Augmented Materials and Smart Objects investigates the issues required to ensure technology platforms capable of being seamlessly integrated into everyday objects. In particular, it deals with the requirements for integrated computation and MEMs sensors, system-in-a-package solutions, and multi-chip modules. On top of this, the publication’s 500 pages cover the impact of the trend towards embedded microelectronic electronics sub-systems, novel assembly techniques for autonomous MEMs sensors, and practical performance issues that are key to the AmI concept.
The integration of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology (NT) in sensors and devices significantly reduces their weight, size, power consumption, and production costs. These sensors and devices can then play greater roles in defense operations, wireless communication, the diagnosis and treatment of disease, and many more applications. MEMS and Nanotechnology-Based Sensors and Devices for Communications, Medical and Aerospace Applications presents the latest performance parameters and experimental data of state-of-the-art sensors and devices. It describes packaging details, materials and their properties, and fabrication requirements vital for design, development, and testing. Some of the cutting-edge materials covered include quantum dots, nanoparticles, photonic crystals, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This comprehensive work encompasses various types of MEMS- and NT-based sensors and devices, such as micropumps, accelerometers, photonic bandgap devices, acoustic sensors, CNT-based transistors, photovoltaic cells, and smart sensors. It also discusses how these sensors and devices are used in a number of applications, including weapons’ health, battlefield monitoring, cancer research, stealth technology, chemical detection, and drug delivery.
Manufacturing process controls include all systems and software that exert control over production processes. Control systems include process sensors, data processing equipment, actuators, networks to connect equipment, and algorithms to relate process variables to product attributes. Since 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology 's (OIT) program management strategy has reflected its commitment to increasing and documenting the commercial impact of OIT programs. OIT's management strategy for research and development has been in transition from a "technology push" strategy to a "market pull" strategy based on the needs of seven energy-and waste-intensive industries-steel, forest products, glass, metal casting, aluminum, chemicals, and petroleum refining. These industries, designated as Industries of the Future (IOF), are the focus of OIT programs. In 1997, agriculture, specifically renewable bioproducts, was added to the IOF group. The National Research Council Panel on Manufacturing Process Controls is part of the Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments (CITA), which was established to evaluate the OIT program strategy, to provide guidance during the transition to the new IOF strategy, and to assess the effects of the change in program strategy on cross-cutting technology programs, that is, technologies applicable to several of the IOF industries. The panel was established to identify key processes and needs for improved manufacturing control technology, especially the needs common to several IOF industries; identify specific research opportunities for addressing these common industry needs; suggest criteria for identifying and prioritizing research and development (R&D) to improve manufacturing controls technologies; and recommend means for implementing advances in control technologies.
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have many applications in healthcare, consumer electronics, and automobile industry. Unfortunately, the development of novel MEMS is significantly hindered by the limitations of the state-of-the-art MEMS microfabrication processes such as high cost of equipment ownership, long development time, and limited choice of fabrication material selection and integration. Recent developments in alternate MEMS fabrication processes such as PCB-MEMS, laminate MEMS, pop-up book MEMS, and soft-MEMS have reduced fabrication cost, increased material choice, and facilitated material integration. However, MEMS fabricated using these methods have large feature size and low aspect ratio as compared to MEMS produced utilizing conventional deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) microfabrication process. Moreover, fabricating MEMS with six degrees of freedom (DOF) free-standing microstructures using these processes is challenging. Finally, the choice of fabrication material is fairly limited and each material requires a separate manufacturing process. This thesis presents a novel MEMS fabrication process called multi-lamina assembly of laser micromachined laminates (MALL), which can fabricate MEMS comparable to DRIE, enable creating free-standing microstructures with six degrees of freedom, and further expand the choice of fabrication material. Moreover, the proposed approach offers a single microfabrication method to process a wide range of materials. A novel microfabrication process called laser-assisted material phase-change and expulsion (LAMPE) micromachining is developed. Using this process, the fabrication of high aspect ratio structures with lateral features as small as 10Lm, and aspect ratio as large as 10:1 is demonstrated in metals, silicon and diamond. Previously, such high aspect ratio and small lateral feature structures could be fabricated in silicon alone using the deep reactive ion etching process. The LAMPE micromachining process is used to manufacture individual layers of a MEMS. Subsequently, the micromachined laminates are stack assembled and bonded to construct MEMS devices. Using the MALL process, fabrication of six degrees of freedom free-standing structures as thin as 10[mu] is demonstrated. In addition, the gap between the free-standing structure and the substrate can be as small as 12.5pm. The utility of the MALL process is demonstrated by fabricating three MEMS. First, an electrostatic comb-drive actuator is fabricated using copper as the structural material. The distance between the comb-drive fingers is 10[mu], and the thickness of the fingers is 100[mu]. This is the first demonstration of using a metal to fabricate comb-drive structure with such small lateral feature and high aspect ratio. Second, a MEM relay for high-current switching application is demonstrated. The current carrying capacity of the MEM relay is higher than OOmA. Finally, development of high-aspect-ratio diamond rotors for enhancing the resolution of magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR) is presented. This is the first demonstration of micromachining such ultra-deep (5 mm), and ultra-high aspect ratio (10:1) holes in diamond. The MALL process can manufacture MEMS comparable to conventional DRIE microfabrication process. Moreover, the manufacturing cost per device in MALL is less than DRIE. However, DRIE offers high part production rate than MALL. The part production rate in MALL can be matched with DRIE using multiple laser sources. For matching the part production rate, the investment required to purchase a laser micromachining tool with multiple lasers is comparable to the cost of a DRIE tool. Thus, equal investment in MALL and DRIE results in equal part production rate. The MALL process significantly reduces the time required for material integration, process development, and design iteration. As a result, the MEMS device development time is reduced from many months (in DRIE) to a day. The MALL process empowers rapid testing of new MEMS concepts and theory. Moreover, MALL can be used to fabricate one-of-a-kind MEMS devices and used for low-volume production, where initial high investment can not be justified. The MALL process enables greater material selection and integration, rapid development, and integrated packing, thereby empowering a new paradigm in MEMS design, functionality, and application. The tools and material cost of MALL fabrication can be as low as $25,000, which is affordable to a wider scientific community. The low capital investment and use of low-cost of materials enables MEMS fabrication for masses and can expedite the development of novel MEMS.
Since the publication of the first edition of Integrated Product and Process Design and Development: The Product Realization Process more than a decade ago, the product realization process has undergone a number of significant changes. Reflecting these advances, this second edition presents a thorough treatment of the modern tools used in the integrated product realization process and places the product realization process in its new context. See what’s new in the Second Edition: Bio-inspired concept generation and TRIZ Computing manufacturing cost, costs of ownership, and life-cycle costs of products Engineered plastics, ceramics, composites, and smart materials Role of innovation New manufacturing methods: in-mold assembly and layered manufacturing This book discusses how to translate customer needs into product requirements and specifications. It then provides methods to determine a product’s total costs, including cost of ownership, and covers how to generate and evaluate product concepts. The authors examine methods for turning product concepts into actual products by considering development steps such as materials and manufacturing processes selection, assembly methods, environmental aspects, reliability, and aesthetics, to name a few. They also introduce the design of experiments and the six sigma philosophy as means of attaining quality. To be globally viable, corporations need to produce innovative, visually appealing, quality products within shorter development times. Filled with checklists, guidelines, strategies, and examples, this book provides proven methods for creating competitively priced quality products.
The focus behind this book on wafer bonding is the fast paced changes in the research and development in three-dimensional (3D) integration, temporary bonding and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) with new functional layers. Written by authors and edited by a team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies. Part I sorts the wafer bonding technologies into four categories: Adhesive and Anodic Bonding; Direct Wafer Bonding; Metal Bonding; and Hybrid Metal/Dielectric Bonding. Part II summarizes the key wafer bonding applications developed recently, that is, 3D integration, MEMS, and temporary bonding, to give readers a taste of the significant applications of wafer bonding technologies. This book is aimed at materials scientists, semiconductor physicists, the semiconductor industry, IT engineers, electrical engineers, and libraries.
Technology & Engineering by Sergey Edward Lyshevski
Society is approaching and advancing nano- and microtechnology from various angles of science and engineering. The need for further fundamental, applied, and experimental research is matched by the demand for quality references that capture the multidisciplinary and multifaceted nature of the science. Presenting cutting-edge information that is applicable to many fields, Nano- and Micro-Electromechanical Systems: Fundamentals of Nano and Microengineering, Second Edition builds the theoretical foundation for understanding, modeling, controlling, simulating, and designing nano- and microsystems. The book focuses on the fundamentals of nano- and microengineering and nano- and microtechnology. It emphasizes the multidisciplinary principles of NEMS and MEMS and practical applications of the basic theory in engineering practice and technology development. Significantly revised to reflect both fundamental and technological aspects, this second edition introduces the concepts, methods, techniques, and technologies needed to solve a wide variety of problems related to high-performance nano- and microsystems. The book is written in a textbook style and now includes homework problems, examples, and reference lists in every chapter, as well as a separate solutions manual. It is designed to satisfy the growing demands of undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of nano- and microengineering, and to enable them to contribute to the nanotechnology revolution.
This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.
This volume demonstrates show cost analysis can be adapted to MEMS, taking into account the wide range of processes and equipment, the major differences with the established semiconductor industry, and the presence of both large-scale, product-orientated manufacturers and small- and medium-scale foundries. The content examines the processes and equ
ISTC/CSTIC is an annual semiconductor technology conference covering all the aspects of semiconductor technology and manufacturing, including devices, design, lithography, integration, materials, processes, manufacturing as well as emerging semiconductor technologies and silicon material applications. ISTC/CSTIC 2009 was merged by ISTC (International Semiconductor Technology Conference) and CSTIC (China Semiconductor Technology International Conference), the two industry leading technical conferences in China, and consisted of one plenary session and nine technical symposia. This issue of ECS Transactions contains 159 papers from the conference.
"This book is essential when designing, developing and studying biomedical materials.... provides an excellent review—from a patient, disease, and even genetic point of view—of materials engineering for the biomedical field. ... This well presented book strongly insists on how the materials can influence patients’ needs, the ultimate drive for biomedical engineering. ...[presents an] Interesting and innovative review from a patient focus perspective—the book emphasizes the importance of the patients, which is not often covered in other biomedical material’s books." —Fanny Raisin-Dadre, BioInteractions Ltd., Berkshire, England Going far beyond the coverage in most standard books on the subject, Biomaterials Science: An Integrated Clinical and Engineering Approach offers a solid overview of the use of biomaterials in medical devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Combining discussion of materials science and engineering perspectives with clinical aspects, this book emphasizes integration of clinical and engineering approaches. In particular, it explores various applications of biomaterials in fields including tissue engineering, neurosurgery, hemocompatibility, BioMEMS, nanoparticle-based drug delivery, dental implants, and obstetrics/gynecology. The book engages those engineers and physicians who are applying biomaterials at various levels to: Increase the rate of successful deployment of biomaterials in humans Lower the side-effects of such a deployment in humans Accumulate knowledge and experience for improving current methodologies Incorporate information and understanding relevant to future challenges, such as permanent artificial organ transplants Using a variety of contributors from both the clinical and engineering sides of the fields mentioned above, this book stands apart by emphasizing a need for the often lacking approach that integrates these two equally important aspects.