The field of materials and process integration for MEMS research has an extensive past as well as a long and promising future. Researchers, academicians and engineers from around the world are increasingly devoting their efforts on the materials and process integration issues and opportunities in MEMS devices. These efforts are crucial to sustain the long-term growth of the MEMS field. The commercial MEMS community is heavily driven by the push for profitable and sustainable products. In the course of establishing high volume and low-cost production processes, the critical importance of materials properties, behaviors, reliability, reproducibility, and predictability, as well as process integration of compatible materials systems become apparent. Although standard IC fabrication steps, particularly lithographic techniques, are leveraged heavily in the creation of MEMS devices, additional customized and novel micromachining techniques are needed to develop sophisticated MEMS structures. One of the most common techniques is bulk micromachining, by which micromechanical structures are created by etching into the bulk of the substrates with either anisotropic etching with strong alk:ali solution or deep reactive-ion etching (DRIB). The second common technique is surface micromachining, by which planar microstructures are created by sequential deposition and etching of thin films on the surface of the substrate, followed by a fmal removal of sacrificial layers to release suspended structures. Other techniques include deep lithography and plating to create metal structures with high aspect ratios (LIGA), micro electrodischarge machining (J.
MEMs Materials and Processes Handbook" is a comprehensive reference for researchers searching for new materials, properties of known materials, or specific processes available for MEMS fabrication. The content is separated into distinct sections on "Materials" and "Processes". The extensive Material Selection Guide" and a "Material Database" guides the reader through the selection of appropriate materials for the required task at hand. The "Processes" section of the book is organized as a catalog of various microfabrication processes, each with a brief introduction to the technology, as well as examples of common uses in MEMs.
Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies, Third Edition is a comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies, and manufacturing with a particular emphasis on silicon as the most important starting material used in MEMS. The book explains the fundamentals, properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), materials selection, preparation, modeling, manufacturing, processing, system integration, measurement, and materials characterization techniques of MEMS structures. The third edition of this book provides an important up-to-date overview of the current and emerging technologies in MEMS making it a key reference for MEMS professionals, engineers, and researchers alike, and at the same time an essential education material for undergraduate and graduate students. Provides comprehensive overview of leading-edge MEMS manufacturing technologies through the supply chain from silicon ingot growth to device fabrication and integration with sensor/actuator controlling circuits Explains the properties, manufacturing, processing, measuring and modeling methods of MEMS structures Reviews the current and future options for hermetic encapsulation and introduces how to utilize wafer level packaging and 3D integration technologies for package cost reduction and performance improvements Geared towards practical applications presenting several modern MEMS devices including inertial sensors, microphones, pressure sensors and micromirrors
Introductory MEMS: Fabrication and Applications is a practical introduction to MEMS for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Part I introduces the student to the most commonly used MEMS fabrication techniques as well as the MEMS devices produced using these techniques. Part II focuses on MEMS transducers: principles of operation, modeling from first principles, and a detailed look at commercialized MEMS devices, in addition to microfluidics. Multiple field-tested laboratory exercises are included, designed to facilitate student learning about the fundamentals of microfabrication processes. References, suggested reading, review questions, and homework problems are provided at the close of each chapter. Introductory MEMS: Fabrication and Applications is an excellent introduction to the subject, with a tested pedagogical structure and an accessible writing style suitable for students at an advanced undergraduate level across academic disciplines.
Microfabrication is the key technology behind integrated circuits, microsensors, photonic crystals, ink jet printers, solar cells and flat panel displays. Microsystems can be complex, but the basic microstructures and processes of microfabrication are fairly simple. Introduction to Microfabrication shows how the common microfabrication concepts can be applied over and over again to create devices with a wide variety of structures and functions. Featuring: * A comprehensive presentation of basic fabrication processes * An emphasis on materials and microstructures, rather than device physics * In-depth discussion on process integration showing how processes, materials and devices interact * A wealth of examples of both conceptual and real devices Introduction to Microfabrication includes 250 homework problems for students to familiarise themselves with micro-scale materials, dimensions, measurements, costs and scaling trends. Both research and manufacturing topics are covered, with an emphasis on silicon, which is the workhorse of microfabrication. This book will serve as an excellent first text for electrical engineers, chemists, physicists and materials scientists who wish to learn about microstructures and microfabrication techniques, whether in MEMS, microelectronics or emerging applications.
This book thoroughly examines and explains the basic processing steps used in MEMS fabrication (both integrated circuit and specialized micro machining processing steps. The book places an emphasis on the process variations in the device dimensions resulting from these commonly used processing steps. This will be followed by coverage of commonly used metrology methods, process integration and variations in material properties, device parameter variations, quality assurance and control methods, and design methods for handling process variations. A detailed analysis of future methods for improved microsystems manufacturing is also included. This book is a valuable resource for practitioners, researchers and engineers working in the field as well as students at either the undergraduate or graduate level.
Microelectromechanical systems by Thomas Garner Cooney
"This book is essential when designing, developing and studying biomedical materials.... provides an excellent review—from a patient, disease, and even genetic point of view—of materials engineering for the biomedical field. ... This well presented book strongly insists on how the materials can influence patients’ needs, the ultimate drive for biomedical engineering. ...[presents an] Interesting and innovative review from a patient focus perspective—the book emphasizes the importance of the patients, which is not often covered in other biomedical material’s books." —Fanny Raisin-Dadre, BioInteractions Ltd., Berkshire, England Going far beyond the coverage in most standard books on the subject, Biomaterials Science: An Integrated Clinical and Engineering Approach offers a solid overview of the use of biomaterials in medical devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Combining discussion of materials science and engineering perspectives with clinical aspects, this book emphasizes integration of clinical and engineering approaches. In particular, it explores various applications of biomaterials in fields including tissue engineering, neurosurgery, hemocompatibility, BioMEMS, nanoparticle-based drug delivery, dental implants, and obstetrics/gynecology. The book engages those engineers and physicians who are applying biomaterials at various levels to: Increase the rate of successful deployment of biomaterials in humans Lower the side-effects of such a deployment in humans Accumulate knowledge and experience for improving current methodologies Incorporate information and understanding relevant to future challenges, such as permanent artificial organ transplants Using a variety of contributors from both the clinical and engineering sides of the fields mentioned above, this book stands apart by emphasizing a need for the often lacking approach that integrates these two equally important aspects.
The papers included in this issue of ECS Transactions were originally presented in the symposium ¿Electrochemical Processing in ULSI and MEMS 4¿, held during the 215th meeting of The Electrochemical Society, in San Francisco, CA from May 24 to 29, 2009.
Presenting unified coverage of the design and modeling of smart micro- and macrosystems, this book addresses fabrication issues and outlines the challenges faced by engineers working with smart sensors in a variety of applications. Part I deals with the fundamental concepts of a typical smart system and its constituent components. Preliminary fabrication and characterization concepts are introduced before design principles are discussed in detail. Part III presents a comprehensive account of the modeling of smart systems, smart sensors and actuators. Part IV builds upon the fundamental concepts to analyze fabrication techniques for silicon-based MEMS in more detail. Practicing engineers will benefit from the detailed assessment of applications in communications technology, aerospace, biomedical and mechanical engineering. The book provides an essential reference or textbook for graduates following a course in smart sensors, actuators and systems.
This significant and uniquely comprehensive five-volume reference is a valuable source for research workers, practitioners, computer scientists, students, and technologists. It covers all of the major topics within the subject and offers a comprehensive treatment of MEMS design, fabrication techniques, and manufacturing methods. It also includes current medical applications of MEMS technology and provides applications of MEMS to opto-electronic devices. It is clearly written, self-contained, and accessible, with helpful standard features including an introduction, summary, extensive figures and design examples with comprehensive reference lists.
Ion implantation is one of the key processing steps in silicon integrated circuit technology. Some integrated circuits require up to 17 implantation steps and circuits are seldom processed with less than 10 implantation steps. Controlled doping at controlled depths is an essential feature of implantation. Ion beam processing can also be used to improve corrosion resistance, to harden surfaces, to reduce wear and, in general, to improve materials properties. This book presents the physics and materials science of ion implantation and ion beam modification of materials. It covers ion-solid interactions used to predict ion ranges, ion straggling and lattice disorder. Also treated are shallow-junction formation and slicing silicon with hydrogen ion beams. Topics important for materials modification, such as ion-beam mixing, stresses, and sputtering, are also described.
The papers in this issue describe the latest advances in fundamental and practical aspects of electrochemical processes for fabrication of microelectronic devices and related structures. Topics range from plating to etching, chips to packages, mechanisms to models, through-silicon vias to nanotubes, tin to ruthenium, capping to cooling, porous gold to porous alumina, probe-card springs to solder balls, electroless deposition to CMP, TFT-LCDs to magnetic nanowires and beyond.
Technology & Engineering by Sergey Edward Lyshevski
Society is approaching and advancing nano- and microtechnology from various angles of science and engineering. The need for further fundamental, applied, and experimental research is matched by the demand for quality references that capture the multidisciplinary and multifaceted nature of the science. Presenting cutting-edge information that is applicable to many fields, Nano- and Micro-Electromechanical Systems: Fundamentals of Nano and Microengineering, Second Edition builds the theoretical foundation for understanding, modeling, controlling, simulating, and designing nano- and microsystems. The book focuses on the fundamentals of nano- and microengineering and nano- and microtechnology. It emphasizes the multidisciplinary principles of NEMS and MEMS and practical applications of the basic theory in engineering practice and technology development. Significantly revised to reflect both fundamental and technological aspects, this second edition introduces the concepts, methods, techniques, and technologies needed to solve a wide variety of problems related to high-performance nano- and microsystems. The book is written in a textbook style and now includes homework problems, examples, and reference lists in every chapter, as well as a separate solutions manual. It is designed to satisfy the growing demands of undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of nano- and microengineering, and to enable them to contribute to the nanotechnology revolution.
The focus behind this book on wafer bonding is the fast paced changes in the research and development in three-dimensional (3D) integration, temporary bonding and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) with new functional layers. Written by authors and edited by a team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies. Part I sorts the wafer bonding technologies into four categories: Adhesive and Anodic Bonding; Direct Wafer Bonding; Metal Bonding; and Hybrid Metal/Dielectric Bonding. Part II summarizes the key wafer bonding applications developed recently, that is, 3D integration, MEMS, and temporary bonding, to give readers a taste of the significant applications of wafer bonding technologies. This book is aimed at materials scientists, semiconductor physicists, the semiconductor industry, IT engineers, electrical engineers, and libraries.
Annotation Engineers and researchers can turn to this reference time and time again when they need to overcome challenges in design, simulation, fabrication, and application of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) sensors.